Indian Police Service
|Training ground||Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy, Hyderabad|
|Controlling authority||Ministry of Home Affairs|
|Legal personality||Government service|
|General nature||Federal law enforcement|
|Preceding service||Imperial Police Service (1893–1948)|
|Cadre size||4730 (2011)|
|Service colour||Dark blue and red
|Director Intelligence Bureau (IB)
Current: Syed Asif Ibrahim
|Head of the Civil Services|
Current: Ajit Seth
The Indian Police Service (Hindi: भारतीय पुलिस सेवा, Bhāratīya Pulis Sevā), simply known as Indian Police or IPS, is one of the three All India Services civil services of the Government of India. In 1948, a year after India gained independence from Britain, the Imperial Police Service (IPS) was replaced by the Indian Police Service.
The First Police Commission, appointed on 17 August 1865, contained detailed guidelines for the desired system of police in India and defined the police as a governmental department to maintain order, enforce the law, and to prevent and detect crime. The Indian Police Service is not a force itself but a service providing leaders and commanders to staff the state police and all-India Para-Military Forces. Its members, who are all at least university graduates, are the senior officers of the police. With the passage of time Indian Police Service's objectives were updated and redefined, the current rules and functions of an Indian Police Service Officer are as follows:
- To fulfil duties based on border responsibilities, in the areas of maintenance of public peace and order, crime prevention, investigation, and detection, collection of intelligence, VIP security, counter-terrorism, border policing, railway policing, tackling smuggling, drug trafficking, economic offences, corruption in public life, disaster management, enforcement of socio-economic legislation, bio-diversity and protection of environmental laws etc.
- Leading and commanding the Indian Intelligence Agencies like Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), Intelligence Bureau (IB), Central Bureau of Investigations (CBI), Criminal Investigation Department (CID) etc., Indian Federal Law Enforcement Agencies, Civil and Armed Police Forces in all the states and union territories.
- Leading and commanding the Para-Military Forces of India (PMF) which include the Central Police Organisations (CPO) and Central Paramilitary Forces (CPF) such as Border Security Force (BSF), Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), National Security Guard (NSG), Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), Vigilance Organisations, Indian Federal Law Enforcement Agencies.
- Serve at head of the departments in policy making in the Ministries and Departments of Central and State Governments and public sector undertakings both at centre and states, Government of India.
- To interact and coordinate closely with the members of other All India Services and with the elite Indian Revenue Service and also with the Indian Armed Forces primarily with the Indian Army.
- Last but not the least, to lead and command the force with courage, uprightness, dedication and a strong sense of service to the people.
- Endeavour to inculcate in the police forces under their command such values and norms as would help them serve the people better.
- Inculcate integrity of the highest order, sensitivity to aspirations of people in a fast-changing social and economic milieu, respect for human rights, broad liberal perspective of law and justice and high standard of professionalism.
Prior to Independence, senior police officers belonging to the Imperial Police (IP) were appointed by the Secretary of State on the basis of a competitive examination. The first open civil service examination for admission to the service was held in England in June 1893 and the ten top candidates were appointed as probationers in the Indian (Imperial) Police. It is not possible to pinpoint an exact date on which the Indian Police came formally into being. Around 1907, the Secretary of State's officers were directed to wear the letters "IP" on their epaulettes in order to distinguish them from the other officers not recruited by the Secretary of State through examination. In this sense, 1907 could be regarded as the starting point for the Indian Police.
Cadre strength 
The authorised cadre strength of Indian Police Service is 4720. (3270 Direct Recruitment Posts and 1450 Promotional Posts). Posted 20 December 2012 Vol 3 Issue 50
Examination and Training 
To serve in the IPS officers have to be elevated from the state cadres or place highly in the rigorous Civil Services Examination conducted by Union Public Service Commission every year. Due to an ongoing shortage of police officers in India, the Ministry of Home Affairs proposed the creation of an Indian Police Service Limited Competitive Examination to be conducted by UPSC. This examination would permit entry to the IPS but not the other civil service bodies covered by the full CSE.
The Civil Services Examination has a three stage competitive selection process. At stage one, there is an objective type examination called the preliminary exam. This is a qualifying examination. It consists of a General Studies paper and an aptitude test. Only the candidates who pass this can appear for the "Main Examination" which consists of eight papers. Each candidate has to select an optional subject, apart from which all candidates have to take four General Studies papers, an Essay and an English language paper. This is followed by an personal interview.
