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Pakistan Monument, Islamabad
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (Urdu: تحریک پاکستان — Taḥrīk-i Pākistān) was a historic political movement that aimed to break from the British Empire and United India to form the independent nation state Pakistan by the union of the four provinces located in far region of the Northwestern India.
The movement was led alongside with the Indian independence movement which had the similar views and motives, but the Pakistan Movement seek towards establishing a nation-state to protect the religious identity and political interests The first organised political movements were in Aligarh where another literary movement was led by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan that built the genesis of the Pakistan movement. An educational convention held in 1906 with joint efforts of Syed Ahmad Khan and Vikar-ul-Haq, the Muslim reformers took the movement to the political stage in the form of establishing the mainstream and then newly formed All-India Muslim League (AIML), with prominent moderate leaders seeking to protect the basic rights of Indian Muslims in the British India. During the initial stages of the movement, it adopted the vision of philosopher Iqbal after addressing at the convention of the AIML's annual session. Muhammad Ali Jinnah's constitutional struggle further helped gaining public support for the movement in the four provinces. Urdu poets such as Iqbal and Faiz used literature, poetry and speech as a powerful tool for political awareness. Feminists such as Sheila Pant and Fatima Jinnah championed the emancipation of Pakistan's women and their participation in national politics.
The Pakistan Movement was led by a large and diversified group of people and their struggle ultimately resulted in British Empire professing to the Indian Independence Act 1947, which created the independent dominions of India and Pakistan. The Pakistan Movement was a result of a series of social, political, intellectual transformations in the Pakistani society, government, and ways of thinking. Efforts and struggles of the Founding Fathers resulted in the creation of the democratic and independent government. In the following years, another nationally–minded subset went on to established a strong government, followed by the military intervention in 1958. Grievousness and unbalanced economic distribution caused an upheaval which led the East Pakistan declared independence as the People's Republic of Bangladesh in 1971. After a strong concessions and consents reached in 1973, the new Constitution established a relatively strong government, institutions, national courts, a legislature that represented both states in the Senate and population in the National Assembly. Pakistan's phase shift to republicanism, and the gradually increasing democracy, caused an upheaval of traditional social hierarchy and gave birth to the ethic that has formed a core of political values in Pakistan.
- 1 History of the movement
- 2 Political campaigns and support
- 3 Conclusion
- 4 Timeline
- 5 Notable quotations
- 6 Leaders and Founding fathers
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
History of the movement
The basis of the Pakistan Movement was the Two-nation theory initiated by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and the awakening of the Muslims after the War of Independence, 1857. The beginning of Pakistan Movement was from the formation of the Muslim League in 1906, followed by the vision of Sir Mohammad Iqbal of a homeland for the Muslims floated in 1930, on to the Pakistan Resolution of 1940, and the League gaining strength to finally attaining a separate homeland for the Muslims of India.
The 1882 Local Self-Government Act had already troubled Syed Ahmed Khan. When, in 1906, the British announced their intention to establish Legislative Councils, Muhsin al-Mulk, the secretary of both the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference and MAO College, hoped to win a separate Legislative Council for Muslims by making correspondence to several prominent Muslims in different regions of the South Asia and organising a delegation led by Aga Khan III to meet with Viceroy Lord Minto, a deal to which Minto agreed because it appeared to assist the British divide and rule strategy. The delegation consisted of 35 members, who each represented their respective region proportionately, mentioned hereunder.
- Sir Aga Khan III. (Head of the delegation); (Bombay).
- Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. (Aligarh).
- Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk. (Muradabad).
- Maulvi Hafiz Hakim Ajmal Khan. (Delhi).
- Maulvi Syed Karamat Husain. (Allahabad).
- Maulvi Sharifuddin (Patna).
- Nawab Syed Sardar Ali Khan (Bombay).
- Syed Abdul Rauf. (Allahabad).
- Maulvi Habiburrehman Khan. (Aligarh).
- Sahibzada Aftab Ahmed Khan. (Aligarh).
- Abdul Salam Khan. (Rampur).
