Independence Hall

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Independence Hall
Amer0024 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg
South facade of Independence Hall
Location 520 Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Coordinates 39°56′56″N 75°9′0″W / 39.94889°N 75.15000°W / 39.94889; -75.15000Coordinates: 39°56′56″N 75°9′0″W / 39.94889°N 75.15000°W / 39.94889; -75.15000
Built 1732–1753; steeple rebuilt 1828; wings rebuilt 1898[1]
Architect William Strickland (Steeple)
Architectural style(s) Georgian
Visitation 645,564 (in 2005[2])
Governing body National Park Service[3]
Type Cultural
Criteria vi
Designated 1979 (3rd session)
Reference no. 78
State Party United States
Region Europe and North America
Designated October 15, 1966
Part of Independence National Historical Park
Reference no. 66000683[3]
Independence Hall is located in Pennsylvania
Independence Hall
Location within Pennsylvania

Independence Hall is the centerpiece of Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, on Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets. It is known primarily as the location where both the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted.

The building was completed in 1753 as the colonial legislature (later Pennsylvania State House) for the Province of Pennsylvania. It became the principal meeting place of the Second Continental Congress from 1775 to 1783 and was the site of the Constitutional Convention in the summer of 1787. The building is part of Independence National Historical Park and is listed as a World Heritage Site.[4]

Preparation for construction[edit]

Detail of A Map of Philadelphia and Parts Adjacent, depicting the State House as it appeared in 1752. The image shows the original bell tower, which lacked a clock.

By the spring of 1729 the citizens of Philadelphia were petitioning to be allowed to build a state house. Two thousand pounds were committed to the endeavor. A committee composed of Thomas Lawrence, Dr. John Kearsley, and Andrew Hamilton was charged with the responsibility of selecting a site for construction, acquiring plans for the building, and contracting a company for the purpose of construction. Hamilton and William Allen, were named trustees of the purchasing and building fund and authorized to buy the land that would be the site of the state house. By October 1730 they had begun purchasing lots on Chestnut Street.[5]

By 1732, even though Hamilton had acquired the deed for Lot no. 1 from surveyor David Powell, who had been paid for his work with the lot, tensions were rising among the committee members. Dr. John Kearsley and Hamilton disagreed on a number of issues concerning the state house. Kearsley, who is credited with the designs of both Christ Church and St. Peter's Church, had plans for the structure of the building, but so did Hamilton. The two men also disagreed on the building's site; Kearsley suggested High Street, now Market Street, and Hamilton favored Chestnut Street. Lawrence said nothing on the matter.[6]

Matters reached a point where arbitration was needed. On August 8, 1732, Hamilton brought the matter before the House of Representatives. He explained that Kearsley did not approve of either Hamilton’s plans for the location and architecture of the state house and went on to insist the House had not agreed to these decisions. In response to this, Hamilton, on August 11, showed his plans for the state house to the House, who accepted them. On August 14, the House sided with Hamilton, granting him full control over the project, and the site on the south side of Chestnut Street between Fifth and Sixth Streets was chosen for the location of the state house. Ground was broken for construction soon after.[7]

Structure[edit]

Independence Hall in 1799, with the wooden steeple removed and Thomas Stretch's clock (far left).

Independence Hall is a red brick building designed in the Georgian style. It consists of a central building with belltower and steeple, attached to two smaller wings via arcaded hyphens. The highest point to the tip of the steeple spire is 168 ft, 714 inches above the ground.

The State House was built between 1732 and 1753, designed by Edmund Woolley and Andrew Hamilton, and built by Woolley. Its construction was commissioned by the Pennsylvania colonial legislature which paid for construction as funds were available, so it was finished piecemeal.[8] It was initially inhabited by the colonial government of Pennsylvania as its State House, from 1732 to 1799.[4]

In 1752, when Isaac Norris was selecting a man to build the first clock for the State House, today known as Independence Hall, he chose Thomas Stretch, the son of Peter Stretch his old friend and fellow council member, to do the job.[9]

