India–Pakistan cricket rivalry
|Teams involved|| India
|First contested||16–19 October 1952 (Test)
1 October 1978 (ODI)
14 September 2007 (T20I)
|Number of meetings||Tests:60
|Most wins||Tests: Pakistan (12)
ODIs: Pakistan (72)
T20Is: India (4)
|Most recent meeting||2015 Cricket World Cup
India beat Pakistan by 76 runs
15 February 2015
Adelaide Oval, Adelaide
|Next meeting||December 2015
United Arab Emirates
The India–Pakistan cricket rivalry is one of the most intense sports rivalries in the world. An India-Pakistan cricket match has been estimated to attract up to one billion viewers, according to TV ratings firms and various other reports. The 2011 World Cup semifinal between the two teams attracted around 988 million television viewers.
The arch-rival relations between the two nations, resulting from the extensive communal violence and conflict that marked the Partition of British India into India and Pakistan in 1947 and the subsequent Kashmir conflict, laid the foundations for the emergence of an intense sporting rivalry between the two nations who had erstwhile shared a common cricketing heritage. The first Test series between the two teams took place in 1951-52, when Pakistan toured India. India toured Pakistan for the first time in 1954-55. Between 1962 and 1977, no cricket was played between the two countries owing to two major wars in 1965 and 1971. The 1999 Kargil War and the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks have also interrupted cricketing ties between the two nations.
The growth of large expatriate populations from India and Pakistan across the world led to neutral states like the United Arab Emirates and Canada hosting several bilateral and multilateral ODI series involving the two teams. Players in both teams routinely face intense pressure to win, and are threatened by extreme reactions in defeat. Extreme fan reactions to defeats in key matches such as in the ICC Cricket World Cup have been recorded, with a limited degree of violence and public disturbances. At the same time, India-Pakistan cricket matches have also offered opportunities for cricket diplomacy as a means to improve relations between the two countries by allowing heads of state to exchange visits and cricket followers from either country to travel to the other to watch the matches.
- 1 History
- 2 Matches
- 3 Head-to-head statistics
- 4 List of Test series
- 5 List of ODI series
- 6 Test records
- 7 ODI records
- 8 Players who have played for both teams
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The partition of British India in 1947 that led to the creation of an independent India and Pakistan was characterised by intense and bloody conflict between Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs that left one million people dead. An estimated ten million people migrated to the nation of their choice. The bloody legacy of the partition and the subsequent emergence of territorial disputes and wars being fought over them have all added to the growth of intense rivalries in field hockey, association football but especially in cricket, which had been developed during British colonial rule and is the most popular sport in both nations. Many of the players in the first post-independence teams of India and Pakistan had played together as team-mates in regional and local tournaments.
Pakistan became a permanent member of the International Cricket Council in 1948, and their tour of India was their first in Test cricket history. They lost the first Test in Delhi to India, but won the second Test in Lucknow, which led to an angry reaction from the home crowd against the Indian players. India clinched the Test series after winning the third Test in Bombay, but the intense pressure affected the players of both teams to the point that they pursued mainly defensive tactics that led to drawn matches and whole series without a victor. When India toured Pakistan in 1955, thousands of Indian fans were granted visas to go to the Pakistani city of Lahore to watch the Test match. But both the 1955 series and Pakistan's tour of India in 1961 ended in a drawn series with no test yielding a winner or loser. Complaints about the fairness of umpires also became routine. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 and subsequent Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 put a hold on India-Pakistan cricket that lasted till 1978, when India toured Pakistan and cricket resumed for a brief period. In the post-1971 period, politics became a direct factor in the holding of cricketing events. India has suspended cricketing ties with Pakistan several times following terrorist attacks or other hostilities. The resumption of cricketing ties in 1978 came with the emergence of heads of government in both India and Pakistan who were not directly connected with the 1971 war and coincided with their formal initiatives to normalize bilateral relations. Shortly after a period of belligerency during the Operation Brasstacks war games, Pakistani president Zia-ul-Haq was invited to watch the India-Pakistan test match being played in the Indian city of Jaipur. This form of cricket diplomacy has occurred several times afterwards as well. Pakistan toured India in 1979, but an Indian tour of Pakistan in 1984 was cancelled mid-way due to the assassination of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. In the late 1980s and for most of the 1990s, India and Pakistan squared-off on neutral venues such as Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates and in Toronto, Canada, where large audiences of expatriates regularly watched them play. The series between the teams in Canada in the 1990s and early 2000s were officially known as the "Friendship Cup". The rise of multinational competitions such as the Cricket World Cup, ICC World Twenty20 the Austral-Asia Cup and the Asia Cup led to more regular albeit briefer contests.