- Raees Muhammed Ahtasham Ali. (Lucknow)
- Khan Bahadur Muhammad Muzammilullah Khan. (Aligarh).
- Haji Muhammed Ismail Khan. (Aligarh).
- Shehzada Bakhtiar Shah. (Calcutta).
- Malik Umar Hayat Khan Tiwana. (Shahpur).
- Khan Bahadur Muhammed Shah Deen. (Lahore).
- Khan Bahadur Syed Nawab Ali Chaudhary. (Memon Singh).
- Nawab Bahadur Mirza Shuja'at Ali Baig. (Murshidabad).
- Nawab Nasir Hussain Khan Bahadur. (Patna).
- Khan Bahadur Syed Ameer Hassan Khan. (Calcutta).
- Syed Muhammed Imam. (Patna).
- Nawab Sarfaraz Hussain Khan Bahadur. (Patna).
- Maulvi Rafeeuddin Ahmed. (Bombay).
- Khan Bahadur Ahmed Muhaeeuddin. (Madras).
- Ibraheem Bhai Adamjee Pirbhai. (Bombay).
- Maulvi Abdul Raheem. (Calcutta).
- Syed Allahdad Shah. (Khairpur).
- Maulana H. M. Malik. (Nagpur).
- Khan Bahadur Col. Abdul Majeed Khan. (Patiala).
- Khan Bahadur Khawaja Yousuf Shah. (Amritsar).
- Khan Bahadur Mian Muhammad Shafi. (Lahore).
- Khan Bahadur Shaikh Ghulam Sadiq. (Amritsar).
- Syed Nabiullah. (Allahabad).
- Khalifa Syed Muhammed Khan Bahadur. (Patna).
For Jinnah, Islam laid a cultural base for an ideology of ethnic nationalism whose objective was to gather the Muslim community to defend the Muslim minorities. Jinnah's representation of minority Muslims was quite apparent in 1928, when in the All-Party Muslim Conference, he was ready to swap the advantages of separate electorates for a quota of 33% of seats at the Centre. He maintained his views at the Round Table Conferences, while the Muslims of Punjab and Bengal were vying for a much more decentralised political setup. Many of their requests were met in the 1935 Government of India Act. Jinnah and the Muslim League played a peripheral role at the time and in 1937 could manage to gather only 5% of the Muslim vote. Jinnah refused to back down and went ahead with his plan. He presented the two-nation theory in the now famous Lahore Resolution in March 1940, seeking a separate Muslim state,[not specific enough to verify]
The idea of a separate state had first been introduced by Allama Iqbal in his speech in December 1930 as the President of the Muslim League. The state that he visualised included only Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), and Balochistan. Three years later, the name Pakistan was proposed in a declaration in 1933 by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, a University of Cambridge graduate. Again, Bengal was left out of the proposal.
"It begins with a glorious precolonial state empire when the Muslims of South Asia were politically united and culturally, civilizationally, and strategically dominant. In that era, ethnolinguistic differences were subsumed under a common vision of an Islamic-inspired social and political order. However, the divisions among Muslims that did exist were exploited by the British, who practiced divide and rule politics, displacing the Mughals and circumscribing other Islamic rulers. Moreover, the Hindus were the allies of the British, who used them to strike a balance with the Muslims; many Hindus, a fundamentally insecure people, hated Muslims and would have oppressed them in a one-man, one-vote democratic India. The Pakistan freedom movement united these disparate pieces of the national puzzle, and Pakistan was the expression of the national will of India's liberated Muslims."
Political campaigns and support
The Western Punjab had become a major center of activity of the Muslim League's pushed for Pakistan Movement. On 29 December 1930, Sir Muhammad Iqbal delivered his monumental presidential address to the All India Muslim League annual session held in Lahore. He said:
|“||I would like to see Punjab, North-West Frontier Province (Now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Sindh and Balochistan amalgamated into a single state. Self government within the British Empire or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North-West India.||”|
On 28 January 1933, Chaudhry Rehmat Ali, founder of Pakistan National Movement voiced his ideas in the pamphlet entitled "Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?" The word 'P In a subsequent book Rehmat Ali discussed the etymology in further detail. "Pakistan' is both a Persian and an Urdu word. It is composed of letters taken from the names of all our South Asia homelands; that is, Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh and Balochistan. It means the land of the Pure".
