An independence referendum is a type of referendum in which the citizens of a territory decide whether the territory should become an independentcountry. The independence referendum is considered successful if the citizens vote in favour of independence or unsuccessful if they do not. A successful independence referendum may or may not result in independence, depending on whether relevant political factors outside of the territory recognise the results.
The articles on specific referendums are linked with dates in the table on past referendums.
The Inuit Ataqatigiit-led separatist government has repeatedly expressed the need for full political independence from Denmark. With Greenland having gained more autonomy beginning with the home rule referendum in 1979 and the self-government referendum in 2008, some campaigners have touted the year 2021 (the 300th anniversary of Danish colonial rule) as a date for potential independence.
Venetian Independence and other alike groups have been long proposing a referendum on the independence of Veneto from Italy. After the Regional Council of Veneto approved a resolution on self-determination (with an explicit reference to a referendum) in November 2012, a referendum bill was proposed in April 2013. In the meantime, Plebiscite 2013 (a non-partisan committee, formed mainly by former members of Venetian Independence) organised an online referendum, with no official government recognition, for 16–21 March 2014. According to the organisers, turnout was 63.2% and 89.1% of participants voted yes. This was enough for Plebiscite 2013 to declare Veneto's independence. In June the Regional Council finally discussed and passed a law concerning a referendum on special autonomy for Veneto and another in order to hold a referendum on the independence of Veneto. See also Venetian nationalism#Recent developments.
Scotland may ask a new independence referendum in case the United Kingdom leaves the European Union or its demands for more autonomy will be neglected. According to an opinion poll, almost half of Scottish voters back a re-run of the 2014 independence referendum by 2024.