The Indian Pacific is an Australian passenger rail service running between Sydney and Perth. It is one of the few truly transcontinental trains in the world. The train first ran in February 1970 after the completion of gauge conversion projects in South and Western Australia.
The route includes the world's longest straight stretch of railway track, a 478-kilometre (297 mi) stretch over the Nullarbor Plain. In 1983 the service was extended to serve Adelaide. A one-way trip originally took 75 hours, but with line and efficiency improvements it now takes 65 hours. The train currently has four classes, branded as Platinum, Gold Service and Red Service Sleeper and Red Service Daynighter and also a Motorail service to convey passengers' motor vehicles.
The first Indian Pacific service left Sydney on 23 February 1970, becoming the first direct train to cross the Australian continent, made possible by the completion of the east-west standard gauge project a few months earlier. A competition open to the public was held to name the train, a man named Henry Roach (owner and founder of the Independent Oil Company, IOC) named the train the Indian Pacific because the Indian Ocean met the Pacific Ocean.
The train originally operated four days per week, departing Sydney on Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Saturday, and Perth on Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday and Sunday.
Locomotives and crews were provided by the New South Wales Government Railways between Sydney and Broken Hill, South Australian Railways between Broken Hill and Port Pirie, the Commonwealth Railways between Port Pirie and Kalgoorlie and Western Australian Government Railways between Kalgoorlie and Perth. With the formation of the Australian National in July 1975, it provided locomotives and crews from Broken Hill to Kalgoorlie. Locomotives were changed at Lithgow, Broken Hill and Kalgoorlie.
On-board crews were originally provided between Sydney and Port Pirie by Commonwealth Railways on one service and New South Wales Government Railways on the other services, Commonwealth Railways between Port Pirie and Kalgoolie and West Australian Government Railways between Kalgoolie and Perth.
The service was suspended from 2 December 1982 to 25 April 1983 due to an industrial dispute over staffing levels in South Australia.
In February 1993 Australian National took over operation of the service throughout after agreement was reached with the State Rail Authority of New South Wales and Westrail in 1992. From January 1994 the service was operated throughout by Australian National CL class locomotives. Australian National restored a second weekly service.
As part of the privatisation of Australian National, the Indian Pacific, along with The Ghan and The Overland, was sold to Great Southern Rail in October 1997. Motive power provision was contracted to National Rail.
The route leaves Sydney and travels via the Western and Broken Hill lines to Broken Hill. It then crosses into South Australia on the Broken Hill to Crystal Brook line before heading south to Adelaide. Before the conversion of the Crystal Brook to Adelaide line to standard gauge, passengers for Adelaide had to change at Port Pirie. However with this completed in 1983, the Indian Pacific was diverted to make an out-and-back trip adding 390 kilometres (240 mi) to the journey. From Crystal Brook it heads north to Port Augusta and then via the Trans-Australian Railway to Kalgoorlie including travelling over the world's longest straight stretch of railway track on the Nullarbor Plain measuring 478 kilometres (297 mi). It then heads to its terminus at East Perth.
In 1970 the journey took 75 hours. With subsequent infrastructure improvements and reductions to the time needed to change locomotives and crew, the journey now takes 65 hours despite the longer distance.
The motive power for the Indian Pacific is usually an NR class diesel-electric locomotive, often one of the four NR class units that have been repainted in Indian Pacific livery. The lead locomotive is frequently assisted by a DL class or a second NR class.
To operate the service, 124 22.9-metre (75 ft) stainless steel carriages, power vans and luggage vans were built by Commonwealth Engineering, Granville in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Of these 60 were jointly owned by the New South Wales Government Railways, Commonwealth Railways and the Western Australian Government Railways for the Indian Pacific and the balance by the Commonwealth Railways for the Trans-Australian service from Adelaide to Perth. In practice they have often been used interchangeably.
Since 1980 the stock has been used on The Ghan from Adelaide to Alice Springs. From November 1983 until November 1987 it was used on The Alice from Sydney to Alice Springs. More recently it has also been used on The Overland from Adelaide to Melbourne.
The train originally offered only 52 first-class sleeping berths and 96 second-class sleeping berths. The train was limited to 144 passengers as this was the number that could be serviced by three sittings in the 48-seat dining car.
From 1973 the accommodation was altered to provide 88 first-class sleeping berths and 64 second-class. The club-cafeteria car also provided a small number of second-class seats for short-distance travelers on the Commonwealth Railways segment.
From 1975 Australian National provided full sitting carriages west of Port Pirie on two journeys per week. The New South Wales Government Railways initially resisted providing sitting accommodation over the whole journey, but sitting carriages owned by the State Rail Authority of New South Wales were included between Sydney and Port Pirie from 1980, with Australian National providing sitting carriages further west. Sitting carriages provided by Australian National became part of the full through service from Sydney to Perth in 1988.