In 1753 Thomas Stretch erected a giant clock at the building's west end that resembled a tall clock (grandfather clock). The 40-foot-tall limestone base was capped with a 14-foot wooden case surrounding the clock's face, which was carved by Samuel Harding. The giant clock was removed about 1830.[10] The clock’s dials were mounted at the east and west ends of the main building connected by rods to the clock movement in the middle of the building.[11] The acquisition of the original clock and bell by the Pennsylvania Colonial Assembly is closely related to the acquisition of the Liberty Bell. By mid-1753, the clock had been installed in the State House attic, but six years were to elapse before Thomas Stretch received any pay for it.[12]

Demolition and Reconstruction[edit]

While the shell of the central portion of the building is original, the side wings, steeple and much of the interior are reconstructions.[13]

The original steeple was demolished due to structural problems in 1781. A more elaborate steeple, designed by William Strickland, was added in 1828.

The original wings and hyphens were demolished in 1812 and replaced by larger structures designed by Robert Mills. In 1898, these were in turn demolished and replaced with reconstructions of the original wings.

The building was renovated numerous times in the 19th and 20th century. The current interior is a mid-20th century reconstruction by the National Park Service with the public rooms restored to their 18th century appearance.

During the summer of 1973 a replica of the Thomas Stretch clock was restored to Independence Hall.[10]

The second floor Governor's Council Chamber, furnished with important examples of the era by the National Park Service, includes a musical tall case clock made by Peter Stretch, c 1740, one of the most prominent clockmakers in early America and father of Thomas Stretch.[14]

Two smaller buildings adjoin the wings of Independence Hall: Old City Hall to the east, and Congress Hall to the west. These three buildings are together on a city block known as Independence Square, along with Philosophical Hall, the original home of the American Philosophical Society. Since its construction in the mid-20th century, to the north has been Independence Mall, which includes the current home of the Liberty Bell.

Interior layout[edit]

HABS measured drawing of the first floor of Independence Hall.jpgAssembly RoomSupreme Court RoomVestibuleTower Stair Hall
Ground floor of Independence Hall (right-click links below for room images)
1 white, red rounded rectangle.svg Assembly Room
2 white, red rounded rectangle.svg Supreme Court Room
3 white, red rounded rectangle.svg Vestibule
4 white, red rounded rectangle.svg Tower Stair Hall
Rooms on the Second Floor
a long hall
Long Gallery
A room with large table and fireplace
Governor's Council Chamber
A room with chairs and small tables
Committee of Assembly Chamber

Liberty Bell[edit]

The Liberty Bell (foreground) was housed in the highest chamber of the brick tower. The Centennial Bell (top) hangs in the cupola of William Strickland's 1828 wooden steeple.
Main article: Liberty Bell

The lowest chamber of the original wooden steeple was the first home of the Liberty Bell. When that steeple was removed in the 1780s the bell was lowered into the highest chamber of the brick tower, where it remained until the 1850s. The much larger Centennial Bell, created for the United States Centennial Exposition in 1876, hangs in the cupola of the 1828 steeple. The Liberty Bell, with its distinctive crack, was displayed on the ground floor of the hall from the 1850s until 1976, and is now on display across the street in the Liberty Bell Center.

Declaration of Independence and Second Continental Congress[edit]

A National Park Service Ranger describes Independence Hall's Assembly Room, in which both the Declaration of Independence and Constitution were drafted and signed.

From May 10, 1775[15] to 1783, the Pennsylvania State House served as the principal meeting place of the Second Continental Congress, a body of representatives from each of the thirteen British North American colonies.

On June 14, 1775, delegates of the Continental Congress nominated George Washington as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the Assembly Room of the Pennsylvania State House. The Congress appointed Benjamin Franklin to be the first Postmaster General of what would later become the United States Post Office Department on July 26.

The United States Declaration of Independence was approved there on July 4, 1776, and the Declaration was read aloud to the public in the area now known as Independence Square. This document unified the colonies in North America who declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. These historic events are celebrated annually with a national holiday for U.S. Independence Day.