In 1940 Muslim League conference in Lahore in 1940, Jinnah said: "Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature.... It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes.... To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the government of such a state.", At Lahore the Muslim League formally recommitted itself to creating an independent Muslim state, including Sindh, Punjab, Baluchistan, the North West Frontier Province and Bengal, that would be "wholly autonomous and sovereign". The resolution guaranteed protection for non-Muslim religions. The Lahore Resolution, moved by the sitting Chief Minister of Bengal A. K. Fazlul Huq, was adopted on 23 March 1940, and its principles formed the foundation for Pakistan's first constitution. Talks between Jinnah and Gandhi in 1944 in Bombay failed to achieve agreement. This was the last attempt to reach a single-state solution.
In the 1940s, Jinnah emerged as a leader of the Indian Muslims and was popularly known as Quaid-e-Azam (Great Leader). The general elections held in 1945 for the Constituent Assembly of British Indian Empire, the Muslim League secured and won 425 out of 496 seats reserved for Muslims (and about 89.2% of Muslim votes) on a policy of creating an independent state of Pakistan, and with an implied threat of secession if this was not granted. The Congress which was led by Gandhi and Nehru remained adamantly opposed to dividing India. The partition seems to have been inevitable after all, one of the examples being Lord Mountbatten's statement on Jinnah: "There was no argument that could move him from his consuming determination to realize the impossible dream of Pakistan."
The Western Punjab was home to a small minority population of Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus up to 1947 apart from the Muslim majority. In 1947, the Punjab Assembly cast its vote in favor of Pakistan with supermajority rule, which made many minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while Muslim refugees from India settled in the Western Punjab and across Pakistan.
The local leaders and Sindhi nationalists never submitted to British crown, and the Hurs led by Sindhi nationalist, Pir Pagara-I has fought against the British forces in 1857. After Western Punjab, Sindh had been an influential and ideological place of Muslim League, since the Jinnah family were hailed from Karachi. When the support for Pakistan Movement reached to Sindh, it became an important center of activities during the Khilafat Movement. These activities led Sindh to be separated from the Bombay Presidency when the Muslim League passed a resolution in 1925 urging separation of Sindh. Furthermore, Sindh was also a birth place of Muhammad Ali Jinnah who had spent his teenage years in Karachi.
A convention held by Muslim League in 1938, the Muslim League devised a scheme of constitution under which Muslims may attain full independence. It was the province of Sindh which first adopted the resolution for an independent Muslim state. The Muslim League had secured an exclusive mandate of Sindh during the general elections held in 1945. The Muslim majority in Sindh was in support of the policy and the programme of the Muslim League as the Muslim League had good equation with the Sindhi nationalists.
Sindhi nationalist leader, G. M. Syed, who reaffirmed his role as one of the leading figure in the movement. His role as founding father and key role in the Muslim League, G. M. Syed proposed the 1940 Pakistan Resolution in the Sindh Assembly, which ultimately resulted in the creation of Pakistan. On 26 June 1947, the special session held in Sindh Assembly decided to join the new Pakistan Constituent Assembly. Thus, Sindh became the first province to opt for Pakistan.
Unlike Punjab, Balochistan, and Sindh, the Muslim League had little support in Khyber–Pakhtunkhwa where Congress and the Pashtun nationalist Abdul Ghaffar Khan had considerable support for the cause of the Independent India. Abdul Ghaffar Khan (also known as Bacha Khan) initiated a Khudai Khidmatgar movement and dubbed himself as "Frontier Gandhi" due to his efforts in following in the foot steps of Gandhi.
