Indian Institutes of Management
The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are a group of 13 public, autonomous institutes of management education and research in India. The establishment of IIMs was initiated by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, based on the recommendation of the Planning Commission. They were established with the objective of providing quality management education. The IIMs primarily offer postgraduate, doctoral and executive education programmes.
IIMs are registered as societies under the Indian Societies Registration Act. Each IIM is autonomous and exercises independent control over its day-to-day operations. However, the administration of all IIMs and the overall strategy of IIMs is overseen by the IIM council. The IIM Council is headed by India's Minister of Human Resource Development and consists of the chairpersons and directors of all IIMs and senior officials from the Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Government of India.
The two-year Post Graduate Programme in Management (PGP), offering the Post Graduate Diploma in Management (PGDM), is the flagship programme across all IIMs. Some IIMs also offer a one-year Post Graduate Programme for experienced executives. Some IIMs offer the Fellow Programme in Management (FPM), a doctoral programme. The Post Graduate Diploma and Fellowship are considered to be equivalent to MBA and PhD respectively. Many IIMs also offer short-term executive education/EMBA courses and part-time programmes.
Indian Institute of Management Calcutta was the first IIM to be set up, on 13 November 1961. Its main campus is located in Joka, on the outskirts of Kolkata. In addition to the regular PGDM programme, it offers a second two-year full-time postgraduate programme called the Post Graduate Diploma in Computer aided Management (PGDCM). As a member of Global Alliance in Management Education (CEMS), it offers the CEMS Master's in International Management (CEMS MIM) degree to its PGDM and PGDCM students. It also offers a specialized one-year postgraduate programme for executives in the manufacturing sector.
Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad was the second IIM to be set up, on 16 December 1961. In addition to the regular PGDM programme, it offers a two-year postgraduate programme in Agri-Business Management. It also offers a one-year postgraduate programme in Public Management and Policy.
Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, the third IIM to be established, was set up in 1973. Its main campus is located in Bilekahalli, Bangalore. Apart from its flagship PGDM programme, it offers special programmes in Enterprise Management (PGPEM) and Public Policy Management (PGPPM).
Indian Institute of Management Lucknow is the fourth IIM to be established, in 1984. In addition to its primary campus in Lucknow, it has an additional campus in Noida. The campus was established in 2007 and focuses on executive programmes. Like IIM Ahmedabad, IIM Lucknow offers a programme in Agribusiness Management.
Indian Institute of Management Indore, the sixth IIM, was established in 1996. Its 193 acres (78 ha) campus is located on at Rau, near Indore. IIM Indore offers a unique course for armed forces officers, designed particularly for mid-level defence officers. It has additional campuses in Mumbai and UAE.
Indian Institute of Management Shillong, also known as Rajiv Gandhi Indian Institute of Management, was the seventh IIM established, following a 2005 decision by the Government of India. The foundation stone of the institute was laid on 1 December 2007 and started its academic session from 2008–'09.
Indian Institute of Management Rohtak, the eighth IIM to be inaugurated,[notes 1] was the first of the six IIMs established in 2010–2011 as part of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan It was inaugurated and started operation on 30 June 2010 with IIM Lucknow as mentor, from a temporary campus at Maharishi Dayanand University.
Indian Institute of Management Ranchi, the ninth IIM to be established in 2010 with IIM Calcutta as its mentor,[notes 1] started operations on 6 July 2010. It offers a specialized programme in Human resource management called Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management (PGDHRM).
Indian Institute of Management Raipur, the tenth IIM, was inaugurated on 11 October 2010. It was mentored by IIM Indore. It currently operates at the Government Engineering College (GEC), Sejbahar. Construction of the permanent campus has started on August 2011.
Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli, the eleventh IIM, was inaugurated on 4 January 2011. It is mentored by IIM Bangalore and operates temporarily from the campus of National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli. The classes of the first batch of students began on 15 June 2011.
Indian Institute of Management Udaipur, the twelfth IIM, started operation on July 2011 from a temporary campus at the Mohanlal Sukhadia University under the mentorship of IIM Indore. Construction of the permanent campus has began, and is expected to take between two and three years.
Indian Institute of Management Kashipur, the thirteenth and youngest IIM, started operation in July 2011, under the mentorship of IIM Lucknow. The foundation stone for the permanent campus in the Escorts Farm Area of Kashipur, Uttarakhand, was laid in April 2011. It currently operates from a temporary campus located at Ganna Sansthan in Kashipur.