In 1999, immediately following Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee's historic visit to Pakistan, the Pakistani team toured India for Test matches and played in an ODI competition before the Kargil War again put bilateral relations in deep freeze. Prime Minister Vajpayee's peace initiative of 2003 led to India touring Pakistan after a gap of almost 15 years. Subsequent exchange tours were held in 2005 and 2006 before the 2008 Mumbai attacks led to the suspension of India's planned tour of Pakistan in 2009 and all future engagements in Pakistan. India was scheduled to begin the tour of Pakistan from 13 January to 19 February 2009, but was cancelled because of the tension existing between the two countries after the terrorist attacks in Mumbai.
The rise of domestic terrorism led to Pakistan not hosting international cricket since the Sri Lankan team was attacked in 2009, and Pakistan was stripped of its co-host status for the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011. India and Pakistan qualified for the first semi-final in Chandigarh, India, and the Indian government invited the Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani to watch the match along with his Indian counterpart, Dr. Manmohan Singh. Bilateral ties finally resumed when BCCI invited the Pakistan national team to tour India for 3 ODIs and 2 T20s in December 2012. The three ODIs were held in New Delhi, Kolkata and Chennai with Ahmedabad and Bangalore hosted two Twenty20 fixtures.
In March 2013, 66 Kashmiri students studying at Swami Vivekanand Subharti University in Meerut, India were expelled and briefly threatened with sedition charges because they cheered for the Pakistani cricket team during a televised match against India at the Asia Cup.
The first ever test match between India and Pakistan was played at Delhi from 16–19 October 1952. It was a four day test, India required just three days to beat Pakistan by an innings and 70 runs. India won the 5-match series 2–1. The following two test series of 5 tests each were draws. Pakistan's first series win against India came after 26 years, in the 1978–79 series.
India has always beaten Pakistan in World Cup clashes. Pakistan leads India in the number of wins in Tests (12–9) and One Day Internationals (72–51). While India leads Pakistan in T20s (4-1).
|Won by Pakistan||12||72||1|
|Won by India||9||51||4|
† The 2007 ICC World Twenty20 match between the teams ended in a tie, but India was awarded the points as a result of a Bowl Out. The match result was officially recorded as a tie.
|Cricket World Cup||2||1|
Other tournaments won
|Under-19 World Cup||3||2|
|Asian Test Championship||0||1|
|Women's World Twenty20||0||0|
|Women's Asia Cup||5||0|
List of Test series
|Series||Years||Host||First match||Tests||IND||PAK||Drawn/No Result||Winner|
|1||1952–53||India||16 October 1952||5||2||1||2||India|
|2||1954–55||Pakistan||1 January 1955||5||0||0||5||Drawn|
|3||1960–61||India||2 December 1960||5||0||0||5||Drawn|
|4||1978–79||Pakistan||16 October 1978||3||0||2||1||Pakistan|
|5||1979–80||India||21 November 1979||6||2||0||4||India|
|6||1982–83||Pakistan||10 December 1982||6||0||3||3||Pakistan|
|7||1983–84||India||14 September 1983||3||0||0||3||Drawn|
|8||1984–85||Pakistan||17 October 1984||2||0||0||2||Drawn|
|9||1986–87||India||3 February 1987||5||0||1||4||Pakistan|
|10||1989–90||Pakistan||15 November 1989||4||0||0||4||Drawn|
|11||1998–99||India||28 January 1999||2||1||1||0||Drawn|
|12||1998–99||India||20 February 1999||1||0||1||0||Pakistan|
|13||2003–04||Pakistan||28 March 2004||3||2||1||0||India|
|14||2004–05||India||8 March 2005||3||1||1||1||Drawn|
|15||2005–06||Pakistan||13 January 2006||3||0||1||2||Pakistan|
|16||2007–08||India||22 November 2007||3||1||0||2||India|
List of ODI series
|Series||Years||Host||First match||ODIs||IND||PAK||Tie/No Result||Winner|
|1||1978–79||Pakistan||1 October 1978||3||1||2||0||Pakistan|
|2||1982–83||Pakistan||3 December 1982||4||1||3||0||Pakistan|
|3||1983–84||India||10 September 1983||2||2||0||0||India|
|4||1984–85||Pakistan||12 October 1984||2||0||1||1||Pakistan|
|5||1986–87||India||27 January 1987||6||1||5||0||Pakistan|
|6||1989–90||Pakistan||16 December 1989||3||0||2||1||Pakistan|
|7||1996||Canada||16 September 1996||5||2||3||0||Pakistan|
|8||1997||Canada||13 September 1997||5||4||1||0||India|
|9||1997–98||Pakistan||28 September 1997||3||1||2||0||Pakistan|
|10||1998||Canada||12 September 1998||5||1||4||0||Pakistan|
|11||2003–04||Pakistan||13 March 2004||5||3||2||0||India|
|12||2004–05||India||13 November 2004||1||0||1||0||Pakistan|
|13||2004–05||India||2 April 2005||6||2||4||0||Pakistan|
|14||2005–06||Pakistan||6 February 2006||5||4||1||0||India|
|15||2005–06||UAE||18 April 2006||2||1||1||0||Drawn|
|16||2007–08||India||5 November 2007||5||3||2||0||India|
|17||2012–13||India||30 December 2012||3||1||2||0||Pakistan|
Series involving other teams
The table contains details and results only of matches played between India and Pakistan in the respective series and not matches with other teams involved in the series.