Alongside, another movement, known as Red Shirts and the people of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa interpreted their program in their own way. For Pashtun intelligentsia, the Red Shirts political program was based on the promotion of Pashtun culture and elimination of non-Pashtun influence in the their province. For Islamic hardliners and Ulemas, their program was mainly Anti-British and their religious stand became a cause of attraction for the poor peasants which meant to check economic oppression of the British appointed Political Agents. Furthermore, the strong emphasis on Pashtun identity created by Bacha Khan made it extremely difficult for Muslim League's support for the Pakistan Movement. The Red Shirts and the Congress were able to contain the Muslim League to non-Pashtun regions, such as Hazara Division and Attock District.
The Red Shirts membership rose to the ~200,000 activists, which shows its fame and popularity. The Khudai Khidmatgar, Red Shirts, and Bacha Khan himself joined hands with the Congress against the Pakistan Movement. During the 1945 general elections, the Muslim League could only managed to win 17 seats against Congress who secured 30 seats. The Muslim League was highly benefited with its activists who played crucial role in gathering support for the Pakistan Movement, specifically Jalal-u-din Baba, an ethinc Hazara. His strong activism with the Muslim League captured a strong mandate of Hazara Division and Attock District. Many activists, such as Roedad Khan, Ghulam Ishaq, Sartaj Aziz, and Abdul Qayyum Khan, helped up lifted the cause and image of the Muslim League in the province. Finally, a referendum held in 1947, the people of FATA and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa cast their vote in favor of Pakistan, despite Bacha Khan wanting to accede with India.
It is well documented when the Congress accepted the referendum without consulting the Khudai Khidmatgar, Bacha Khan told the Congress "you have thrown us to the wolves." The spirit of the Khudai Khidmatgar movement took its last breath when it was proclaimed as a political party after the creation of Pakistan. The aims and objectives were changed and gradually people lost their interest in the movement.
The province of Balochistan had mainly consisted of Nawabs and local princely states, under the British Indian Empire. Three of these states willingly joined with Pakistan when the referendum was held in 1947 at the Balochistan Assembly. However, the Khan of Kalat chose independence as this was one of the options given to all of the 535 princely states (out of which 534 accede with Pakistan) by British Prime Minister Clement Attlee.
However, "Nehru persuaded Mountbatten to force the leaders of the princely states to decide whether to join India or Pakistan", and hence independence "was not an option". Nehru later went on to annex other princely states like Hyderabad with military force. The Muslim League's Pakistan Movement programme was generally supported by the people of Baluchistan. One of its leader and founding father of Pakistan, Jafar Khan Jamali (whose nephew later became the Prime Minister of Pakistan in 2002) was an important and key figure of the Muslim League. Jafar Khan Jamali's heavily lobbying for Balochistan to accede with Pakistan highly benefited the Muslim League. Another influential Baloch figure was Akbar Bugti who well received Jinnah who came to visit Balochistan.
Bugti was a staunch supporter and loaylist of Jinnah who played crucial role in supporting the idea of Pakistan in Baluchistan. Another young activist, Mir Hazar, helped initiate student rallies and public support for Pakistan Movement in Balochistan. In 2013, Mir Hazar Khoso, who noted and described Jinnah as his inspiration, also became Prime Minister of Pakistan in 2013. In 1947, the Balochistan Assembly passed the resolution and cast its vote in favor of Pakistan, with a majority approving the accession with Pakistan.
Although, Jinnah, Iqbal and other Founding Fathers of Pakistan were initially struggling for the independence of Four Provinces to create a nation-state, Pakistan. The concept and phenomenon of Pakistan Movement was highly popular in the East Bengal, which was also the birthplace of the Muslim League, in 1940s. The Muslim League's notable statesman and activists were hailed from the East Bengal, including Husyen Suhrawardy, Nazimuddin, and Nurul Amin, who later became Prime ministers of Pakistan in the successive periods of Pakistan. Following the partition of Bengal, the violence erupted in the region, which mainly maintained to Kolkata and Noakhali. It is documented by the historians of Pakistan that Huseyn Suhrawardy wanted Bengal to be an independent state that would neither join Pakistan or India but to be remained unpartitioned. Despite the heavy criticism from the Muslim League, Jinnah realized the validity of Suhrawardy's argument gave his tacit support to the Bengal's plan for independence. However, the plan failed after a successful involvement of Congress in Western Bengali; therefore the Muslim-majority Eastern Bengal was left no choice but to became a part of Pakistan.
