Indian Foreign Service
||This article or section is in the process of an expansion or major restructuring. You are welcome to assist in its construction by editing it as well. If this article or section|
|Formed||October 9, 1946|
|Headquarters||South Block, New Delhi|
|Training Ground||Foreign Service Institute, New Delhi|
|Controlling Authority||Ministry of External Affairs|
|Legal personality||Governmental: Government Services|
Trade and Cultural Relations
|Preceding Service||Indian Civil Service(ICS)|
|Cadre Size||Approximately 750 Officers|
|Foreign Secretary||Sujatha Singh(Current)|
The Indian Foreign Service (Hindi: भारतीय विदेश सेवा) (abbreviated as IFS) is a premier Indian Civil Service entrusted to conduct diplomacy and manage foreign relations of the Republic of India. It is the body of career diplomats and representational officers working under the Ministry of External Affairs of Government of India. Foreign Secretary of India is the administrative head of the Indian Foreign Service.
IFS was created by the Government of India in October 1946 but its roots can be traced back to the British Raj when the Foreign Department was created to conduct business with the "Foreign European Powers".. IFS Day is celebrated on October 9 every year since 2011 to commemorate the day the Indian Cabinet created the IFS.
Officers of the IFS are recruited by the Government of India on the recommendation of the Union Public Service Commission(UPSC). Fresh recruits to the IFS are trained at the Foreign Service Institute (FSI) after a brief foundation course with the two All India Services - IAS and IPS at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie.
IFS officers represent India at various diplomatic missions around the world. In addition, they serve at the headquarters of the Ministry of External affairs in Delhi and the Prime Minister's Office. They also head the Regional Passport Offices throughout the country and hold positions in the President's Secretariat and the ministries of Defense, Overseas and Indian Affairs, Commerce and Industry, Petroleum etc. and the Department of Atomic Energy.
On 13 September 1783, the board of directors of the East India Company passed a resolution at Fort William, Calcutta (now Kolkata), to create a department, which could help "relieve the pressure" on the Warren Hastings administration in conducting its "secret and political business." Although established by the Company, the Indian Foreign Department conducted business with foreign European powers. From the very beginning, a distinction was maintained between the foreign and political functions of the Foreign Department; relations with all "Asiatic powers" (including native princely states) were treated as political, while relations with European powers were treated as foreign.
In 1843, the Governor-General of India, Edward Law, 1st Earl of Ellenborough carried out administrative reforms, organizing the Secretariat of the Government into four departments: Foreign, Home, Finance, and Military. Each was headed by a secretary-level officer. The Foreign Department Secretary was entrusted with the "conduct of all correspondence belonging to the external and internal diplomatic relations of the government."
The Government of India Act 1935 attempted to delineate more clearly functions of the foreign and political wings of the Foreign Department, it was soon realized that it was administratively imperative to completely bifurcate the department. Consequently, the External Affairs Department was set up separately under the direct charge of the Governor-General.
The idea of establishing a separate diplomatic service to handle the external activities of the government of India originated from a note dated 30 September 1944, recorded by Lieutenant-General T. J. Hutton, the Secretary of the Planning and Development Department. When this note was referred to the Department of External Affairs for comments, Olaf Caroe, the Foreign Secretary, recorded his comments in an exhaustive note detailing the scope, composition and functions of the proposed service. Caroe pointed out that as India emerged as autonomous, it was imperative to build up a system of representation abroad that would be in complete harmony with the objectives of the future government.
On 9 October 1946, on the eve of Indian independence, the Indian government established the Indian Foreign Service for India's diplomatic, consular and commercial representation overseas. With independence, there was a near-complete transition of the Foreign and Political Department into what then became the new Ministry of External Affairs and Commonwealth Relations.
In 1948, the first group of Indian Foreign Service officers recruited under the combined Civil Services Examination administered by the Union Public Service Commission joined the service. This exam is still used to select new IFS officers.
The Civil Services Examination is used for recruitment for the IAS, IPS and IRS. It has three stages - a preliminary exam, a main exam, and an interview - and is known for being extremely challenging.
The entire selection process lasts for about 12 months. About 800 to 900 candidates are finally selected each year out of the nearly 7-8 lakh, but only a rank among toppers guarantees an IFS selection— an acceptance rate of 0.002 percent.
In recent years, the intake into the Indian Foreign Service has averaged around 20 persons annually. The present cadre strength of the service stands at approximately 600 officers manning around 179 Indian missions and posts abroad and the various posts in the Ministry of External Affairs at home. The Times of India reported a shortage of Indian diplomats.
On acceptance to the Foreign Service, new entrants undergo significant training. The entrants undergo a probationary period (and are referred to as probationers). Training begins at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration in Mussoorie, where members of many elite Indian civil service organizations are trained.
After completing the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, the probationers join the Foreign Service Institute in New Delhi for more training as well as attachments with different government bodies and tours both in India and abroad. The entire training programme is for a period of 36 months.
At the conclusion of the training programme the officer is assigned a compulsory foreign language (CFL). After a brief period of desk attachment in the Ministry of External Affairs, the officer is posted to an Indian diplomatic mission abroad where the CFL is the native language. There the officer undergoes language training and is expected to develop proficiency in his CFL and pass an examination before being allowed to continue in the service.
Career and rank structure
- At an embassy:
- At the Ministry of External Affairs
- Under Secretary
- Deputy Secretary
- Joint Secretary
- Additional Secretary
- Abhayy Kumar
- Dammu Ravi
- Brajesh Mishra
- Jyotindra Nath Dixit
- Devyani Khobragade
- K. Natwar Singh
- K. R. Narayanan
- Mani Shankar Aiyar
- Meira Kumar
- Mohammad Hamid Ansari
- Navtej Sarna
- Nirupama Rao
- Romesh Bhandari
- Shivshankar Menon
- Shyam Saran
- Subrahmanyam Jaishankar
- Sujatha Singh
- Triloki Nath Kaul
- Vikas Swarup
- Ramachandran, Sudha. "The Indian Foreign Service: Worthy of an Emerging Power?". The Diplomat. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- Bagchi, Indrani. "IFS officials building their own traditions". Times of India. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Indian Foreign Service". Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Indian Foreign Service: A Backgrounder
- "The Indian Foreign Service:Then & Now", Indian Foreign Affairs Journal: Vol. 2, No. 2, April–June 2007
- Crisis point: Not enough diplomats in India