The train currently has three classes, branded as Platinum, Gold and Red Service. The Platinum Service was introduced in 2008 as a premium class of travel. The Gold Service, the former first-class service, features either roomette or twinette sleeper cabins, with complimentary meals in the restaurant car.
Red Service, the equivalent of economy class, features either airline-style 'sit-up' seats similar to other Australian trains, or dual-berth shared sleeper cabins. It also has its own restaurant car.
Following the conversion of the Adelaide to Melbourne railway line to standard gauge in 1995, the Indian Pacific made a promotional trip from Perth to Brisbane via Melbourne over 6 days in June of that year.
In recent years, the Indian Pacific has operated a Christmas Train with a notable music personality on board.
Some of the performers on board have been: David Campbell (2007), Human Nature (2006), Guy Sebastian (2005), Jimmy Barnes (2004), John Paul Young (2003), Marcia Hines (2002), John Williamson (2001) and Nikki Webster (2000).
- 24 December 1975: 14 of the 25 carriages on the eastbound train derailed due to a collapsed bogie on the leading carriage, between the remote Nullarbor sidings of Haig and Nurina. Three of the 200 passengers were injured, and they were flown from Forrest to Adelaide.
- 18 August 1999: Zanthus train collision - the westbound train was accidentally directed into a crossing loop occupied by an eastbound train at Zanthus.
- 3 December 1999: Glenbrook train disaster - a CityRail Intercity train ran into the back of the eastbound train at Glenbrook in the Blue Mountains, west of Sydney. Seven people died, all on the CityRail train.
- Indian Pacific Timetable Great Southern Rail
- Facts about the Nullabor Plain Outback Australia Travel Guide
- Indian Pacific fares 2013 - 2014 Great Southern Rail
- "Indian Pacific train turns 40". WA Today. www.theage.com.au. 23 February 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- "Indian Pacific back after long strike". The Age. 26 April 1983.
- "Interstate cutbacks" Railway Digest July 1991 page 231
- "Indian Pacific service cut to weekly" Railway Digest February 1992 page 50
- "IP to come under sole control of AN" Railway Digest March 1992
- "IP handed to AN" Railway Digest February 1993
- "CLP Class Locos Take-Over Indian Pacific Workings" Railway Digest March 1994
- Great Southern Railway Consortium completes acquisition of Australian National Railways Passenger Business Serco Group plc 31 October 1997
- Vincent, Peter (27 September 2006). "Railroaded Into Fun". The Age. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
- Staff, AG (22 September 2010). "Indian Pacific celebrates 40 years". Australian Geographic. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- "Carriage Review" Railway Digest November 1986 page 351
- "Compare Service Levels". Great Southern Railway. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
- "Taking your car". Great Southern Railway. Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
- "Special Agents". Sydney Morning Herald. 10 February 1970.
- Evans, John (2004), "Australia's Longest Passenger Train", Table Talk (Australian Association of Timetable Collectors) (141): 3
- "The Indian Pacific's Commemorative Rail Journey" Railway Digest July 1995
- Platt, Craig (21 December 2007). "Getting Into the Christmas Spirit(s)". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
- Simmonds, Diana (19 April 2007). "On the Right Track". The Australian. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
- Nader, Carol (17 December 2005). "Splendid Isolation". The Age. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
- "Indian Pacific Outback Christmas". Archived from the original on 3 January 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
- Air Doctor, Issue 325, February 2006. Page 10. Great Southern Railway Spreading The Joy Of Christmas. Retrieved 2 March 2009
- "Chronology of Australian Train Crashes". The Daily Telegraph. 6 June 2007. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
- Adam-Smith, Patsy; Rodda, Lindsay (1971). Across Australia by Indian-Pacific. Melbourne: Thomas Nelson (Australia). ISBN 0170019535.
- Attenborough, Peter (2009). Indian Pacific. Matraville, NSW: Eveleigh Press. ISBN 9781876568511.
- Dennis, Anthony; Bird, Ross (1991). Ribbons of Steel: Riding the Indian-Pacific. North Sydney: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1863730583.
- Downes, Jim; Daum, Berthold (1997). The Indian-Pacific: from coast to coast. Cromer, Vic: Lichtbild. ISBN 0646312634.
- Smith, Keith A. (2004). Tales from a Railway Odyssey: Nullarbor Interlude: a recollection of a railway journey across Australia with Lord Louis Mountbatten. Encounter Bay, SA: Robin Rise Books. ISBN 1864770406.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Indian Pacific.|
- Great Southern Railway
- Trans Australian/Indian Pacific railway ephemera—collected and digitised by the National Library of Australia
- Indian Pacific celebrates 40th year, Australian Geographic