Independence Day (Pakistan)

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"Fourteenth of August" redirects here. For other uses, see 14 August.
Not to be confused with Pakistan Day.
Independence Day of Pakistan
The flag of Pakistan hoisted at the top of National Monument
The flag of Pakistan hoisted at the mount of the Pakistan Monument in Islamabad.
Official name Independence Day of Pakistan
Also called Youm-e-Azaadi (meaning: Day of freedom)
Observed by  Pakistan
Type National holiday
Celebrations Flag hoisting, parades, award ceremonies, singing patriotic songs and the national anthem, speeches by the president and prime minister, entertainment and cultural programs
Date 14 August
Next time 14 August 2014 (2014-08-14)
Frequency annual

Independence Day (Urdu: یوم آزادی‎; Yaum-e Āzādī), observed annually on 14 August, is a national holiday in Pakistan, commemorating the day when Pakistan achieved independence and was declared a sovereign nation, following the end of the British Raj in 1947. Pakistan came into existence as a result of the Pakistan Movement; the Pakistan Movement aimed for creation of an independent Muslim state by division of the north-western region of the South Asia and was led by All-India Muslim League under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The event was brought forth by the Indian Independence Act 1947 in which the British Indian Empire gave independence to the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan) which included the West Pakistan (present Pakistan) and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

In the Islamic calendar, the day of independence coincided with Ramadan 27, the eve of which is regarded as sacred by Muslims. The main ceremony takes place in Islamabad, where the national flag is hoisted at the Presidential and Parliament buildings, which is followed by the national anthem, and live televised speeches by leaders. Usual celebratory events this day include flag-raising ceremonies, parades, cultural events, and the playing of patriotic songs. A number of award ceremonies are often held on this day, and citizens often hoist the national flag atop their homes or display it prominently on their vehicles and attire.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

Jinnah chairing a session in Muslim League general session, where Pakistan Resolution was passed.
Jinnah chairing a session in Muslim League general session, where Pakistan Resolution was passed.
A stamp, white in background with Pakistan's national flag on it and "Independence Anniversary" written in bold and italic, in green colour, and "series" boldly written in black colour, below the flag
Cover of a press release; "Independence Anniversary Series" by the Press Information Department of Pakistan, in 1948 in relation to the country's first independence day which was celebrated on 15 August 1948.

The area constituting Pakistan was historically a part of the British Indian Empire. The East India Company begun their trade in the South Asia in the 17th century, and the company rule started from 1757 when they won the Battle of Plassey. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown assuming direct control over India. All-India Muslim League was founded by the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference at Dhaka, in 1906, in the context of the circumstances that were generated over the division of Bengal in 1905 and the party aimed at creation of a separate Muslim state.[1]

The period after World War I was marked by British reforms such as the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, but it also witnessed the enactment of the repressive Rowlatt Act and strident calls for self-rule by Indian activists. The widespread discontent of this period crystallized into nationwide non-violent movements of non-cooperation and civil disobedience.[2] The idea for a separate religion-based state was introduced by Allama Iqbal in his speech as the President of the Muslim League in December 1930.[3] Three years later, the name "Pakistan" as the name of a separate state was proposed in a declaration made by Choudhary Rahmat Ali. Like Iqbal, Bengal was left out of the proposal made by Rahmat Ali.[4]

In the 1940s, as the Indian independence movement intensified, an upsurge of Muslim nationalism helmed by the All-India Muslim League took place, of which Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the most prominent leader.[2]:195–203 Being a political party to secure the interests of the Muslim diaspora in British India, the Muslim League played a decisive role during the 1940s in the Indian independence movement and developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state in the South Asia.[1] During a three-day general session of All-India Muslim League from 22–24 March 1940, a formal political statement was presented, known as the Lahore Resolution, which called on for the creation of an independent state for Muslims.[5]

Independence[edit]

