Inari Sami people

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Inari Sami
Sami flag.svg
Regions with significant populations
 Finland approx. 700[1] - 900[2]
Languages
Inari Sami and Finnish
Religion
Lutheran
Related ethnic groups
other Finnic peoples

Inari Sami are group of Sami people who inhabit the area around Lake Inari, Finland. They speak Inari Sami language, which belongs to eastern Sami languages. There are estimated 700 - 900 ethnic Inari Samis in Finland, of whom approximately 300 speak Inari Sami. They are the only group of Sami who live within one state and one municipality. Inari Sami are indigenous peoples of their area.[3]

Inari Sami homeland[edit]

Lake Inari

The traditional homeland of Inari Sami are shores of the Inari Sami, and the surrounding areas. Historically they are believed to have inhabited much wider area. According to historic sources and place names they have inhabited area which borders Saariselkä and Ivalo River in south, Lemmenjoki, Vaskajoki and Aksujärvi in west, Syysjärvi, Säytsjärvi and Iijärvi in northeast, and Lake Inari in east. In north the border has possibly been at Norwegian side of the Inari River. Their traditional homeland were divided to 11 family areas. Today their traditional homeland is within Inari municipality, where they form minority of population.[3]

History[edit]

The first traces of human activity in the Inari area are dated to 8000 – 7000 BC. The first inhabitants are believed to have belonged to the Komsa culture. Most of the artifacts found from early inhabitants are linked to hunting and fishing. The Bronze Age and Iron Age in Fennoscandia lasted from 2000 BC. to 1300 AD. There is only one discovery of bronze items from Inari. It was found on Lusman Island in Lake Inari, and it is dated to 900 – 700 BC. Similarly, there is only one finding of an iron item from the early Iron Age. Most of the findings from the later Iron Age were imported from elsewhere. There were active trading connections with the east, west and south. In Middle Ages, Norway, Sweden and Novgorod started competing for control of Lapland. Joint areas of taxation were born after the border treaty between Norway and Novgorod in 1326. The first written documents about Inari Sami are from the 1550s.[4]

Christianity begun spreading among Inari Sami in 17th century and first church was built in the area in 1642. During the Christian mission many old traditions disappeared. Some shamans were executed for practicing witchcraft.[5] Finnish migration to Lapland begun in 17th century and Finnish settlement reached Inari in late 18th century. There were also some Northern Sami immigration after Norway and Russia closed their borders in 1852, and eastern Sami immigration from south when Finnish settlement crawled northwards. In 1920s Spanish Flu killed 190 peoples in Inari area, which constituted 10th of population. After the Second World War Skolts from Pechenga area were evacuated and settled to Inari. Till the 1950s most Inari Samis lived in natural economy, but this was changed rapidly and during this process use of Inari Sami language decreased.[4]

Culture[edit]

Unlike most of other Sami groups, Inari Sami didn't historically practice large scale reindeer husbandry. The more descriptive feature of Inari Sami culture was fishing and hunting. Fishing lost its importance because Lake Inari was being overfished in 20th century. The main hunting game was Finnish Forest Reindeer, but their numbers collapsed in 18th century. Inari Sami practiced yearly moving between winter and summer homes, though this practice disappeared quite early.[6]

Inari Sami mythology had some same Gods as Finnish mythology did. Most important of them was Äijih, who had similar characteristics as Finnish Ukko had. Other Gods included Piäiváž and Čäcialmai. Holy sites of Inari Sami (Sieidi) were often located in islands of Lake Inari. Most important of them was Ukonsaari. Only men were allowed to go into these holy sites, though women could go in if they dressed as men.[5]

The Inari Sami costume is seen as important part of Inari Sami identity, and it has been used in Inari area uninterruptedly. The background of both women's and men's costumes is black or dark-blue with red, yellow and green used in the decor. Traditionally there was winter garment (peski) which was made out of reindeer coat, but it has largely been replaced with modern snowmobile suits.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ethnologue report for language code: smn
  2. ^ Ugri.net - Inarinsaamelaiset ja koltat (Finnish)
  3. ^ a b Anaras - The Inari Sami
  4. ^ a b Anaras - History
  5. ^ a b Lehtola, Veli-Pekka. Saamelaiset : historia, yhteiskunta, taide. Jyväskylä : Gummerus, 1997 (Finnish)
  6. ^ a b Anars - Culture