Proposed IIM Bill
Since IIMs are not full-fledged universities, they do not give degrees. But the post graduate diplomas and fellowships granted by IIMs are considered as equivalent to Master's degrees and Doctorates, respectively. However, the Government of India is considering a legislative proposal to give IIMs the legal authority to grant degrees. Kapil Sibal, the Union Minister of Human Resource Development of India, has asked officials to prepare an Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Bill that empowers IIMs to give degrees. The Bill plans expansion of the powers of the IIM Council as a coordinating body for the IIMs. However, the IIM Council will not have power to impose its decisions on Indian Institutes of Management, according to the human resource development ministry, allaying fears that a new law will erode the autonomy of the country's premier B-schools. A final decision on this matter will be taken in Monsoon Session of Indian Parliament in July / August of 2013. 
After India became independent in 1947, the Planning Commission was entrusted to oversee and direct the development of the nation. India grew rapidly in the 1950s, and in the late 1950s the Commission started facing difficulties in finding suitable managers for the large number of public sector enterprises that were being established in India as a part of its industrial policy. To solve this problem, the Planning Commission in 1959 invited Professor George Robbins of the University of California to help in setting up an All India Institute of Management Studies. Based on his recommendations, the Indian government decided to set up two elite management institutes, named Indian Institutes of Management. Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Ahmedabad were chosen as the locations for the two new institutes.
The institute at Calcutta was established first, on 13 November 1961, and was named Indian Institute of Management Calcutta or IIM Calcutta. It was set up in collaboration with the MIT Sloan School of Management, the government of West Bengal, the Ford Foundation and the Indian industry. The institute at Ahmedabad was established in the following month and was named Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Like MIT Sloan in the case of IIM Calcutta, Harvard Business School played an important role in the initial stages of IIM Ahmedabad.
In 1972, a committee headed by Ravi J. Matthai took note of the success of two established IIMs and recommended the setting up of two more IIMs. Based on the committee's recommendation, a new IIM was established in Bangalore (IIM Bangalore) the next year, and was originally intended to cater exclusively to the needs of public sector enterprises. In 1981, the first IIM Review Committee was convened to examine the progress of the three existing IIMs and to make recommendations. The committee noted that the three IIMs were producing around 400 PGP graduates every year and that they had reached their optimum capacity. It proposed the opening of two more IIMs to meet the rising demand of management professionals. It also recommended expanding the Fellowship programmes to meet the growing demand of faculty in management schools in India. The fourth IIM (IIM Lucknow) was established in 1984 based on the committee's recommendation.
The IIMs mainly offer postgraduate, doctoral and executive education programmes. Some of the programmes offered by all IIMs are similar; however, some IIMs offer unique programmes for specialised purposes.
All IIMs offer a two-year full-time Post Graduate Programme in Management (PGP). This programme is considered the flagship programme of IIMs, and awards the Post Graduate Diploma in Management (PGDM) to successful candidates. This diploma is equivalent to the Master of Business Administration (MBA) postgraduate degree. This programme usually starts in June and runs till April of the second year. The PGP is a general, fully integrated management programme with no specialisation, and typically includes courses in Accounting, Behavioural sciences, Finance, Economics, Human Resource Management (HRM), Management Sciences and Information Technology, Marketing, Business operations, Business Mathematics, Public Policy, Statistics and Decision Analysis, Strategy and General Management. It is usually structured into six trimesters spread across two years. The first year coursework generally consists of core courses in various management disciplines, while in the second year students are allowed to select courses from an exhaustive list of electives.
IIM Calcutta offers a Post Graduate Diploma in Computer aided Management (PGDCM) programme. This course, which was started in 1994, is similar to the regular PGDM programme, but with a special emphasis on Information technology and its business applications. It is aimed at creating business professionals who know how to apply Information and communication technology (ICTs) in business management. Most of the PGDCM coursework is integrated with the regular PGDM framework, and both PGDM & PGDCM are considered as part of the PGP programme. IIM Ahmedabad and IIM Lucknow offer a two-year Post Graduate Programme in Agribusiness Management (PGP-ABM) programme. This is essentially a MBA programme with a specialisation in Agribusiness. IIM Ranchi offers a post graduate programme specialized in Human Resources, called the Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management (PGDHRM).
Since July 2005, IIM Lucknow is also offering the Three Year Post-Graduate Programme in Management for Working Executives (also known as Working Managers Programme) from its Noida Campus. It aims at developing strong conceptual fundamentals and skills required to mange businesses of the future. The WMP aims to help to inculcate leadership and teamwork amongst participants, and foster the development of change agents to take leadership roles in the global area.
Since 2006, some IIMs have started offering a special one-year full-time postgraduate programme for experienced professionals. Designed as an executive MBA programme, it is named differently by different IIMs. It's called the Post Graduate Program for Executives by IIM Calcutta (PGPEX in short) and IIM Ahmedabad (PGPX), Executive Post Graduate Programme (EPGP) by IIM Bangalore and IIM Indore, and International Programme in Management for Executives (IPMX) by IIM Lucknow. The exact structure, admission criteria and other details vary for these programmes. However, all these programmes admit only candidates with substantial professional experience. (Some of these programmes have age-based criteria instead of a work experience.)