Main article: Pakistan Movement

In 1946, the Labour government in Britain, getting exhausted by recent events such as World War II and numerous riots, realised that it had neither the mandate at home, the support internationally, nor the reliability of British Indian Army for continuing to control an increasingly restless India. Reliability of the native forces for continuing their control over an increasingly rebellious India diminished, thus the government decided to end British rule of India.[2]:167, 203[6][7][8] In 1946, Indian National Congress, being a secular party, demanded a single state.[9] The Muslim majorities, having disagreement with the idea of single state, gave stress to the idea of Pakistan, as a response to Congress' demand for a single state.[10]:203 In 1946, a Cabinet Mission was sent to try and reach a compromise between Congress and the Muslim League, proposing a decentralized state with much power given to local governments, but it was rejected by both the parties. This also resulted in many communal riots in the South Asia.[11]

Eventually, in February 1947, Prime Minister Clement Attlee announced that the British government would grant full self-governance to British India by June 1948 at the latest.[12] On 3 June 1947, the British government announced that the principle of division of British India in two independent states was accepted.[12] The successor governments would be given dominion status and would have an implicit right to secede from the British Commonwealth. Viceroy Mountbatten chose the second anniversary of Japan's surrender in the World War II as the date of power transfer.[13] He chose 14 August as the date of the ceremony of power transfer to Pakistan because he wanted to attend ceremonies both in India and Pakistan.[13][14]

The Indian Independence Act 1947 (10 & 11 Geo 6 c. 30) passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, divided British India into the two new independent dominions; India and Pakistan. The act provided a mechanism for division of Bengal and Punjab provinces between the two nations, establishment of the office of the governor-general, conferral of complete legislative authority upon the respective Constituent Assemblies, and division of joint property between the two new countries.[15][16] On 14 August 1947, the new Dominion of Pakistan came into existence and Muhammad Ali Jinnah was sworn in as its first governor general in Karachi.[17] Everyone rejoiced the independence, but the atmosphere remained heated as communal riots marked the independence of Pakistan in 1947.[2] The act later received royal assent on 18 July 1947.[12]

The date of independence[edit]

Since the power of transfer took place on the midnight of 14 and 15 August, the Indian Independence Act 1947 recognised 15 August as the birthday of both Pakistan and India. The act states;[18]

"As from the fifteenth day of August, nineteen hundred and forty-seven, two independent Dominions shall be set up in India, to be known respectively as India and Pakistan."

Jinnah in his first broadcast to the nation stated;[19]

"August 15 is the birthday of the independent and sovereign state of Pakistan. It marks the fulfilment of the destiny of the Muslim nation which made great sacrifices in the past few years to have its homeland."

It was on 15 August that the nation celebrated its birthday, however in subsequent years 14 August was marked as the independence day.[20] The first commemorative postage stamps of the country, released in July 1948, also gave 15 August 1947 as the independence day.[21] The night of 14–15 August 1947 coincided with 27 Ramadan 1366 of the Islamic calendar, which Muslims regard as a sacred night.[22][23]

Celebration[edit]

Pakistan Navy soldiers in a straight line are standing next to their national flag.
The change of guard ceremony takes place at various monuments throughout the country. Here the Pakistan Navy cadets salute the tomb of the father of the nation, Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Girls lighting candles at midnight to celebrate the day
The Minar-e-Pakistan fully lit to commemorate the independence

The independence day is one of the six public holidays observed in Pakistan and is celebrated all over the country.[24] To prepare and finalise the plans for independence day celebrations, meetings are held in the provincial capitals by local government which are attended by government officials, diplomats, and politicians. As the month of August begins, special stalls and shops are set up across the country for the sale of national flags, buntings, banners and posters, pictures of national heroes, and other celebratory items. Vehicles, private buildings, homes, and streets are decorated with the national flag and buntings.[25] Various organisations, educational institution, and government departments organise seminars, sports competitions, and social and cultural activities leading up to the independence day.[26] In Karachi, drives are initiated to clean and prepare the Mazar-e-Quaid (Jinnah Mausoleum) for the celebration.[27]

The day begins with special prayers for integrity, solidarity, and development of Pakistan in mosques and religious places across the country.[26] The official festivities take place in Islamabad and commence with the raising of the national flag on the Parliament House and the Presidency followed by a 31-gun salute in the capital[28] and a 21-gun salute in provincial capitals.[29][30] The President and Prime Minister of Pakistan address the nation in live telecasts. Government officials and other political leaders deliver speeches during various rallies and events highlighting Pakistani achievements, goals set for the future, and praise the sacrifices and efforts of national heroes.[31] National flags are displayed on Shahrah-e-Faisal, Shahara-e-Quaideen, and Mazar-e-Quaid Road leading up to the Jinnah's mausoleum in Karachi. Minar-e-Pakistan in Lahore, where Pakistan Resolution was passed in 1940, is fully illuminated on the eve of the independence day to signify its importance in the creation of Pakistan.[27]