After selection for the IPS, candidates are allocated to a cadre. There is one cadre in each Indian state, with the exception of three joint cadres: Assam-Meghalaya, Manipur-Tripura, and Arunachal Pradesh-Goa-Mizoram-Union Territories (AGMUT). As per Indian Constitution 2/3 of the strength of every cadre is filled directly by IPS officers and the remaining 1/3 are promoted from the respective states cadre officers.
Each state and union territory of India has a state police force, headed by the Commissioner of Police (State) or Director General of Police (DGP). It is controlled by the Chief Minister and Home Minister of the state/union territory. These state police are responsible for maintaining law and order in townships of the state and in rural areas.
Some states including Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra have taken steps to get their police forces trained by advanced police training schools notably the Atlanta City Police of the USA. The Tamil Nadu state police is at the forefront of these initiatives with its Tamil Nadu Police Academy, which now seeks university status. The advanced training that the Tamil Nadu Police undergo varies from fraud investigation to advanced patrol training. This training program when completed will make the Tamil Nadu Police one of the most advanced police forces in India.
Many City Police Services on the other hand are known for their one lesson fits all attitude. Overall Indian Police Forces have been trying to secure better training and capabilities for their personnel, but with indifferent success due to their own encumbered structure.
Police Service officers Pay according to 6th Pay Commission (Official Indian Govt. Page)
|Grade||Position in the State Government(s)||Pay Band[clarification needed]||Equivalent Position or Designation in the State Government(s) or Government of India (GOI)|
|Above Super Time Scale (Apex Scale)||Commissioner of Police (State)||80,000 (fixed) plus grade pay-Nil||Director General of Police – Only one cadre post, all other DGPs are in HAG + scale of Rs75,500–80,000, Director (GOI), Director General (GOI), Secretary (R) Cabinet Secretariat (GOI)|
|Above Super Time Scale (HAG)(Pay-Band-4)||Special Commissioner of Police||67,000-79,000||Additional Director General of Police, Commissioner of Police (City), Special or Additional Director (GOI), Special or Additional Secretary (R) Cabinet Secretariat (GOI)|
|Super Time Scale (Senior Administrative Grade)(Pay-Band-4)||Joint Commissioner of Police||37,400-67,000 plus grade pay of 10,000||Inspector General of Police, Commissioner of Police (City), Joint Secretary if empanelled as such (R) Cabinet Secretariat (GOI)|
|Super Time Scale (DIG/Conservator Grade)(Pay-Band-4)||Additional Commissioner of Police||37,400-67,000 plus grade pay of 8900||Deputy Inspector General of Police, Commissioner of Police (City), Director (R) Cabinet Secretariat (GOI)|
|Selection Grade(Pay-Band-4)||Deputy Commissioner of Police if in the Selection Grade||37,400-INR67,000 plus grade Pay of 8700||Senior Superintendent of Police, Director (R) Cabinet Secretariat (GOI)|
|Junior Administrative Grade(Pay-Band-3)||Deputy Commissioner of Police, also designated as Senior Superintendent in certain States such as UP and Punjab||15,600-39,100 plus grade pay of 7600||Superintendent of Police, Deputy Secretary (R) Cabinet Secretariat (GOI)|
|Senior Time Scale (Pay-Band-3)||Deputy Commissioner of Police / Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police||15,600-39,100 plus grade pay of 6600||Additional Superintendent of Police – if placed as such|
|Junior Time Scale(Pay-Band-3)||Assistant Commissioner of Police||15,600-39,100 plus grade pay of 5400||Deputy Superintendent of Police, Circle Officer, Senior Field Officer (R) Cabinet Secretariat (GOI)|
Ranks and insignia 
Ranks of the IPS 
All State Police Services officers of and above the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP) or Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP) in State Police and Metropolitan Police forces respectively.
- National Emblem above Crossed Sword and Baton
- Commissioners of Police (State) or Director Generals of Police, States and territories of India
- Director Generals, Indian Intelligence agencies (Government of India)
- Director Generals, Indian Federal law enforcement agencies (Government of India)
- Director Generals, Paramilitary forces of India (Government of India)
- Secretary(ies) (R), Cabinet Secretariat, (Government of India)
- Special Commissioners of Police or Additional Director Generals of Police, States and territories of India
- Special or Additional Director Generals, Indian Intelligence agencies (Government of India)
- Special or Additional Director Generals, Indian Federal law enforcement agencies (Government of India)
- Special or Additional Director Generals, Paramilitary forces of India (Government of India:*Additional Commissioners of Police or Deputy Inspector Generals of Police, States and territories of India
- Directors or Deputy Inspector-Generals, Indian Intelligence agencies (Government of India)
- Directors or Deputy Inspector-Generals, Indian Federal law enforcement agencies (Government of India)
- Directors or Deputy Inspector-Generals, Paramilitary forces of India (Government of India)
- Director(s) (R), Cabinet Secretariat, (Government of India)
- National Emblem above two stars
- Deputy Commissioner of Police (Selection grade) or Senior Superintendent of Police in selection grade with 13+ years of service (IPS officers posted in insurgency infested states such as J&K also wear this rank before 13 years of service to facilitate coordination and interaction with Commanding Officers of paramilitary and the Indian Army. 
