Youth organizations in the United States

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Youth organizations in the United States are of many different types. The largest is the government run 4-H program followed by the federally chartered but private Scouting movement groups: the Boy Scouts of America and the Girl Scouts of the USA. Another somewhat smaller but co-ed scouting derived group is Camp Fire. Other youth groups are religious youth ministries such as evangelical Christian Awana, Seventh-day Adventist Pathfinders, and Assemblies of God Royal Rangers.

Smaller scouting like groups include the Christian Trail Life USA for boys and American Heritage Girls for girls and the non-denominational co-ed Navigators USA and pagan but non-discriminatory SpiralScouts International.

Scouting organizations[edit]

Boy Scouts of America[edit]

Main article: Boy Scouts of America

Girl Scouts of the USA[edit]

Baden-Powell Service Association[edit]

Baden-Powell Service Association
Formation 2006[1]
Headquarters Washington, Missouri[1]
Location
  • USA
Members
50 Groups[2]
commissioner
David Atchley[1]
Website bpsa-us.org
Not to be confused with Baden-Powell Scouts Association, in the US that may have gone by Baden-Powell Service Association also and operated from 2002 to around 2010.

The Baden-Powell Service Association (BPSA) is a traditional scouting organization that is open & inclusive and takes its name from the Scouting movement founder, Robert Baden-Powell.[3] The BSPA is a member of the World Federation of Independent Scouts (WFIS).[is 1][4]

History[edit]

The BPSA formed with an adult-only component, Rovers, in 2006. David Atchley, an Eagle Scout in the BSA, joined up in 2008, after being asked to leave his local Greater St. Louis Area Council after attempting to create a non-discrimination policy for the Cub Scout pack he was Cubmaster for. He started forming youth units. In 2009, Atchley became commissioner.[1][5] By 2011, the association had a handful of units.[3] BPSA reincorporated in 2012 plus added 35 more groups between then and July 2013.[6]

Program[edit]

The BPSA is split into 4 age levels, or sections:

  • Otters (ages 5 to 7)
  • Timberwolves (8 to 10)
  • Pathfinders (11 to 17)
  • Rovers (18+)[1][is 2]

BPSA's highest award for Pathfinders is the George Washington Scout Award.[7] The highest award for Rovers is the Baden-Powell Award.[8]

Catholic youth ministries[edit]

Columbian Squires[edit]

Columbian Squires
Formation August 4, 1925 (1925-08-04)
Founder Barnabas McDonald[9]
Headquarters New Haven[10]
Location
  • USA, Mexico, Philippines[3]
Members
25,000
1500 local units[11]
Owner Knights of Columbus[3]
Website Squires website
Main article: Columbian Squires
Squire Motto

Esto Dignus / Be Worthy

—BSA Troop 97[is 3]

Columbian Squires is a Catholic boys Scout-like organization run by the Knights of Columbus. The Squires considers itself to be an athletic team, a social club, youth and civic improvement group, management training, a civil rights group and spiritual development program.[3]

History[edit]

The Columbian Squires started in 1925.[3]

In December 2012, the Knights of Columbus was sued over supposed sexual abuse that occurred in Brownsville, Texas by adult Columbian Squires leaders in the 1970s and 1980s.[10]

Program[edit]

Local groups are called Circles. The programs five advancement levels are:

  • Page
  • Shield Bearer
  • Swordsman
  • Lancer
  • Squire of the Body of Christ.[is 3]

Kepha[edit]

Kepha
Owner The Brotherhood of the Iron Will
Website Kepha

Kepha is a Catholic boys Scout-like organization in which the father also participate. The organization's name is "rock" in Greek.[11]

Program[edit]

5 Anchors

Apologetics, Brotherhood, Charity, Mortification and Prayer.