Citizens attending independence day parades and other events are usually dressed in Pakistan’s official colours, green and white.[32] Various government buildings including the Parliament House, Supreme Court, and President House are decorated and illuminated with lights and bright colours.[32] Streets and houses are decorated with candles, oil lamps and pennants, national flag as well as firework shows occur as a part of celebration.[32] Along with flag hoisting, the national anthem is sung at various government places, schools, residences, and monuments on the day.[32] Homage is paid to the people who lost their lives in migration and riots during the independence of Pakistan in 1947, martyrs of Pakistan Army and recipients of Nishan-e-Haider, political figures, and famous artists and scientists.

A change of guard takes place at national monuments.[32] In the cities around the country, the flag hoisting ceremony is carried out by the nazim (mayor) belonging to the respective constituency and at various private organisations the ceremony is conducted by a senior officer of that organisation.[27] The Pakistani diaspora also celebrates independence day in various countries throughout the world, especially in countries which have large Pakistani communities.[33][34]

Security measures[edit]

Security measures in the country are intensified as the independence day approaches, especially in major cities and in troubled areas. The security is set up after various representatives of intelligence and investigation agencies meet. High alert is declared in sensitive areas such as the country's capital, to restrict security threats.[35] Despite this, there have been instances where attacks have occurred on independence day by insurgents who boycott the celebrations as a part of their protest.[36][37] On 13 August 2010, the country witnessed floods causing deaths of 1,600 people and affecting 14 million lives. On the account of the calamity, the president made an announcement that there would not be any official celebration of the independence day that year.[38]

In popular culture[edit]

From the beginning of August, radio channels play milli naghmay (patriotic songs) and various TV shows and programmes highlighting the history, culture, and achievements of Pakistan are broadcast. Evergreen patriotic songs like Dil Dil Pakistan and Jazba-e-Junoon are played and sung all over the country.[39] The film Jinnah released in 1998 follows the story of Jinnah and details the events leading up to the independence of Pakistan.[40] The events during the independence of Pakistan are depicted in many literary and scholarly works. Khushwant Singh's novel Train to Pakistan,[41] Saadat Hasan Manto's short story Toba Tek Singh,[42] Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre's book Freedom at Midnight, and poetic works of Faiz Ahmad Faiz chronicle events during the independence of Pakistan. Ali Pur Ka Aeeli by Mumtaz Mufti is an autobiography narrating the account of bringing his family from Batala to Lahore. Khaak aur Khoon (Dirt and Blood) by Naseem Hijazi describes the sacrifices of Muslims of South Asia during independence.[43] Dastaan, a Pakistani drama serial, based on the novel Bano by Razia Butt, also tells the story of Pakistan Movement and events of independence of Pakistan.[44]

Pakistan Post released four commemorative stamps in July 1948 for the country's first independence anniversary. Three of the four stamps depicted places from Pakistan while the fourth stamp depicted a motif. The stamps were inscribed "15th August 1947" because of the prevailing confusion of actual date of independence.[21] In 1997, Pakistan celebrated its 50th anniversary of independence. The State Bank of Pakistan issued a special banknote of rupee 5 depicting the tomb of Baha-ud-din Zakariya on 13 August 1997, commemorating the 50th independence day. On the front of the note a star burst is encircled by Fifty Years Anniversary of Freedom in Urdu and '1947–1997' in numerals.[45]

In November 1997, the 1997 Wills Golden Jubilee Tournament was held in Gaddafi Stadium, Lahore to mark the golden jubilee. During the final of the tournament, Pakistan Cricket Board honoured all the living test cricket captains of Pakistan by parading them in horse-drawn carriages and presenting them with gold medals.[46] On 14 August 2004, Pakistan displayed the largest flag of the time with the dimensions of 340 by 510 feet (100 m × 160 m).[47]

Google Doodles[edit]