|S. No.||Series/Tournament||Host||Other Teams||First Match||ODIs||IND||PAK||Tie/No Result||Series Winner|
|2||Rothmans Four-Nations Cup 1984–85||UAE||Australia, England||22 March 1985||1||1||0||0||India|
|3||World Championship of Cricket 1984–85||Australia||Australia, England, New Zealand, Sri Lanka and West Indies||12 October 1984||2||2||0||0||India|
|4||Rothmans Sharjah Cup 1985–86||UAE||West Indies||17 November 1985||1||0||1||0||West Indies|
|5||Austral-Asia Cup 1986||UAE||Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka||18 April 1986||1||0||1||0||Pakistan|
|6||Champions Trophy 1986–87||UAE||Sri Lanka, West Indies||5 December 1986||1||0||1||0||West Indies|
|7||Sharjah Cup 1986–87||UAE||Australia, England||10 April 1987||1||0||1||0||England|
|8||Champions Trophy 1988–89||UAE||West Indies||19 October 1988||1||0||1||0||West Indies|
|10||Champions Trophy 1989–90||UAE||West Indies||15 October 1989||2||0||2||0||Pakistan|
|11||Nehru Cup) 1989–90||India||Australia, England, Sri Lanka, West Indies||28 October 1989||1||0||1||0||Pakistan|
|12||Austral-Asia Cup 1990||UAE||Australia, Bangladesh, New Zealand, Sri Lanka||27 April 1990||1||0||1||0||Pakistan|
|13||Wills Trophy 1991–92||UAE||West Indies||18 October 1991||3||1||2||0||Pakistan|
|14||Austral-Asia Cup 1994||UAE||Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, UAE||15 April 1994||2||0||2||0||Pakistan|
|15||Singer World Series 1994||Sri Lanka||Australia, Sri Lanka||15 April 1994||1†||0||0||0||India|
|17||Singer Cup 1995–96||Singapore||Sri Lanka||5 April 1996||1||0||1||0||Pakistan|
|18||1996 Pepsi Sharjah Cup||UAE||South Africa||12 April 1996||2||1||1||0||South Africa|
|19||Pepsi Independence Cup 1997||India||New Zealand, Sri Lanka||21 May 1997||1||0||1||0||Sri Lanka|
|21||Champions Trophy 1997–98||UAE||England, West Indies||14 December 1997||1||0||1||0||England|
|22||Silver Jubilee Independence Cup 1997–98||Bangladesh||Bangladesh||11 January 1998||4||3||1||0||India|
|23||Pepsi Cup 1998–99||India||Sri Lanka||24 March 1999||3||0||3||0||Pakistan|
|24||Coca-Cola Cup 1998–99||UAE||England||8 April 1999||3||1||2||0||Pakistan|
|25||Carlton & United Series 1999-00||Australia||Australia||10 January 2000||4||1||3||0||Australia|
|26||Coca-Cola Cup 1999-00||UAE||South Africa||23 March 2000||2||1||1||0||Pakistan|
|28||Kitply Cup 2008||Bangladesh||Bangladesh||10 June 2008||2||1||1||0||Pakistan|
|679-7 d||Pakistan||Gaddafi Stadium||2005/06|
|675-5 d||India||Multan Cricket Stadium||2003/04|
Last updated: 27 November 2011
|116||Pakistan||M. Chinnaswamy Stadium||1986/87|
|126||India||Feroz Shah Kotla||1979/80|
|145||India||M. Chinnaswamy Stadium||1986/87|
|India||National Stadium, Karachi||1954/55|
Last updated: 27 November 2011
|Innings and 131 runs||India||Rawalpindi Cricket Stadium||2003/04|
|Innings and 119 runs||Pakistan||Niaz Stadium||1982/83|
|Innings and 86 runs||Pakistan||National Stadium, Karachi||1982/83|
|Innings and 70 runs||India||Feroz Shah Kotla||1952/53|
|Innings and 52 runs||India||Multan Cricket Stadium||2003/04|
Last updated: 27 November 2011
|341 runs||Pakistan||National Stadium, Karachi||2005/06|
|212 runs||India||Feroz Shah Kotla||1998/99|
|195 runs||India||Eden Gardens||2004/05|
|168 runs||Pakistan||M. Chinnaswamy Stadium||2004–05|
|131 runs||India||Wankhede Stadium||1979/80|
Last updated: 27 November 2011
- Smallest victories
- Pakistan – Pakistan beat India by 12 runs at MA Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai on 28–31 January 1999.