—Patheos[11]

The Kepha program had monthly retreats and shared daily prayers for brotherhood. Member have 2 AM two-hour Eucharistic adoration called "Yawns For Jesus". They go camping but required cold showers for discipline. The service work they do includes visiting nursing homes and hospitals.[11]

Troops of St. George[edit]

Troops of St. George
Formation May 24, 2013 (2013-05-24)
Founder Taylor Marshall[11]
Headquarters Irving, Texas
Members
~20 troops
Website troopsofsaintgeorge.org
Saint George Motto

Parati Semper / prepared always

—1 Peter 3:15[12]

The Troops of Saint George, briefly the Scouts of Saint George, is a Catholic boys' alternative scouting organization[11] focusing on father-son camping and catechetics through outdoor experiences. The organization's "hard launch" took place on January 1, 2014.[13]

History

Saint George Law

1. Honor all men.
2. Love the brotherhood.
3. Fear God.
4. Honor the king.

— (1 Peter 2:17)[12]

The formation of the Scouts of St. George was announced by Taylor Marshall in May 2013 in response to the Boy Scouts of America changing its membership policies for same-sex attracted youth. The program was planned to be free, open source, grassroots and a traditional boy scout program with no 501(c)3 non-profit status (so as to keep government interference to minimum).[11] By October, the Scouts of St. George was forced due to the Boy Scouts of America's ownership of the "Scouts" trademark to change its name to "Troops of St. George"[14] and the organization filed for 501(c)3 status around the same time.[15]

Program[edit]

Saint George Oath

Set an example:
1. in speech (in verbo)
2. and conduct (in conversatione)
3. in love (in caritate)
4. in faith (in fide)
5. in purity (in castitate).

— (1 Timothy 4:12)[12]

The program is under development with an expected parallel program to the Boy Scouts of America's.[11]

Their "Trinitarian Salute" is "three fingers of the right hand (index, middle, ring) out, and with the pinky and thumb joined signifying that the divine nature of Christ is joined to His human nature: fully God and fully man as taught at the Catholic Council of Chalcedon".[12]

Protestant youth ministries[edit]

Caravan[edit]

Caravan
Owner Church of the Nazarene
Website
caravan.nazarene.org

Caravan is a Christian Scout-like organization run by the Church of the Nazarene. With a first through sixth grade co-ed membership, the organization has 600 US clubs which focus on church doctrine. There about 150 BSA troops affiliated with Nazarene Churches.[16]

History[edit]

One of Caravan's forerunners was started in the 1930s by LeRoy Haynes as Boy's Works. As it spread from church to church. the program was picked up in 1934 by Nazarene's Southern California district as its boy's program under Haynes direction. The next year, Girl's Works was started up under Jeanne Haynes. The Works programs spread past outside the district and even was promoted at the 1936 General Assembly through a display.[17]

Rev. W. W. Clay, also in the 1930s, developed two Christian principles program for kids: Bluebirds for young children and Pioneers for older children. With Rev. Milton Bunker, an Eagle Scout,[18] Clay promoted these club programs and continued to develop them.[19]

With inadequate materials and competing programs, the 1940 General Assembly formed a Commission on Boys' and Girls' Work that met November 17–18 in Santa Cruz, California. The Commission was composed of six western districts' representatives, three members of the commission on Boys' and Girls' Work, and two members of the Department of Church Schools. This Commission decided to replace the existing club programs with its own program. The Board of General Superintendents approved this Commission's program while a committee developed and wrote the books.[19]

Caravan was started in 1946[16] with the release of the first Caravan book, Trailmarker for boys ages 12 and up. Books that followed were Pathmarker (girls ages 12+), Signals (boys ages 9 to 11), and Signs (girls ages 9 to 11). That fall, the first official Nazarene Caravan club in the United States was started by Millington Church of the Nazarene in Michigan[17] under Rev. Bunker. In 1948, Bunker was appointed the first general director of Caravan.[18] Carol Wordsworth of Youngstown, Ohio in October 1949 at a district Caravan Round-up was the first person to be granted the Phineas F. Brezee award.[17] In 2005, the program was revised with the addition of the Core Values badges and modified or added skill badges.[19]

Program[edit]

Caravan's grade level groups are:

  • Searchers (1-2)
  • Explorers (3-4)
  • Adventurers (5-6).