In 2011, 2012 and 2013, the Google Pakistan homepage featured special doodles designed with Pakistani symbols to mark Pakistan's independence day.[48][49][50][51]

2011[edit]

In 2011,The Google replaced its logo with a green color, crescent and a star and minaret of Pakistan to celebrate 65th Independence Day Of Pakistan.[52]

2012[edit]

In 2012, the doodle celebrated the Independence Day of Pakistan, representing the various aspects of the country's culture and heritage. The doodle shows a truck art, with different floral designs, adorned by purple baubles hanging at the bottom.[53]

2013[edit]

Google Doodle as appearing on 14 August 2013 in Pakistan

On 14 August 2013 Independence Day of Pakistan was observed with a Google Doodle.[54] The doodle featured northern areas of Pakistan with K2 mountain in the background and a Markhor, Pakistan's National Animal standing on a hill top. Between the horns of Markhor there is white colored Crescent and Star. In Pakistan's Flag the crescent stands for the bright future.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jalal, Ayesha (1994) The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-45850-4
  2. ^ a b c d Metcalf, B.; Metcalf, T. R. (9 October 2006). A Concise History of Modern India (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68225-1. 
  3. ^ Shafique Ali Khan (1987), Iqbal's Concept of Separate North-west Muslim State: A Critique of His Allahabad Address of 1930, Markaz-e-Shaoor-o-Adab, Karachi, OCLC 18970794
  4. ^ Choudhary Rahmat Ali, (1933), Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?, pamphlet, published 28 January
  5. ^ "Lahore resolution". Story of Pakistan: A Multimedia Journey. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  6. ^ Hyam, Ronald (2006). Britain's declining empire: the road to decolonisation, 1918–1968. Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-521-68555-9. "By the end of 1945, he and the Commander-in-chief, General Auckinleck were advising that there was a real threat in 1946 of large scale anti-British disorder amounting to even a well-organised rising aiming to expel the British by paralysing the administration.
    ...it was clear to Attlee that everything depended on the spirit and reliability of the Indian Army:"Provided that they do their duty, armed insurrection in India would not be an insoluble problem. If, however, the Indian Army was to go the other way, the picture would be very different.
    ...Thus, Wavell concluded, if the army and the police "failed" Britain would be forced to go. In theory, it might be possible to revive and reinvigorate the services, and rule for another fifteen to twenty years, but:It is a fallacy to suppose that the solution lies in trying to maintain the status quo. We have no longer the resources, nor the necessary prestige or confidence in ourselves."
     