IIM Calcutta offers a specialised executive MBA programme called the Post Graduate Programme for Executives for Visionary Leadership in Manufacturing (PGPEX-VLM) jointly with IIT Kanpur and IIT Madras. It is a one-year, rigorous programme with a heavy focus on the manufacturing sector.
The Fellow Programme in Management (FPM) of IIMs is a full-time Doctoral level programme in management. This programme is aimed at preparing students for careers in teaching or research in different disciplines of management, as well as for careers outside academics that demand a high degree of research and analytical abilities. A student who completes this programme at any IIM, where (s)he is registered as a doctoral scholar, is awarded the title of Fellow of that institute (e.g. Fellow of the Indian Institute of Management Calcutta). This Fellow Program is equivalent to the Doctor of Philosophy degree. However, students receiving such a fellowship every year, across all IIMs, work in close association with one another in a specific research area of their choice.
Many IIMs offer executive education/EMBA programmes targeted at working professionals. These are often short-term and/or part-time programmes and are known by various names such as Management Development Programme (MDP), Advanced Masters Program in Management of Global Enterprises (AMPM), and Executive General Management Programme (EGMP).
Some IIMs offer specialised programmes targeted at various segments. IIM Ahmedabad offers a six-month, full-time programme called the Armed Forces Programme (AFP) aimed at military personnel. IIM Ahmedabad and IIM Bangalore offer full-time programmes in public management and are called the Post Graduate Programme in Public Management and Policy (PGP-PMP) and Post Graduate Programme in Public Policy Management (PGPPM) respectively. IIM Bangalore offers a two-year, part-time programme called the Post-Graduate Programme in Software Enterprise Management (PGPSEM), an executive general management education programme designed for the specific needs of professionals working in the software and information technology industry. IIM Indore offers a 5-year Integrated program in Management (IPM) that is a combined undergraduate-cum-graduate diploma. IIM Ranchi is the first and only IIM to offer a full-time Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management (PGDHRM) programme. 
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Different programmes of IIMs follow different admission processes. Admission for residents of India to the flagship two-year PGP programmes at all IIMs is based on the Common Admission Test (CAT). CAT scores are often used as the primary short-listing criteria for admissions. International/overseas applicants have the option to apply using GMAT scores in lieu of CAT scores. GMAT scores are a prerequisite short-listing criteria used for admission to the one year full-time programme for experienced executives. Test requirements for doctoral programmes vary, some IIMs require candidates to make a presentation of a broad research idea or take a 'Research Aptitude Test (RAT)' followed by round(s) of interview while all compulsorily accept scores from standardised tests such as the CAT, GATE, GMAT and GRE. The overall profiles of candidates including past academic and professional accomplishments are considered for all programmes along with valid standard test scores. Some programmes require essays and academic and/or professional recommendations. The final round of admission evaluations involve an interview, before which some IIMs conduct other evaluation processes like written assessment tests and group discussions.
The Common Admission Test (CAT) is a management aptitude test conducted by the IIMs primarily as an evaluation tool for admission to their two-year PGP programmes. It is widely considered as one of the most competitive exams in the world, with a success rate of around one in two hundred. Originally conducted as a paper-and-pencil test on a particular date all over India, CAT is now conducted as a computer-based assessment operated by Prometric since 2009. The online test is now spread over a few weeks period.
In August 2011, the six newer IIMs (Raipur, Rohtak, Ranchi, Udaipur, Tiruchirapalli and Kashipur) announced that in the coming year they will eliminate the GD round. replacing it with a common written analysis test to evaluate communication and comprehensive skill. The seven older IIMs did not announce plans to change the admission process.
The admissions for the one year full-time programme is done by shortlisting based on GMAT scores in conjunction with candidate profile suitability. This is followed by evaluation of essays and a panel interview round. The quality of prior work experience and future leadership potential is a critical factor in the selections.
IIMs also follow the affirmative action policy as per the provisions of the Indian constitution. As per the provisions, 15% of the seats are reserved for students of Scheduled Castes, and 7.5% seats for Scheduled Tribes. The Other Backward Classes have also been given 27% reservation since 2008 after the Supreme Court of India upheld the validity of government regulation. It is being implemented in a phased manner due to resource constraints. All aspirants have to appear for Common Admission Test which consists of an Objective type Exam, Group Discussion and Personal Interviews, though the requirements for reserved category candidates can be lower than the general cut-off standard. Once admitted to the course, a reserved category student also has to meet all the criteria for completing the course as a General category student. Regular counselling sessions, extra-classes and tutorials from senior students for needy students are a regular feature of IIMs. IIMs also provide financial support to the needy and deserving students in the form of scholarships.
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