10th Indian Infantry Division

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For the World War I formation, see 10th Indian Division.
Indian 10th Infantry Division
Active 1941 - 1947
1947 -
Country British India
Branch British Indian Army
Type Infantry
Engagements

World War II:

Battle of Lahore
Battle honours North Africa
Italy
Commanders
Notable
commanders
William Slim
Wilfred Lloyd
Denys Reid
Insignia
Identification
symbol
10 Div Badge

The Indian 10th Infantry Division was a war formed Infantry division of the Indian Army during World War II. In four years, the division traveled over 4,000 miles (6,400 km) from Tehran to Trieste, fought three little wars, and fought two great campaigns: Anglo-Iraqi War, Invasion of Syria-Lebanon, Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, North African Campaign, and Italian Campaign.

History[edit]

World War II[edit]

The Indian 10th Infantry Division was formed in Iraq in early 1941 under Major-General W.A.K. Fraser. Command was passed in May 1941 to Major-General William "Bill" Slim when Fraser fell ill.

As part of Iraqforce, the division first fought in Iraq, in Syria, and in Iran against forces potentially barring the road from Europe to India.

We had scrambled thought skirmishes of the Iraq rebellion, been blooded, but not too deeply, against the French in Syria, and enjoyed the unrestrainedly opéra bouffe of the invasion of Persia. We had bought our beer in Haifa and drunk it on the shores of the Caspian. We could move, we could fight, and we had begun to build up that most valuable of all assets a tradition of success. We had a good soldierly conceit of ourselves. Now in March 1942, in spite of dust storms....it was stimulating to be in what we all felt was a critical spot, waiting for the threatened German invasion of Turkey.

— Slim – Defeat into Victory[1]

In March 1942 command of the division passed from Major-General Slim to Major-General T.W. "Pete" Rees when Slim was ordered to India to take command of Burma Corps, the kernel that would eventually become the Fourteenth Army.[2]

The division then moved on to North Africa for the battle for Libya. Initially the division was committed piecemeal with units involved El Adem and Sidi Rezegh during the Battle of Gazala. In June the division, with 2nd Free French Brigade under command, was ordered by William Gott, the XIII Corps commander, to hold a position near the Egyptian border with Libya for 72 hours during the Eighth Army's retreat to El Alamein. Rees responded that the division had only just concentrated and that defensive works were as yet inadequate. He believed therefore that the division was unlikely to be able to withstand a full-scale attack from Rommel. Gott immediately visited Rees and relieved him of command of the division, telling him he lacked resolution.[3] Command passed to Major-General John Nichols and as Rees had foretold, the division was overrun at the Mersa Matruh defenses. Rees was posted to command Indian 19th Infantry Division in Burma.

The division then went to Cyprus for regrouping and hill training under Major-General Alan Bruce Blaxland and then to Iraq to join Tenth Army, part of Paiforce. In July 1943, Major-General Wilfrid Lloyd took command when Blaxland was promoted and in January 1944, command passed to Major-General Denys Reid when Lloyd was killed in an air crash. Reid remained in command until the end of British involvement in the division in 1947.

After nearly a year of relative inactivity and training, the Indian 10th Infantry Division was sent in March 1944 to Italy to join Eighth Army on the Adriatic front. The division fought the rest of the Italian Campaign, facing hard fighting northwards through central Italy with the Eighth Army. Numerous mountain battles and river crossings followed with Operation Olive on the Gothic Line and then the spring 1945 offensive. The division earned many battle honours and decorations and suffered many casualties before final victory in Italy in May 1945. Security tasks on the Yugoslav border around Trieste completed the Division's war service.

Division Formation in World War II[edit]

General Officers Commanding:

  • Major-General W.A.K. Fraser (January 1941 to May 1941)
  • Major-General William Slim (May 1941 to March 1942)
  • Major-General T.W. Rees (March 1942 to June 1942)
  • Major-General J.S. Nichols (June 1942 to July 1942)
  • Major-General A.B. Blaxland (July 1942 to July 1943)
  • Major-General W.L. Lloyd (July 1943 to January 1944)
  • Major-General D.W. Reid (January 1944 to end of war)

Division troops[edit]

Commanders Royal Artillery: Brigadier R.P. Waller (to August 1942); Brigadier W.R. Goodman March 1943 onwards)
  • 10th Indian Division Signals

10th Indian Infantry Brigade (from September 1942)[edit]

Officers commanding:
Brigadier William Slim (September 1939 to January 1941)
Lieutenant-Colonel B.C. Fletcher (January 1941 to March 1941)
Brigadier T.W. Rees (March 1941 to March 1942)
Brigadier C.H. Boucher (March 1942 to June 1942)
Brigadier A.W.W. Holworthy (July 1942 to October 1942)
Brigadier J.A. Finlay (October 1942 to February 1944)
Brigadier T.N. Smith (February 1944 to end of war)

20th Indian Infantry Brigade[edit]

Officers commanding:
Brigadier D. Powell (September 1940 to March 1942)
Brigadier L.E. MacGregor (March 1942 to June 1943)
Brigadier J.B. MacDonald (June 1943 to end of war)

21st Indian Infantry Brigade (until June 1942)[edit]

Officers commanding:
Brigadier C.J. Weld (Sep 1940 - May 1942)
Brigadier J.J. Purves (May 1942 - Mar 1943)
Brigadier B.S. Mould (Mar 1943 - Aug 1945)

25th Indian Infantry Brigade[edit]

Officers commanding:
Brigadier R.G. Mountain (February 1941 to July 1942)
Brigadier A.E. Arderne (July 1942 onwards)

43rd Independent Gurkha Infantry Brigade[edit]

From 6 October 1944

Support Units[edit]

  • Medical Services
    • I.M.S
    • R.A.M.C
    • I.M.D
    • I.H.C
    • I.A.M.C
    • 14th, 21st and 30th Indian Field Ambulances
  • 10th Indian Division Provost Unit
  • Indian Army Ordnance Corps
    • 10th Indian Division Ordnance Field Park
  • Indian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers
    • 125th, 126th and 127th Infantry Workshop Companies
    • 10th Indian Division Recovery Company

Assigned brigades[edit]

All theses brigades were assigned or attached to the division at some time during World War II

Sources[edit]

  • Mason, Philip (1982-06-09). The Indian Divisions Memorial, 1939-1945, Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. Wellingborough: Skelton's Press. 
  • Orgill, Douglas (1967). The Gothic Line: The Autumn Campaign in Italy. London: Heinemann. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Slim William. Defeat into Victory p. 3
  2. ^ Slim William. Defeat into Victory p. 19
  3. ^ Mead (2007), p. 373
  4. ^ "17 Division units". Order of Battle. Retrieved 2009-10-22.