- India – India beat Pakistan by 131 runs at Mumbai on 16–20 December 1979.
- Most extras conceded in an innings
- Pakistan – 76 extras at Bangalore on 8–12 December 2007.
- India – 55 extras at Faisalabad on 23–28 November 1989.
- Highest score in an innings
- Virender Sehwag (India) – 309 at Multan Cricket Stadium, Multan, on 28 March 2004
- Javed Miandad (Pakistan) – 280* at Niaz Stadium, Hyderabad (Pakistan) on 14 January 1983
- Best bowling figures in an innings
- Anil Kumble (India) – 10/74 at Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi on 7 February 1999
- Imran Khan (Pakistan) – 8/60 at National Stadium, Karachi on 27 December 1982
- Best bowling figures in a match
- Anil Kumble (India) – 14/149 at Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi on 4–7 February 1999
- Fazal Mahmood (Pakistan) – 12/94 at University Ground, Lucknow on 23–26 October 1952
- Most runs conceded in an innings
- Kapil Dev (India) – 220 runs at Faisalabad on 3 January 1983.
- Saqlain Mushtaq (Pakistan) – 204 runs at Multan Cricket Stadium, Multan on 28 March – 1 April 2004.
- Highest wicket taker in India vs Pakistan matches
- Highest innings totals
|1||356–9 (50 overs)||India||Dr. Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy ACA-VDCA Cricket Stadium, Visakhapatnam||5 April 2005|
|2||349–7 (50 overs)||India||National Stadium, Karachi||13 March 2004|
|3||344–8 (50 overs)||Pakistan||National Stadium, Karachi||13 March 2004|
|4||330–4 (47.5 overs)||India||Sher-e-Bangla Cricket Stadium||18 March 2012|
|5||330–8 (50 overs)||India||Sher-e-Bangla Cricket Stadium||10 June 2008|
|Source: Cricinfo.com. Last updated 18 March 2012.|
- Lowest innings score
|1||79 (34.2 overs)||India||Jinnah Stadium Sialkot||13 October 1978|
|2||87 (32.5 overs)||Pakistan||Sharjah Cricket Association Stadium||22 March 1985|
|3||112 (30.2 overs)||India||Gaddafi Stadium||22 December 1989|
|4||116 (45.0 overs)||Pakistan||Toronto Cricket, Skating and Curling Club||14 September 1997|
|5||125 (45.0 overs)||India||Sharjah Cricket Association Stadium||16 April 1999|
|Source: Cricinfo.com. Last updated 18 March 2012.|
|2,474 (66 innings)||Sachin Tendulkar||1989–2012|
|2,403 (64 innings)||Inzamam-ul-Haq||1992–2006|
|2,002 (48 innings)||Saeed Anwar||1989–2003|
|2,005 (55 innings)||Rahul Dravid||1996–2012|
|1,657 (59 innings)||Mohammad Azharuddin||1985–2000|
Last updated: 3 January 2013
|194||Saeed Anwar||M. A. Chidambaram Stadium||21 May 1997|
|183||Virat Kohli||Sher-e-Bangla Cricket Stadium||18 March 2012|
|148||Mahendra Singh Dhoni||ACA-VDCA Stadium||5 April 2005|
|143||Shoaib Malik||R. Premadasa Stadium||25 July 2004|
|141||Sachin Tendulkar||Rawalpindi Cricket Stadium||16 March 2004|
Last updated: 18 March 2012
- Highest partnerships
- India – 231 between Sachin Tendulkar & Navjot Singh Sidhu at Sharjah Cricket Association Stadium, on 15 April 1996
- Pakistan – 230 between Saeed Anwar & Ijaz Ahmed at Bangabandhu National Stadium, Dhaka on 18 January 1998
- Best bowling figures
- Biggest victory margins
- Pakistan – 159 run victory at Delhi on 17 April 2005
- Pakistan – 303/8 (50.0 overs)
- India – 144 (37 overs)
- India – 140 run victory at Dhaka on 10 June 2008
- India – 330/9 (50.0 overs)
- Pakistan – 190 (35.4 overs)
- Smallest victory margins
- Pakistan – 4 runs at Sharjah on 23 October 1993
- Pakistan – 257/8 (50.0 overs)
- India – 253/7 (50.0 overs)