Adults leaders of a group are called guides. Earning badges is an optional part in this program.[19]

The Milton Bunker Award is granted to those Searchers completing the necessary two-year requirements.[18]

The Phineas F. Brezee award, named after the Church of the Nazarene founding pastor, is the highest award in Caravan. A member earns the award upon completion of eight core values studies, 16 Articles of Faith, 32 skill badges, four ministry projects and four missionary books. Additional awards, the Esther Carson Winans and Haldor Lillenas awards, are achievable using the requirements from the Brezee award.[17]

Christian Service Brigade[edit]

Christian Service Brigade
Formation 1937
Founder Joe Coughlin
Headquarters Hamburg, New York[20]
Location
Owner CSB Ministries
Website csbministries.org
CSB Vision

Godly men who serve, lead and disciple each generation

[is 3]

Christian Service Brigade is an Evangelical Christian boys Scout type of organization run by the CSB Ministries. The organization has chartered 300 units with members in the first through 12th grades and works to build boys’ character with a Bible emphasis.[16][21] CSB is a partner of the GEMS Girls Clubs.[is 3]

History[edit]

Christian Service Brigade was established in 1937 by Joe Coughlin in Glen Ellyn, Illinois with a Methodist Sunday School sixth-grade boys class in conjunction with Wheaton College's Christian Service Council.[22][23] Soon in 1939, an affiliated girls group was founded, Girls' Guild. Both groups received backing from Herbert J. Taylor's Christian Workers' Foundation starting in 1943.[23] The Guild became Pioneer Girls in 1940 and remained a division of CSB until 1944.[24]

Program[edit]

The Brigade is split into 4 age levels:

  • Tadpoles (ages 4–5)
  • Tree Climbers (ages 6–7)
  • Stockade (ages 8–11), and
  • Battalion (ages 12–18).

The organization uses uniforms similar to the BSA. CSB runs a few shape and race events: the Shape N Race Derby wood car race for the Stockade level,[is 3] and the Shape N Sail Derby boat race and Shape N Sled Derby, model sleds raced in the rain gutter packed with snow with a depression as a trail.[25] The equivalent rank to the Boy Scouts’ Eagle Scout is the rank of "Herald of Christ".[20]

The CSB runs 11 camps:

  • Stony Glen Camp, Madison, Ohio
  • Wilderness Ridge Brigade Camp, Bastrop, Texas
  • Camp Teepee Pole, Sundra, Albera, Canada
  • Sequoia Brigade Camp, Concord, California
  • New England Frontier Camp, Lovell, Maine
  • Camp Kaskitowa, Michigan
  • Camp Nathanael, Minnesota
  • Northern Frontier Camp, New York
  • Hickory Hill Brigade Camp, New York
  • Haycock Camping Ministries, Pennsylvania
  • Hemlock Wilderness Brigade Camp, Wardensville, West Virginia[22]

External links

Dynamic Youth Ministries[edit]

Dynamic Youth Ministries is an organization that runs three youth groups: Calvinist Cadet Corps, GEMS Girls' Clubs and Youth Unlimited.[26]

Calvinist Cadet Corps[edit]

Calvinist Cadet Corps
Formation 1952
Headquarters Grand Rapids, Michigan[3]
Location
  • United States, Canada[3]
Members
9,900[3]
Owner Dynamic Youth Ministries
Executive Director
Dick Broene[20]
Website calvinistcadets.org
Main article: Calvinist Cadet Corps

Calvinist Cadet Corps is an independent non-denominational Christian boys Scout-like organization usually affiliated with Christian Reformed Church.[3] Currently, the Corps has about 440 US clubs with weekly meeting including a Bible lesson. Members range in grade from first to high school.[16] Merit badges are tied into Scripture and weekly meetings includes Bible lessons.[20]

History[edit]

The Calvinist Cadet Corps was officially founded in 1952 in Reformed churches[3] as the Dutch of the Reformed Christian Churches supported Dutch parallel programs compared to the Dutch of the Reformed Churches who generally joined the general organization. While the Calvinettes and Young Calvinist Federation duplicated the Girls Scouts and Christian Endeavour respectively.[27]

Program[edit]

The Corps is split into 5 ministries, or levels:

  • Kingdom Kids (ages 4–5, and the only coed level)
  • Junior Cadets (grades 1-3)
  • Recruit-Pathfinder-Builder (grades 4-6)
  • Guide Trails (grades 7-9)
  • Voyageurs (grades 9-11).