  7. ^ Margaret, Judith (1994). Modern India: the origins of an Asian democracy. Oxford University Press. p. 330. ISBN 978-0-19-873112-2. "India had always been a minority interest in British public life; no great body of public opinion now emerged to argue that war-weary and impoverished Britain should send troops and money to hold it against its will in an empire of doubtful value. By late 1946 both Prime Minister and Secretary of State for India recognised that neither international opinion nor their own voters would stand for any reassertion of the raj, even if there had been the men, money, and administrative machinery with which to do so" 
  8. ^ Sarkar, Sumit (1983). Modern India, 1885–1947. Macmillan. p. 418. ISBN 978-0-333-90425-1. "With a war weary army and people and a ravaged economy, Britain would have had to retreat; the Labour victory only quickened the process somewhat." 
  9. ^ Hanson, Eric O. Religion and politics in the international system today. Cambridge University Press,. p. 200. ISBN 0-521-61781-2. Retrieved 9 December 2011. 
  10. ^ "South Asia | India state bans book on Jinnah". BBC News. 20 August 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2012. 
  11. ^ *Wolpert, Stanley. 2006. Shameful Flight: The Last Years of the British Empire in India. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 272 pages. ISBN 0-19-515198-4.
  12. ^ a b c Romein, Jan (1962). The Asian Century: a History of Modern Nationalism in Asia. University of California Press. p. 357. ASIN B000PVLKY4. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  13. ^ a b Read, Anthony; Fisher, David (1 July 1999). The Proudest Day: India's Long Road to Independence. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 459. ISBN 978-0-393-31898-2. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  14. ^ "India and Pakistan celebrate Independence Day". The Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  15. ^ "Indian Independence Act 1947". The National Archives, Her Majesty's Government. Retrieved 17 July 2012. 
  16. ^ Laird, Kathleen Fenner (2007). Whose Islam? Pakistani women's political action groups speak out (PhD). Washington University. Retrieved 7 February 2012. 
  17. ^ "A call to duty". Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 28 October 2006. Retrieved 7 January 2007. 
  18. ^ "Chapter 30". Indian Independence Act, 1947. p. 3. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  19. ^ "Pakistan coinage: 1947 - 1948". Chiefa Coins. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  20. ^ M,I, Choudhary (2006–2007). The Most Comprehensive Colour Catalogue Pakistan Postage Stamps (11 ed.). Lahore, Pakistan. p. 26. 
  21. ^ a b Zahedi, Mahbub Jamal (1997). Fifty years of Pakistan stamps. Sanna Publications. p. 17. 
  22. ^ Bhatti, M. Waqar. "Independence Day: muted affair?". The News International. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  23. ^ Tariq Majeed. "7". THE DIVINE IMPRINT ON THE BIRTH OF PAKISTAN. "The State of Pakistan came into being on Friday the 15th of August 1947, and, according to the Islamic calendar, on the 27th of Ramadan XE "27th of Ramadan" 1366. This is the factual, formal and legal date of the birth of Pakistan." 
  24. ^ Malik, Iftikhar Haider (2006). Culture and customs of Pakistan (Illustrated ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 152. ISBN 9780313331268. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  25. ^ Muhammad, Peer (11 August 2011). "Independence day: prepping for celebrations as the city slumbers in Ramazan". The Express Tribune (Karachi). Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  26. ^ a b "All set to celebrate I-Day". The Nation (Pakistani newspaper). 13 August 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  27. ^ a b c "Independence Day Of Pakistan: Its History and Celebrations". Allvoices. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  28. ^ "Independence Day: President, PM call for unity | Pakistan". Dawn (newspaper). 14 August 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  29. ^ "Pakistani leaders call for unity on independence day". Xinhua News Agency. 14 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
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  34. ^ "Pakistanis to celebrate independence day". Gulf News. 13 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  35. ^ Hassan, Ali (14 August 2012). "I-Day enthusiasm takes cover from high security plan". Daily Times. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  36. ^ "At least 16 people killed in Pakistan violence". BBC. 14 August 2010. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  37. ^ "Balochistan govt blocks cell phone services on Independence Day: Report". The Express Tribune. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  38. ^ "Flood-hit Pakistan cancels Independence Day events". BBC. 13 August 2010. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  39. ^ "Independence Day songs: The old and the new". The Express Tribune. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  40. ^ Akbar S. Ahmed (17 September 1997). Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin. Taylor & Francis. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-0-415-14966-2. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  41. ^ Singh, Khushwant (1956). Train to Pakistan. British India: Chatto & Windus. ISBN 978-0802132215. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  42. ^ "About the story". Columbia University. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  43. ^ "Khaak Aur Khoon (Dirt and Blood)". Goodreads. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  44. ^ "Dastaan: History on TV". The express tribune. Tribune. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  45. ^ "Commemorative note". State Bank of Pakistan. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  46. ^ Cozier, Craig. "Wills Golden Jubilee Tournament, 1997-98". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  47. ^ "Flag superlatives". CRW Flags. Retrieved 13 August 2012. "In August of 2004, Pakistan unfurled a 340 × 510 (173,400 square foot) foot National flag. In December 2004, Bahrain unfurled a 318 × 555 foot (176,490 square foot) National flag, breaking Pakistan's short-lived record." 
  48. ^ "Google Doodle marks Pak I-Day". The Nation (Pakistan). 15 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  49. ^ "Google Doodles for Pakistan!". The News. 14 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  50. ^ "Google Doodles mark South Korea, Pakistan Independence Day". OneIndia News. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  51. ^ "Google Celebrates Pakistan’s Independence Day With A Doodle". International Business Times. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  52. ^ Google Doodle For Pakistan, geo.tv, 14 August 2011, retrieved 14 August 2011 
  53. ^ Tabinda Hussain. "Google Celebrates Pakistan’s Independence Day With A Doodle". ValueWalk. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  54. ^ Pakistan Independence Day 2013

External links[edit]