- India – won because they lost fewer wickets after scores were tied, Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium, Hyderabad, India on 20 March 1987
- India – 212/6 (44.0 overs maximum)
- Pakistan – 212/7 (44.0 overs maximum)
- Most extras in one ODI
- India – 41 extras at Punjab Cricket Association Stadium, Mohali on 8 November 2007
- Pakistan – 31 extras at Toronto Cricket, Skating and Curling Club on 13 September
- Most catches by an individual in an innings
- India – 4 catches
- Pakistan – 4 catches
Last updated: 3 January 2013
- ODI matches summary (1978-2014)
- Total 127 Matches – 51 won by India, 72 won by Pakistan, No Result 4
- 30 matches in India – 11 won by India, 19 won by Pakistan
- 27 matches in Pakistan – 11 won by India, 14 won by Pakistan, No Result 2
- 70 matches in other countries – 29 won by India, 39 won by Pakistan, No Result 2
Players who have played for both teams
After the partition in 1947, Pakistan emerged to play cricket. But India had already been playing cricket matches pre-independence. Three players have played for Pakistan after appearing for India. They are:
- Amir Elahi – India (one test vs. Australia at Sydney in 1947), Pakistan (1952–53)
- Gul Mohammad – India (1946–55), Pakistan (one test vs. Australia at Karachi in 1956)
- Abdul Hafeez Kardar – India (1946–48), Pakistan (1948–58)
Although Pakistan was created in 1947, Gul Mohammad continued to represent India until 1955, and played for India against Pakistan in Pakistan's first tour of India in 1951-52.
- Brett, Oliver (9 March 2004). "Cricket's most intense rivalry". BBC News.
- Richards, Huw (8 March 2008). "Cricket: Passion and politics mix as India faces Pakistan". The New York Times.
- "Billion eyes on most watched cricket match in history". The Australian. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "India vs Pakistan World Cup Clash Set to Attract Record Viewers". NDTV. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "India vs Pakistan World Cup match tipped for TV audience of one billion". stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- Stats Guru Summary of Bilateral series between India and Pakistan
- Herman, Steve (18 December 2008). "India Cancels Cricket Tour of Pakistan". VOA News (Voice of America). Retrieved 3 January 2009.
- "Cricket spirit: Pakistan to tour India in December". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- "India to play six bilateral series against Pakistan in next eight years". Patrika Group (in Hindi). Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- Cricinfo – Records – India v Pakistan – Test matches – Result summary
- Cricinfo – Records – India v Pakistan – One-Day Internationals – Result summary
- Cricinfo – Records – India v Pakistan – Twenty20 Internationals – Result summary
- "Records / India v Pakistan / Test matches / Highest totals". Cricinfo. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- "Records / India v Pakistan / Test matches / Lowest totals". Cricinfo. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- "Records / India v Pakistan / Test matches / Largest victories". Cricinfo. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- "Records / India v Pakistan / One-Day Internationals / Most runs". Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- "Records / India v Pakistan / One-Day Internationals / High scores". Cricinfo. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- "Records / India v Pakistan / One-Day Internationals / Most wickets". Cricinfo. Retrieved 3 January 2013.