The organization uses uniforms similar to the BSA.[is 3]

Calvinist Cadet Corps hold Model Car Derbies.[28]

GEMS Girls' Clubs[edit]

GEMS Girls' Clubs
Formation 1958
Headquarters Grand Rapids, Michigan[3]
Owner Dynamic Youth Ministries
Executive director
Kathryn Miller[29]
Website www.gemsgc.org
Main article: GEMS Girls' Clubs

GEMS Girls' Clubs, formerly Calvinettes, is an independent non-denominational Christian girls Scout-like organization usually affiliated with Christian Reformed Churches. GEMS is an acronym for "Girls Everywhere Meeting The Savior".[30] GEMS is also affiliated with the Christian Service Brigade.[is 3]

History[edit]

The Calvinettes were founded in 1958[30] as the Dutch of the Christian Reformed Churches supported Dutch parallel programs compared to the Dutch of the Reformed Churches who generally joined the general organization, the Girl Scouts. While the Calvinist Cadet Corps and Young Calvinist Federation duplicated the Boy Scouts and Christian Endeavour respectively.[27]

Frontier Girls[edit]

Frontier Girls
Formation July 2007, 1 (1-19-2007)
Founder Kerry Cordy
Members
1,500[6]
Owner Frontier Girls, LLC
Website Frontier Girls Clubs.com

Frontier Girls is an independent non-denominational Christian girls Scout-like program.[6]

History[edit]

Frontier Girls was found in 2007 by Kerry Cordy as she felt that Girls Scouts had moved away from skills and badges. After complaints that FG was for heterosexual girls only, Cordy developed a Quest Club program for restriction-free groups to start their own scouting program.[6]

Frontier Girls Promise

I pledge to love God, Be loyal to my country, and to love my neighbor as myself.

—About.com[about 1]

Program[edit]

Believe in God (any higher power) and living by the Frontier promise are membership requirements.[about 1] Frontier Girls wear red, white and blue uniforms[6] with the red vest available through the program while the blue shirts and slacks are not.[about 1]

Girls can work on over a thousand badges[6] in nine Areas of Discovery: Art, Home, Technology, Character, the World, Health & Fitness, Outdoors, Agriculture and Knowledge. Frontier Girls has the only set of Character badges with the requirement of earning one such badge a year. There are four badges (Emergency Preparedness, Etiquette, and either the Patriotism or Our Flag Badge) that all troops must earn once every three years, thus a girl would earn these badges at each level.[about 1]

The girls can earn the same award, some with variant names, at the different age levels:

  • Servant's Heart Award, community service hours
  • Life Skills Achievement Award, show proficiency at a several life skills
  • Make a Difference Award, community service project leadership
  • Reaching for the Stars Award, available at the Butterfly and Eagle levels, majoring in an Area of Discovery
  • Gem Awards, highest award at each level.[about 2]
level name grades[about 1] Servant's Heart Award Make a Difference Award Gem Award[about 2]
Otter K-2 (min. age 5) 5 hours, Red Heart 3–5 hours Topaz
Dolphin 3-5 10, Silver Heart 10–15 hours Sapphire
Butterfly 6-8 15, Gold Heart 20–25 hours Emerald
Eagle Grades 9-12 20, Gold Diamond Heart 40–50 hours Diamond

A troop may consist of all age levels as the meeting time is splitting between age level activities and joint activities.[about 1]


Pioneer Clubs[edit]

Pioneer Clubs
Formation 1939
Founders Joe Coughlin
Betty Whitaker
Harriet Brehm (honorary)
Owner Pioneer Ministries
Website pioneerclubs.org

Pioneer Clubs, formerly Girls' Guild and Pioneer Girls, is a Christian Scout-like organization run by the Pioneer Ministries. The Ministries consist of four divisions: Pioneer Girls, Pioneer Boys, Pioneer Clubs, and Clubes Pioneros.[31]

History[edit]

Girls' Guild was founded in 1939 as an affiliated girls group of the Christian Service Brigade by Joe Coughlin and Betty Whitaker, 1st program director, on the request of Harriet Brehm, a sister of a Brigade member. In 1940, the Guild held its first summer camp at Fish Lake, Volo, Illinois. A new director took over in 1940, Viola Waterhouse, and another in 1941, Carol Erickson.[23]

Pioneer Girls slogan

Christ in every phase of a girls life.