- Deputy Secretary(ies) (R), Cabinet Secretariat, (Government of India)
- Other officers above selection grade
- National Emblem above one-star
- National Emblem
- Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police or Additional Superintendent of Police
- Other officers on senior time scale with 9 years service or less
- Three stars
- Two stars
- Indian Police Service officer probationary rank with 2 years of service
- One Star above Crossed Sword and Baton
- Joint Commissioners of Police or Inspector-Generals of Police, States and territories of India
- Joint Directors or Inspector-Generals, Indian Intelligence agencies (Government of India)
- Joint Directors or Inspector-Generals, Indian Federal law enforcement agencies (Government of India)
- Joint Directors or Inspector-Generals, Paramilitary forces of India (Government of India)
- Joint Secretar(ies) (R), Cabinet Secretariat, (Government of India)
- National Emblem above three stars in a triangle
- f service
India's police continue to be governed by an archaic and colonial police law passed in 1861. The Indian Constitution makes policing a state subject and therefore the state governments have the responsibility to provide their communities with a police service. However, after independence, most have adopted the 1861 Act without change, while others have passed laws heavily based on the 1861 Act.
The need for reform of police in India has been long recognised. There has been almost 30 years of debate and discussion by government created committees and commissions on the way forward for police reform, but India remains saddled with an outdated and old-fashioned law, while report after report gathers dust on government bookshelves without implementation. Many committees on police reforms have recommended major reforms in the police system coupled with systematic accountability.
National Police Commission (1977-81) 
National Police Commission was the first committee set up by the Indian government to report on policing. The National Police Commission began sitting in 1979, in the context of a post-Emergency India, and produced eight reports, including a Model Police Act, between 1979 and 1981.
Ribeiro Committee (1998-99) 
In 1996, two former senior police officers filed a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the Supreme Court, asking for the Court to direct governments to implement the recommendations of the National Police Commission. The Supreme Court directed the government to set up a committee to review the Commission's recommendations, and thus the Ribeiro Committee was formed. The Committee, under the leadership of J. F. Ribeiro, a former chief of police, sat over 1998 and 1999, and produced two reports.
Padmanabhaiah Committee (2000) 
In 2000, the government set up a third committee on police reform, this time under the stewardship of a former union Home Secretary, K. Padmanabhaiah. This Committee released its report in the same year.
Soli Sorabjee Committee (2005) 
In 2005, the government put together a group to draft a new police Act for India. It was headed by Soli Sorabjee (former Attorney General). The committee submitted a Model Police Act to the union government in late 2006.
Supreme Court intervention (2006) 
In 1996, Prakash Singh (a former Directors General of Police of the states of Assam and subsequently Uttar Pradesh and finally Director General of the Border Security Force) initiated a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the Supreme Court of India, asking the court to investigate measures to reform the police forces across India to ensure the proper rule of law and improve security across India. The Supreme Court studied various reports on police reforms. Finally, in 2006, a bench of Justice Y.K. Sabharwal, Justice C.K. Thakker and Justice P.K. Balasubramanyan ordered the state governments to implement several reforms in police force.
Several measures were identified as necessary to professionalise the police in India:
- A mid or high ranking police officer must not be transferred more frequently than every two years.
- The state government cannot ask the police force to hire someone, nor can they choose the Chief Commissioner.
- There must be separate departments and staff for investigation and patrolling.
Three new authorities will be created in each state, to prevent political interference in the police and also to make the police accountable for their heavy-handedness, which will include the creation of:
- A State Security Commission, for policies and direction
- A Police Establishment Board, which will decide the selection, promotions and transfers of police officers and other staff
- A Police Complaints Authority, to inquire into allegations of police misconduct.
Follow-up from Supreme Court 
In 2006, due to a lack of action by all the state governments, the Supreme Court ordered the state governments to report to it why the reform measures outlined were not implemented. After being questioned in front of the judges of the Supreme Court, the state governments are finally starting to reform the police forces and give them the operational independence they need for fearless and proper law enforcement.Tamil Nadu Police has been in the forefront of application of the new referendum.