During the Pakistan Movement in the 1940s, Rohingya Muslims in western Burma had an ambition to annexe and merge their region into East-Pakistan. Before the independence of Burma in January 1948, Muslim leaders from Arakan addressed themselves to Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, and asked his assistance in annexing of the Mayu region to Pakistan which was about to be formed. Two months later, North Arakan Muslim League was founded in Akyab (modern: Sittwe, capital of Arakan State), it, too demanding annexation to Pakistan. However, it is noted that the proposal was never materialised after it was reportedly turned down by Jinnah.
In 1947, another armed revolution took place in Jammu and Kashmir over the issue of referendum to either join India or Pakistan. Kashmir's Sikh maharaja, Hari Singh, fearing the lost of control requested the Indian intervention in Kashmir. The conflict remained stalemate as the "Line of Control" became the permanent border of both countries. The Western Kashmir acceded with Pakistan while the Eastern Kashmir acceded with India in 1947–48.
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Muslim nationalism became evident in the provinces where the Muslim minorities resided as they faced social and political marginalization. The desire of the significant Muslim minorities to for self-government and self-determination, became obvious when a clause in the Lahore Resolution which stated that "constituent units (of the states to come) shall be autonomous and sovereign" was not respected. The Two-Nation Theory became more and more obvious during the congress rule. In 1946, the Muslim majorities agreed to the idea of Pakistan, as a response to Congress's one sided policies, which were also the result of leaders like Jinnah leaving the party in favour of Muslim League, winning in seven of the 11 provinces. Prior to 1938, Bengal with 33 million Muslims had only ten representatives, less than the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, which were home to only seven million Muslims. Thus the creation of Pakistan became inevitable and the British had no choice but to create two separate nations, Pakistan and India, in 1947.
According to Pakistan Studies curriculum, Muhammad bin Qasim is often referred to as the first Pakistani. Muhammad Ali Jinnah also acclaimed the Pakistan movement to have started when the first Muslim put a foot in the Gateway of Islam.
After the independence, the violence and upheavals continued to be faced by Pakistan, as Liaquat Ali Khan becoming the Prime Minister of Pakistan in 1947. The issue involving the equal status of Urdu and Bengali languages created divergence in the country's political ideology. Need for good governance led to the military take over in 1958 which was followed by rapid industrialization in 1960s. Economic grievances and unbalanced financial payments led to a bloody and an armed struggle of East Pakistan in 1970s, in which eventually resulted with East Pakistan becoming Bangladesh in 1971.
Realizing the problems and causes of the East Pakistan's separation led another nationalist subset to work on the more reform constitution that guaranteed equals rights in the country. Much of Islamic texture and basic rights defined by Holy Quran were inserted in the Constitution of Pakistan in 1973; the year when the Constitution of Pakistan was promulgated. In the successive periods of tragedy of East-Pakistan, the country continued to rebuild and reconstruct itself in terms constitutionally and its path to transformed into republicanism. After 1971 catastrophic episode, Pakistan's phase shift to parliamentary republicanism and the gradually increasing in democracy caused an upheaval of traditional social hierarchy and gave birth to the ethic that has formed a core of political values in Pakistan. The XIII amendment (1997) and XVIII amendment (2010) transformed the country into becoming a parliamentary republic as well as also becoming a nuclear power in the subcontinent.
Non-Muslims contribution and efforts
Jinnah's vision was supported by few of the Hindus, Sikhs, Parsis, Jews and Christians that lived in the Muslim dominated regions of undivided India. Most notable and extremely influential Hindu figure in Pakistan Movement was Jogendra Nath Mandal from Bengal, and Jagannath Azad from the Urdu-speaking belt. Mandal represented the Hindu representation calling for independent state of Pakistan, and was one of the Founding-fathers of Pakistan. After the independence, Mandal was given ministries of Law, Justice, and Work-Force by Jinnah in Liaquat Ali Khan's government. He, however, realised his folly in 1950 when thousands of lower caste Hindus were massacred in East Bengal generating a wave of refugees to India. He himself fled to India and submitted his resignation to Liaquat Ali Khan, the then Prime Minister of Pakistan.