—Billy Graham Center[32]

The Girls' Guild in 1941 was revamped and renamed by Erickson to the Pioneer Girls (PG). In 1943, Erickson approached Herbert J. Taylor who through his Christian Workers' Foundation funded the PG, gave advice, free administrative support and gave them office space in Chicago's Civic Opera Building. Taylor also had the organization form its first board of director and had them incorporate by the end of 1943. The PG also started buying camps all called Camp Cherith. From 1939 to 1950, the main source of church club sponsors were Baptist, although there was a range of different denomination also sponsoring. In 1953, PG's headquarters was moved. In 1959, a mystery book series featuring two Pioneer Girls called the Pioneer Girls Adventure Series releasing at least three books.[23]

Year clubs Members[23]
1943 64 800
1945 226 3,000
1959 2060 48,000
1976 1765 59,396
1976
Canada
671 30,281
2005 8419 121,586

With the camping program and camp expansion in 1971, the camps were placed in a separate corporation then a licensing agreement tied them back to Pioneer Girls.[32]

In 1979, boys were allowed membership and had their own Pioneer Boys clubs in 1981. The Pioneer Girls in 1981 was renamed Pioneer Ministries, but known as Pioneer Clubs.[23][31] In 1945, clubs were started in Canada. By 1976, the organization owned 19 camps in the USA and 6 in Canada. Also while dropping the pioneer theme, sister organizations were set up in 16 other countries including France, Italy, Korea, Pakistan with more in Latin American, Caribbean and Africa. In Thailand where its branch was founded by Pioneer alumni and missionary Joan Killilea, the branch was called the Friendship Club.[23]

Programs[edit]

Clubs can be operated under three formats based on the number and ages of the kids: Pioneer (for churches with 3-12 children per age group), Discovery (for total of 3-12 kids from K-6) and Exploring (lots of kids grades 1-6). Pioneer program is split into 5 age levels:

  • Skipper – ages 2 & 3
  • Scooter – ages 4 & 5
  • Voyager – grades 1 – 2
  • Pathfinder – grades 3 – 4
  • Trailblazer – grades 5 – 7[33]

Pioneer Clubs hold wood car races called Pine Car Derby.[25]

External links[edit]


Salvation Army[edit]

Adventure Corps[edit]

Adventure Corps
Owner Salvation Army
Website Eastern USA official website
Motto

Adventure with Christ!

—Booth Youth[34]
Pledge

I promise to explore God's word and God's world to find ways to serve him and help others, to develop and guard good habits so that I will grow as God desires, and to adventure into the world with the "good news" of Jesus Christ.

—Booth Youth[34]

Adventure Corps, or The Salvation Army Boys' Adventure Corps, is a Christian Scout-like organization run by the Salvation Army. Currently, the organization has about 1,300 units of grades 1-8 boys. The boys do not have to be a member of a Salvation Army congregation. In addition to the Adventure Corps, the Salvation Army has sponsored 130 Boy Scout troops.[16] The Salvation Army from 1913 ran the LifeSaving Scouts/Guards-Boys teen age program to 1929 when it merged with the Boy Scouts of America.

History[edit]

The Adventure Corps was established in January 1983.[35]

Program[edit]

The program core is based on Christian fellowship, teamwork and leadership.[16] The Corps is split into 2 levels: Explorers (grades 1 to 4), and Rangers (5 to 8).[34]

Other groups[edit]


Southern Baptist Convention[edit]

At the Southern Baptist Convention's meeting on June 11–12, 2013, the convention recommended that Southern Baptist Churches disaffiliate from the Boy Scouts of America and joint alternative organization particularly those run by the Southern Baptist Convention.[36]

Challengers[edit]

Challengers
Owner Woman’s Missionary Union
(Southern Baptist Convention)
Website official site

The Challengers is a Christian teenage boys Scout-like organization run by the Woman’s Missionary Union of the Southern Baptist Convention.[3]

The Challengers program is to equip boys in "mission education."[36]

Royal Ambassadors[edit]

Royal Ambassadors
Formation 1908
Founder Woman’s Missionary Union
Location
  • USA
Members
31,000[3]
Owner Woman’s Missionary Union &
North American Mission Board
(Southern Baptist Convention)
Website official site
RA Pledge

As a Royal Ambassador I will do my best: to become a well-informed, responsible follower of Christ; to have a Christ-like concern for all people; to learn how to carry the message of Christ around the world; to work with others in sharing Christ; and to keep myself clean and healthy in mind and body.

