Constitutional organizations of Thailand
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The constitutional organizations of Thailand (Thai: องค์กรตามรัฐธรรมนูญ; rtgs: ongkon tam ratthathammanun) are executive branch agencies of the Government of Thailand, that exist and function outside of the Cabinet Ministries of Thailand.
Most of these agencies were constitutionally mandated and were created in the 1997 Constitution of Thailand, they were re-affirmed in the 2007 Constitution of Thailand. Apart from their constitutional requirements, the agencies are governed by statute laws and regulations.
Before 1997 the Cabinet ministries were the primary operating units of the executive branch. However, the need for independent agencies with regulatory powers were needed as a check on corrupt elected officials and civil servants. This and the desire to include the electorate in the political process prompted the framers of the 1997 Constitution of Thailand to create many new "constitutional organs". These agencies are not considered part of the executive, although they carry executive power and members of these agencies are civil servants; they are in fact closer to the Judicial branch. This is due to their semi-judicial nature, such as decisions which carry and force of law and their impartial nature.
Most of the agencies use the word "Commission" in their titles, and are run by a committee of appointed officials. Appointed by the King of Thailand with the advice of a selection committee (made up of legislative and judicial members) or the Senate of Thailand. Very little of the initial structure of these agencies were changed with the promulgation of the 2007 Constitution of Thailand.
Example of agencies
The Election Commission of Thailand (Thai: คณะกรรมการการเลือกตั้ง; rtgs: Khana Kammakan Kan Lueak Tang; Abrv: EC) regulates and certifies elections, at every level in the Kingdom of Thailand. It has wide ranging powers to disqualify or call new elections for elections in which they suspect of finding irregularities. The Commission have powers of investigation, authority to prosecute crimes involved with elections and authority over the regulation of political parties.
The Office of the Ombudsmen Thailand or Ombudsmen of the National Assembly (Thai: ผู้ตรวจการแผ่นดินของรัฐสภา; rtgs: Phu Truat Kan Phaen Din Khong Ratthasapha) is an agency responsible for the investigation of complaints made by citizens against the government. The Ombudsmen themselves are appointed by the "advice" of the Senate to the King.
The State Audit Commission of Thailand (Thai: คณะกรรมการการตรวจเงินแผ่นดิน; rtgs: Khana Kammakn Kan Truat Ngoen Phaen Din; Abrv: SAC) led by the Auditor General the commission examines the accounts and finances of the government to ensure transparency and to prosecute suspected criminal activities in the realm of finances.
The National Counter-Corruption Commission of Thailand (Thai: คณะกรรมการป้องกันและปราบปรามการทุจริตแห่งชาติ; rtgs: Khana Kammakan Kan Pong Kan Lae Prap Pram Kan Thutcharit Haeng Chat; Abrv: NCCC) is responsible for the ethical conduct, financially or otherwise of elected politicians and civil servants. The commission have both powers of investigation and prosecution.
The National Human Rights Commission (Thai: คณะกรรมการสิทธิมนุษยชนแห่งชาติ; rtgs: Khana Kammakn Kan Sitthi Manutsayachon Haeng Chat; Abrv: NHRC) investigates complaints by citizen of human right abuses or the miscarriage of justice contrary to the Constitution.
- List of Cabinet Ministries of Thailand
- Cabinet of Thailand
- Elections in Thailand
- Government of Thailand
- Politics of Thailand
- State agencies of Thailand
- 1997 Constitution of Thailand
- Election Commission (Thai)[dead link]
- Office of the Ombudsman Thailand
- Office of the Auditor General Thailand
- Office of the National Human Rights Commission of Thailand