Again, in October 2012, a Supreme Court bench of Chief Justice Altamas Kabir and Justices SS Nijjar and Jasti Chelameswar asked all state governments and Union territories to inform about compliance of its September 2006 judgement. The order was passed when Prakash Singh through his lawyer Prashant Bhushan said that many of the reforms (ordered by the Supreme Court) have not been implemented by several governments even after 6 years.
Recommendations of various committees 
Select Recommendations from the above process are given below. This is not an exhaustive list- just including a few points that may clarify/illustrate the topic.
NATIONAL POLICE COMMISSION 1979–1981 1. The basic role of the police is to function as a law enforcement agency and render impartial service to the law, without any heed to the wishes, indications or desires expressed by the government which either come in conflict with or do not conform to the provisions contained in the constitution or laws. This should be spelt out in the Police Act.The police should have a recognised service-oriented role in providing relief to people in distress situations. They should be trained and equipped to perform the service-oriented functions. 2. In the existing system, the police function under the executive control of the state government. The threat of transfer or suspension is the most potent weapon in the hands of the politicians to bend the police to their will. In the performance of its preventive tasks and service-oriented functions, the police organisation should be subject to overall guidance from the government, which should lay down broad policies for adoption in different situations. However, there should be no instructions in regard to actual operations in the field. A State Security Commission should be set up to help the state government discharge its superintendence responsibilities openly. 3. Police and Disadvantaged Groups: A special investigation cell should be created in the police department at the state level to monitor the progress of investigation of cases under the Protection of Civil Rights Act or other atrocities against Scheduled Castes and Tribes. 4. Petty Cash: Police stations should be given adequate petty cash to meet day to day costs of the police station. This is to prevent corruption. 5. Recruitment:Officers should only be recruited as Constables or members of the Indian Police Service. Recruitment to other levels of the police hierarchy should be eliminated in a phased manner. 6. Control of the District Magistrate: Section 4 of the Police Act of 1861 states that the District Police are subject to the “general control and direction” of the District Magistrate. This should not be interpreted as allowing the District Magistrate to interfere in the internal management of the police force. Any rule or regulation that unnecessarily subordinates the police to the District Magistrate should be removed. Where cooperation between different departments is required, the District Magistrate should play a coordinating role, and this role should be recognised by the police. (Note that the NPC set out the areas where the District Magistrate could act as a coordinating authority.) 7. Police conduct: Police public relations are unsatisfactory. The police organisation’s poor image stems from police partiality, corruption, brutality and failure to register cognisable offences.Police officers should develop an attitude of courtesy and consideration towards members of the public who come to them for help.The way that junior police behave towards the public is influenced by the way they are treated by senior police. The way that police treat one another should be reformed. 8. Police Commissionerate system in major cities: In major urban areas, crime and law and order situations develop rapidly, requiring a speedy and effective operational response from the police. This is only possible where the police are organised to perform the twin basic functions of decision-making and implementation. In cities with a population over 500,000 (or where factors such as rapid urbanisation or industrialisation require), a Police Commissionerate system should be put in place. 9. Composition of Police: The composition of the police should reflect the general mix of communities as it exists in the society so that it can command the confidence of different sections of society. 10. Investigation staff should be separated from law and order staff at the police station level in urban areas. The separation of investigation and law and order staff should not be rigid and all staff in a police station should report to the Station House Officer. 11. A police station should not service more than 60,000 people. If the station registers more than 700 crimes annually, another police station should be set up. 12. Withdrawal of protection from prosecution: Protection available to the police officers should be withdrawn under sections 132 and 197 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, which provide protection to various categories of public servants from prosecution for acts they commit in the course of performing their duties. The state should pay for the defence of a police officer who is being prosecuted.
JULIO RIBIERO COMMITTEE 1998–99 1. Reiterated the setting up of a State Security Commission but suggested the alternate title of "Police Performance and Accountability Commission". 2. A District Police Complaints Authority headed by a District Sessions Judge to receive complaints against all officers below the rank of Superintendent of Police. 3. Police Establishment Board to look into personnel matters like transfers, promotions, punishments etc. 4. Selection of DGP through a committee chaired by UPSC Chairperson. Such a selection will also help insulate the investigation wing of the police from undue pressure. 5. It seconded the NPC recommendations on replacing the 1861 law with a new law; recruitment; promotions; separation of law& order staff from investigative staff.