—BSA Troop 97[is 3]

Royal Ambassadors (RA) is a Christian boys Scout-like organization run by the Woman’s Missionary Union of the Southern Baptist Convention. About 3,000 SBC churches sponsors groups. There are some Southern Baptist churches sponsoring Boy Scout troops.[16] The name of the program was selected from the New Testament, where Christians are told by the Apostle Paul to be "ambassadors for Christ."[36]

History[edit]
Year chapters members
1915 500+ 4,500[37]
1960 13,000 220,000[37]
2013 3,000+[37] 31,000[3]

The Royal Ambassadors was founded in 1908 for elementary school aged boys[3] after the WMU Annual Meeting in Hot Springs, Arkansas.[38]

As the RA continued to grow, a convention-wide full-time RA secretary was needed in 1943. The Brotherhood Commission took over the program in 1954. In 1997 that Memphis-based SBC agency was discontinued through a merger forming the North American Mission Board. With a shift in strategy, the board turned over regular operation of the RA in 2011.[37]

The programs' age groups are Lads (grades 1-3), and Crusaders (4-6). The RA wooden mini-car race is called RA Racers. There is no uniform but they generally wear a T-shirt and own a vest to display their earned badges. Members can earn six "campcraft" patches: Discover 1/2/3, Hiker, Camper, Woodsman. But the program is for missionary training and development.[is 3] Thus, merit patches are earn for mission work and Bible verse memorization.[36]

Earth scouting[edit]

Earth scouting or scout-like groups, also called Green Scouting, are those that are eco-orientiated groups.[6]

Earth Champs[edit]

Earth Champs
Formation 2002
Owner Earth Charter US
Website http://www.sbctampabay.org/

Earth Champs is an independent non-denominational Scout-like organization[dubious ], a program of the Sustainable Business Coalition of Tampa Bay, Inc.

History[edit]

Earth Scouts was founded in 2002. The Boy Scouts of America owning the trademark to Scouts forced Earth Scouts to change their name a decade later to Earth Champs. By July 2013, 4 chapters were operational with 4 more in start up.[6]

Program[edit]

Earth Champs program is to get children interest and involved in activities that support living sustainably and the environment.[6]

Kids for Earth[edit]

Kids for Earth
Formation 2009
Founder Aditi Sen
Headquarters Hillsdale, New Jersey
Owner United for Earth
Website http://www.kidsforearth.org/

Kids for Earth is an independent non-denominational secular eco-focused Scout-like organization.[dubious ]

History[edit]

Kids for Earth was founded in 2009 by Aditi Sen after watching "An Inconvenient Truth".[6]

Youth wings of political parties[edit]

Religious[edit]

Other[edit]