The Congress continued to meet there until December 12, 1776,[15] after which the Congress evacuated Philadelphia. During the British occupation of Philadelphia, the Continental Congress met in Baltimore, Maryland (December 20, 1776 to February 27, 1777). The Congress returned to Philadelphia from March 4, 1777 to September 18, 1777.[15]

In September 1777, the British Army again arrived to occupy Philadelphia, once again forcing the Continental Congress to abandon the State House. It then met in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for one day (September 27, 1777) and in York, Pennsylvania, for nine months (September 30, 1777 to June 27, 1778), where the Articles of Confederation were approved in November 1777. The Second Continental Congress again returned to Independence Hall, for its final meetings, from July 2, 1778 to March 1, 1781.[15]

Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation initially met in Independence Hall, from March 1, 1781 to June 21, 1783.[16] However, as a result of the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Congress again moved from Philadelphia in June 1783 to Princeton, New Jersey, and eventually to other cities.[15]

U.S. Constitutional Convention[edit]

In September 1786, commissioners from five states met in the Annapolis Convention to discuss adjustments to the Articles of Confederation that would improve commerce. They invited state representatives to convene in Philadelphia to discuss improvements to the federal government. After debate, the Congress of the Confederation endorsed the plan to revise the Articles of Confederation on February 21, 1787. Twelve states, Rhode Island being the exception, accepted this invitation and sent delegates to convene in June 1787 at Independence Hall.

The resolution calling the Convention specified its purpose as proposing amendments to the Articles, but the Convention decided to propose a rewritten Constitution. The Philadelphia Convention voted to keep deliberations secret, and to keep the Hall's windows shut throughout the hot summer. The result was the drafting of a new fundamental government design. On September 17, 1787, the Constitution was completed, and took effect on March 4, 1789, when the new Congress met for the first time in New York's Federal Hall.

Article One, Section Eight, of the United States Constitution granted Congress the authority to create of a federal district to serve as the national capital. Following the ratification of the Constitution, the Congress, while meeting in New York, passed the Residence Act of 1790, which established the District of Columbia as the new federal capital. However, a representative from Pennsylvania, Robert Morris, did manage to convince Congress to return to Philadelphia while the new permanent capital was being built. As a result, the Residence Act also declared Philadelphia to be the temporary capital for a period of ten years. The Congress moved back into Philadelphia on December 6, 1790 and met at Congress Hall, adjacent to Independence Hall until moving to Washington, D.C. in 1800.

Funerary procession of Abraham Lincoln[edit]

Abraham Lincoln's funeral train was to take the body of the president (and the disinterred coffin of his son Willie, who had predeceased him in 1862) from Washington D.C. back to Springfield, Illinois for burial. It would essentially retrace the 1,654 mile route Mr. Lincoln had traveled as president-elect in 1861 (with the deletion of Pittsburgh and Cincinnati and the addition of Chicago). The train left Washington for Baltimore at 8:00 AM on April 21, 1865.[17]

Lincoln's funeral train (the "Lincoln Special") left Harrisburg on Saturday - April 22, 1865 at 11:15 AM and arrived at Philadelphia at Broad Street Station that afternoon at 4:30 PM. It was carried by hearse past a crowd of 85,000 people and was held in state in the Assembly Room in the east wing of Independence Hall. While there, it was escorted and guarded by a detail of 27 Naval and Military officers.[18] That evening, a private viewing was arranged for honored guests of the mourners. The next day (Sunday - April 23, 1865) lines began forming at 5:00 AM. Over 300,000 mourners viewed the body - some waiting 5 hours just to see him. The Lincoln Special left Philadelphia's Kensington Station for New York City the next morning (Monday - April 24, 1865) at 4:00 A.M.[17][19]

Preservation[edit]

The Artist in His Museum, an 1822 self-portrait by Charles Willson Peale depicts his museum at the Old State House (The Long Room is shown in the background).