RECOMMENDATIONS OF OTHER COMMITTEES
Padmanabhaiah Committee 2000 – VIP security needs to be reviewed and dismantled. – A permanent National Commission for Policing Standards should be established to lay down common standards for the police across the different states, and to ensure state governments set up mechanisms to enforce the standards. – A Constable should be classified as a skilled worker. – In recognition of the shift nature of police work, police personnel should be provided one day off each week and required to go on earned leave each year. – Community policing philosophies should be embraced. The union government should produce a handbook on community policing, provide training on community policing and fund pilot community policing projects.
POLICE ACT DRAFTING COMMITTEE 2005–06 (Chaired by Soli Sorabjee) – All officers must be provided with a minimum of two years tenure in a particular post to ensure they are free to complete their tasks free of illegitimate interference. – The Director General of Police shall have a minimum tenure of two years, irrespective of their date of superannuation. – The Police Establishment Committee must consider complaints from police officers who have been given an illegal order and then make appropriate recommendations to the Director General of Police. – Promotion must be based on merit, evaluated by a qualifying examination and a performance evaluation. – Constables shall be replaced by a Civil Police Officer, with a higher standard of education and training. – A Police Welfare Bureau must be set up to improve the welfare of police officers. Officer welfare shall be improved by providing free insurance cover, putting in place internal grievance redressal systems and introducing eight- hour shifts. 
See also 
- Indian State Police Services
- Bureau of Police Research and Development
- Indian Penal Code
- Law enforcement in India
- Civil Services of India
- All India Service
- "Data History of Indian Police Service (Official Raj Govt. Page)". Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- "Ministry of Home Affairs: Annual Report 2011-2012". Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- "Why is the colour of the Indian police uniform khaki?". The Times of India. 3 March 2007. Retrieved 2010-05-11.
- "IPS, IAS and IFS: All India Services (Government of India)". Retrieved 2009-04-13.
- "Duties and Responsibilities of Indian Police Service officers". UPSCguide.com. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- "Awaaz India Pvt. Ltd – About Indian Police Service". Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- "Indian Police Service Limited Competitive Examination". UPSC. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- "Modern ranks and insignia of IPS and SPS Officers Bio". Retrieved 2010-01-20.
- "Diector, Intelligence Bureau's Insignia Equivalent to Armed Forces Generals". Government of India. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
- "Inept Delhi cops get HC rap". DNA. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- "Two ACPs are suspended". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- "Failure of governance root cause of crimes against women: Verma committee". The Hindu. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "Read: Highlights of Justice Verma Committee report". CNNIBNLive. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "PRAKASH SINGH Case at LIIofIndia.org". Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Ribeiro Committee". Archived from the original on 6 Mar 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Padmanabhaiah Committee". Archived from the original on 6 Mar 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Prakash Singh Case". Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Prasad, Devika; Caroline Avanzo (5 November 2006). "Seize the opportunity". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
- Strip, Mobius; Ramesh Ramanathan (7 May 2007). "Sohrabbudin's encounter: An article on Prakash Singh, IPS". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
- "COMPLIANCE WITH SUPREME COURT DIRECTIVES". Archived from the original on 6 March 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "The Supreme Court of India takes the lead on police reform: Prakash Singh vs. Union of India". Retrieved 2007-09-12.
- Das, Sunrat (6 May 2007). "Board to lend ears to transfer woes". Retrieved 2007-09-12.
- "SC asks states to file affidavit on police reforms". Hindustan Times. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
Further reading 
- History of services of Indian police service, as on 1 July 1966, by Ministry of Home Affairs, India. Published by Govt. of India, 1969.
- The peace keepers: Indian Police Service (IPS), by S. R. Arun, IPS, DGP Uttar Pradesh. Published by Berghahn Books, 2000. ISBN 978-81-7049-107-1.
- The Indian Police Journal (IPJ), by Bureau of Police Research and Development, Ministry of Home Affairs. Published by Govt. of India, October–December 2009 Vol.LVI-No.4. ISSN 0537-2429.
- History of services of Indian police service, as on 1 July 1966, by Ministry of Home Affairs, India. Published by Govt. of India, 1969.
- Writings of Amitabh Thakur,an officer of Indian Police Service
- Intelligence Bureau may get its first Muslim chief 'S Asif Ibrahim'
- Police reform and election reform need.
- Half cear reform
- police & people 
- police reform cases 
- Need of basic reform 
- Reform too delayed 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Police of India|
- Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India
- Decision of the Government on Sixth Central Pay Commission Recommendations
- Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy
- Punjab Police Academy
- Union Public Service Commission
- Andhra Pradesh Police Academy APPA