The Christian composition also stood behind Jinnah's vision, playing a pivotal role in the movement. The notable Christians included Sir Victor Turner and Alvin Robert Cornelius. Turner was responsible for carrying the economic, financial planning of the country, after gaining the independence. Turner was among one of the founding fathers of Pakistan, and guided Jinnah and Ali Khan on economic affairs, taxation and to handle the administrative units. Alvin Robert Cornelius was elevated as Chief Justice of Lahore High Court bench by Jinnah and served as Law secretary in Liaquat Ali Khan's government. The Hindu, Christian, and Parsi communities had also played their due role for the development of Pakistan soon after its creation.
As an example or inspiration
The cause of Pakistan Movement became an inspiration in different countries of the world. Protection of one's beliefs, equal rights, and liberty were incorporated in the state's constitution. Arguments presented by Ali Mazrui pointed out that the South Sudan's movement led to the partition of the Sudan into Sudan proper, which is primarily Muslim, and South Sudan, which is primarily Christian and animistic.
Memory and legacy
The Pakistan Movement has a central place in Pakistan's memory. The founding story of Pakistan Movement is not only covered in the school and universities textbooks but also in innumerable monuments. Almost all key events are covered in Pakistan's textbooks, literature, and novels as well. Thus, Fourteenth of August is one of major and most celebrated national day in Pakistan. To many authors and historians, Jinnah's legacy is Pakistan.
The Minar-e-Pakistan is a historical place which attracted ten thousand visitors. The Minar-e-Pakistan still continues to to project the memory to the people to remember the birth of Pakistan. Jinnah's estates in Karachi and Ziarat has attracted thousands visitors.
Historian of Pakistan, Vali Nasr, argues that the Islamic universalism had became a main source of Pakistan Movement that shaped patriotism, meaning, and nation's birth. To many Pakistanis, Jinnah's role is viewed as a modern Moses-like leader; whilst many other founding fathers of the nation-state also occupies extremely respected place in the hearts of the people of Pakistan.
I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single State. Self-government within the British Empire, or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North-West India.
At this solemn hour in the history of India, when British and Indian statesmen are laying the foundations of a Federal Constitution for that land, we address this appeal to you, in the name of our common heritage, on behalf of our thirty million Muslim brethren who live in Pakistan – by which we mean the five Northern units of India, Viz: Punjab, North-West Frontier Province (Afghan Province), Kashmir, Sind and Baluchistan – for your sympathy and support in our grim and fateful struggle against political crucifixion and complete annihilation.
It is extremely difficult to appreciate why our Hindu friends fail to understand the real nature of Islam and Hinduism. They are not religious in the strict sense of the word, but are, in fact, different and distinct social orders, and it is a dream that the Hindus and Muslims can ever evolve a common nationality, and this misconception of one Indian nation has troubles and will lead India to destruction if we fail to revise our notions in time. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs, literatures. They neither intermarry nor interdine together and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspect on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Mussalmans derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes, and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other and, likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built for the government of such a state."
Leaders and Founding fathers
- Muhammad Ali Jinnah
- Allama Muhammad Iqbal
- Liaquat Ali Khan
- Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar
- Aga Khan III
- Muhammad Zafarullah Khan
- A. K. Fazlul Huq
- Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi
- Ghulam Bhik Nairang
- Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari
- Khwaja Nazimuddin
- Jalal-ud-din Jalal Baba
- Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy
- Chaudhry Naseer Ahmad Malhi
- Maulana Zafar Ali Khan
- Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan
- A Short History of Pakistan, a book edited by I H Qureshi
- History of Pakistan
- National Monument, Islamabad
- Raja, Masood Ashraf. Constructing Pakistan: Foundational Texts and the Rise of Muslim National Identity, 1857–1947, Oxford 2010, ISBN 978-0-19-547811-2
- Nawab Mohammad Ismail Khan
- Pakistani nationalism
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