From 1802 to 1826-27, artist Charles Willson Peale housed his museum of natural history specimens (including the skeleton of a mastodon) and portraits of famous Americans, on the second floor of the Old State House and in the Assembly Room.[20][21]

In early 1816, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania sold the State House to the City of Philadelphia, with a contract signed by the governor.[4] The deed, was not transferred until more than two years later. Philadelphia has owned the State House and its associated buildings and grounds since that time.[4]

In 1948, the building's interior was restored to its original appearance. Independence National Historical Park was established by the 80th U.S. Congress later that year to preserve historical sites associated with the American Revolution. Independence National Historical Park comprises a landscaped area of four city blocks, as well as outlying sites that include: Independence Square, Carpenters' Hall (meeting place of the First Continental Congress), the site of Benjamin Franklin's home, the reconstructed Graff House (where Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence), City Tavern (center of Revolutionary War activities), restored period residences, and several early banks. The park also holds the Liberty Bell, Franklin's desk, a portrait gallery, gardens, and libraries. A product of extensive documentary research and archaeology by the federal government, the restoration of Independence Hall and other buildings in the park set standards for other historic preservation and stimulated rejuvenation of old Philadelphia. The site, administered by the National Park Service, is listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO (joining only three other U.S. man-made monuments still in use, the others being the Statue of Liberty, Pueblo de Taos, and the combined site of the University of Virginia and Monticello).

Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell are now protected in a secure zone with entry at security screening buildings.[22] Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, as part of a national effort to safeguard historical monuments by the United States Department of Homeland Security, pedestrian traffic around Independence Square and part of Independence Mall was restricted by temporary bicycle barriers and park rangers. In 2006, the National Park Service proposed installing a seven-foot security fence around Independence Hall and bisecting Independence Square, a plan that met with opposition from Philadelphia city officials, Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell, and Senator Arlen Specter.[23] As of January 2007, the National Park Service plan was revised to eliminate the fence in favor of movable bollards and chains, and also to remove at least some of the temporary barriers to pedestrians and visitors.[24][25]

Legacy[edit]

In 1956 the US Post Office issued a stamp honoring Independence Hall
Reverse of Kennedy Bicentennial Half-Dollar

Independence Hall has been used in more recent times as the staging ground for protests because of its symbolic history[26] in support of democratic and civil rights movements. On October 26, 1918, Tomáš Masaryk proclaimed the independence of Czechoslovakia on the steps of Independence Hall. On Independence Day, July 4, 1962, President John F. Kennedy gave an address there.[27]

Independence Hall is pictured on the back of the U.S. $100 bill, as well as the bicentennial Kennedy half dollar. The Assembly Room is pictured on the reverse of the U.S. 2 dollar bill, from the original painting by John Trumbull entitled Declaration of Independence.

Building replicas[edit]

LaGuardia Hall Library, East quadrangle of Brooklyn College
Henry Ford Museum main tower and entrance

The building has served as a symbol of Pennsylvania, and was the basis for the Pennsylvania Pavilion of the Jamestown Exposition of 1907 in Norfolk, Virginia,[28] and the since-demolished Pennsylvania Pavilion of the 1939 New York World's Fair.[29]

Several structures replicating or loosely inspired by Independence Hall's iconic design have been built elsewhere in the United States, with a majority in academic settings. Examples include Mercer University's Walter F. George School of Law in Macon, Georgia, Founders Library of Howard University,[30] (National Historic Landmark), Berea College's Draper Building, Baker Memorial Library of Dartmouth College, LaGuardia Hall Library of Brooklyn College, and the Mahler Student Center at Dallas Baptist University. There two replicas of Independence Hall in Metro Detroit, Michigan. The more famous of the two is the main building at The Henry Ford history museum complex in Dearborn (National Historic Landmark), and the lesser known, but older of the two, is the former Liberty Motor Car Company headquarters building, at Connor and Charlevoix, next to Chrysler's Jefferson North Assembly plant in Detroit.[31] Additional replicas include, a full-scale replica erected in 1966 at Knott's Berry Farm theme park in Buena Park, California,[32] and Bellarmine-Jefferson High School in Burbank, California, which replicates the facade, inner staircase, and handrail. The interior scenes of Independence Hall for the Nicolas Cage movie National Treasure were filmed in the Knott's Berry Farm replica.