Other groups external links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Valerie Schremp Hahn. (December 6, 2012). Baden-Powell Service Association brings inclusiveness to scouting. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Accessed on January 13, 2013.
  2. ^ "Scout Finder". Baden-Powell Service Association, US. Retrieved April 8, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Hallowell, Billy. (February 18, 2013) 9 Faith-Based (and Secular) Alternatives to the Boy Scouts of America Amid Furor Over Gay Ban. AP. The Blaze. Accessed on October 16, 2013.
  4. ^ "Members". Members. WFIS Americas. Retrieved March 11, 2014. 
  5. ^ Thakkar, Neel. (December 1, 2012). David Atchley creates 'non-discriminatory' alternative to Boy Scouts. St. Louis Beacon. Accessed on March 11, 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Connor, Tracy. (July 28, 2013). Wiccans, earth-lovers, do-gooders: There's a 'scouting' group for your kid. NBC News. Accessed on January 17, 2013. Archived at AHGonline.org.
  7. ^ "Pathfinder". Pathfinder. BPSA-US. Retrieved March 11, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Rover". Rover. BPSA-US. Retrieved March 11, 2014. 
  9. ^ History of the Brothers in the U.S.A. since 1845. De La Salle Christian Brothers. Manhattan College O'Mallory Library. Accessed on January 15, 2014.
  10. ^ a b Stannard, Ed. (December 15, 2010). 2 suits against Knights of Columbus claim sex abuse by Columbian Squires youth group leader.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Schiffer, Kathy. (May 24, 2013). And Now It Begins: Catholic Groups Rise Up to Replace the Boy Scouts. Patheos.com. Accessed on January 15, 2014.
  12. ^ a b c d Marshall, Taylor. "Saint George Motto, Law, and Trinitarian Salute". Troops of Saint George, LLC. Retrieved April 12, 2014. 
  13. ^ Our January 1 Hard Launch for the TSG!. Troops of Saint George. Accessed on April 11, 2014.
  14. ^ Bridgman, Gary (October 17, 2013). "Making It in Memphis". Memphis Flyer. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  15. ^ The Troops of Saint George Are Back!
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Banks, Adelle M. (May 13, 2013). SIDEBAR: Evangelical alternatives to the Boy Scouts. Religion News. Accessed on January 9, 2013.
  17. ^ a b c d (August 30, 2010). Local Caravan Girls earn top honors in Christian Scouting. Lake County News. Accessed on January 13, 2014.
  18. ^ a b c (May 28, 2008 ). Milton Bunker, Caravan’s first general director, passes away at 91. Nazarene Communication Network. Accessed on January 13, 2014.
  19. ^ a b c d About. Caravan. Nazarene.org. Accessed on January 13, 2014.
  20. ^ a b c d Banks, Adelle M. (May 13, 2013). "Church-based scouting alternatives attract interest". Religion News. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  21. ^ Hunter, James Davison (1983). American Evangelicalism: Conservative Religion and the Quandary of Modernity. Rutgers University Press. p. 58. Retrieved December 30, 2014. 
  22. ^ a b Biggs, Charles (June 13, 2013). "Say no to Boy Scouts, yes to AWANA, Christian Brigade". Tulsa Beacon. Archived from the original on 13 Mar 14. Retrieved January 14, 2014.  Check date values in: |archivedate= (help)
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Larsen, Timothy (Fall 2008). "Pioneeer Girls: Mid-Twentieth-Century American Evangelicalism's Girl Scouts". Asbury Journal (Asbury Theological Seminary) 63 (2): 59–79. Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  24. ^ "Records of Pioneer Ministries - Collection 264". Billy Graham Center. Wheaton College. Retrieved January 16, 2014. 
  25. ^ a b "What Is a Shape N Race Derby?". Darin McGrew. Retrieved February 6, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Dynamic Youth Ministries". The Barnabas Foundation web site. The Barnabas Foundation. Retrieved January 22, 2010. 
  27. ^ a b Robert P. Swierenga. Page 41. Dutch Chicago: A History of the Hollanders in the Windy City. William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2002. Accessed on January 13, 2014.
  28. ^ "Council Club or Independent Club". Calvinist Cadet Corps. Retrieved April 17, 2013. 
  29. ^ Kraai, Daina (January 11, 2013). "GEMS Gets New Director". Banner. Retrieved January 30, 2014. 
  30. ^ a b Calvinettes/GEMS Celebrate 50 Years. City of Fulton, Illinois. Accessed on January 14, 2014.
  31. ^ a b About Us. Pioneer Clubs.org. Pioneer Ministries. Access on January 15, 2014.
  32. ^ a b "Records of Pioneer Ministries - Collection 264". BGC Archives. Billy Graham Center. Retrieved January 23, 2014. 
  33. ^ Our Ministry Programs. Pioneer Clubs.org. Pioneer Ministries. Access on January 15, 2014.
  34. ^ a b c Booth Youth. The Salvation Army Eastern Territory Youth Department official website. Access on January 13, 2014.
  35. ^ Edward H. McKinley. Page 294. Marching to Glory: The History of the Salvation Army in the United States, 1880-1992. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company (1995). Accessed on January 13, 2014.
  36. ^ a b c d Burke, Daniel (May 31, 2013). "Baptists plan exodus from Boy Scouts". CNN. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  37. ^ a b c d Allen, Bob (January 30, 2013). "SBC says RAs could rival Scouting". Associated Baptist Press. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  38. ^ "Plans announced for WMU Royal Ambassadors partnership". NAMB News Blog. NAMB. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  • "Kids' Clubs". Parenting. About.com. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  1. ^ a b c d e f Coghlan, Heidi. "Frontier Girls -- A New Scouting Organization for Girls". Parenting: Kids' Club. About.com. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Coghlan, Heidi. "Special Frontier Girl Awards". Parenting: Kids' Club. About.com. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  1. ^ "World Federation of Independent Scouts (WFIS)". International Scouting. Troop 97 BSA. Retrieved January 11, 2014. 
  2. ^ 187. United States. Page 6. "All Scouting Associations in Every Country (continued)". International Scouting. Troop 97 BSA. Retrieved January 11, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Scout-like and Scouting Alternative Organizations". International Scouting. Troop 97 BSA. Retrieved January 11, 2014.