Although not an exact replica, the Hall of Presidents, at Walt Disney World is said, by the Disney company, to be "modeled after" Independence Hall.[33] The hall was also among the inspirations for the EPCOT theme park's American pavilion.[34] (Other buildings contributing to that pavilion's architecture included Boston's Old State House, Monticello, and the buildings of Colonial Williamsburg.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Independence National Historical Park National Register Nomination. National Park Service. 1988. pp. Section 7, 6–7 (pdf 9–10). Retrieved May 2011. 
  2. ^ "Management Documents". National Park Service. Retrieved May 2011. 
  3. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13. 
  4. ^ a b c d Independence Hall (at "Independence Hall's History"). World Heritage Sites official webpage. World Heritage Committee. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  5. ^ Browning, Charles H. (1916). "The State House Yard, and Who Owned It First after William Penn." The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 40(1), p.87-89
  6. ^ Browning 1916, p.89
  7. ^ Riley, Edward M. (1953). "The Independence Hall Group". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (American Philosophical Society) 43 (1): 7–42 [11]. 
  8. ^ Independence Hall. ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association website. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  9. ^ Frazier, Arthur H. (1974). "The Stretch Clock and its Bell at the State House". Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. XCVIII: 296. 
  10. ^ a b Frazier, Arthur H. (1974). "The Stretch Clock and its Bell at the State House". Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. XCVIII: 287. 
  11. ^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History. Barra Foundation. 1982. p. 98. ISBN 0393016102. 
  12. ^ Frazier, Arthur H. (1974). "The Stretch Clock and its Bell at the State House". Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. XCVIII: 299. 
  13. ^ National Park Service. "Architectural Change over Time". Independence National Historical Park. 
  14. ^ Moss, Robert W. (2008). Historical Landmarks of Philadelphia. Philadelphia: University Of Pennsylvania Press. p. 28. 
  15. ^ a b c d e The Nine Capitals of the United States. United States Senate Historical Office. Accessed June 9, 2005. Based on Fortenbaugh, Robert, The Nine Capitals of the United States, York, PA: Maple Press, 1948. See: List of capitals in the United States#Former national capitals.
  16. ^ During this time period, American diplomats were negotiating the terms of peace with the Great Britain. See: Peace of Paris (1783)#Treaty with the United States of America. Based on preliminary articles made on November 30, 1782, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on April 15, 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783, and ratified by Congress on January 14, 1784, formally ending the American Revolutionary War between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the thirteen former colonies which on July 4, 1776, had formed the United States of America.
  17. ^ a b "The Route of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral Train". Abraham Lincoln Research Site. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  18. ^ "Enon M. Harris". Web Cemeteries. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  19. ^ "Abraham Lincoln's Funeral Train". History Channel. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  20. ^ "NPS Historical Handbook: Independence". National Park Service. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  21. ^ Etting, Frank M. (1876). An Historical Account of the Old State House of Pennsylvania Now Known as the Hall of Independence. Boston: James R. Osgood and Co. pp. 154–165. 
  22. ^ Map: Independence National H a kb PDF File
  23. ^ New York Times
  24. ^ Sonia Rincon, "Independence Hall Won't Get Fence", kyw1060.com
  25. ^ kyw1060.com
  26. ^ We the People: Defining Citizenship in the Shadow of Independence Hall
  27. ^ Address at Independence Hall, President John F. Kennedy Philadelphia, July 4, 1962
  28. ^ "Jamestown Exposition Site, Norfolk City, Virginia". National Register Special Feature May 2007. U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved May 2011. 
  29. ^ "Pennsylvania". 1939 New York World's Fair. Retrieved May 2011. 
  30. ^ "Howard University Campus Tour". Howard University. Retrieved May 2011. 
  31. ^ Cars In Depth,"With Liberty and Six Cylinders For All". Retrieved July 2013. 
  32. ^ Lesley Wright, "Reopening Constitutes Convention at Knott's", Los Angeles Times, September 18, 1998.
  33. ^ Disney World site
  34. ^ Disney World site

External links[edit]