Indian cormorant

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Indian cormorant
Indian Cormorant (Br.) I IMG 8092.jpg
In breeding plumage in Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Suliformes
Family: Phalacrocoracidae
Genus: Phalacrocorax
Species: P. fuscicollis
Binomial name
Phalacrocorax fuscicollis
Stephens, 1826

The Indian cormorant or Indian shag (Phalacrocorax fuscicollis) is a member of the cormorant family. It is found mainly along the inland waters of the Indian Subcontinent but extending west to Sind and east to Thailand and Cambodia. It is a gregarious species that can be easily distinguished from the similar sized little cormorant by its blue eye, small head with a sloping forehead and a long narrow bill ending in a hooked tip.

Description[edit]

In non-breeding plumage at Laem Pak Bia, Petchaburi, Thailand
Measurements
Across range[2][3]
Length Male black symbol.svg 510–535 mm (20.1–21.1 in)
Female black symbol.svg 475–510 mm (18.7–20.1 in)
Culmen 54–58 mm (2.1–2.3 in)
Tail Male black symbol.svg 138–142 mm (5.4–5.6 in)
Female black symbol.svg 94–96 mm (3.7–3.8 in)
Tarsus 47–52 mm (1.9–2.0 in)

This medium sized bronze brown cormorant is scalloped in black on the upper plumage, lacks a crest and has a small and slightly peaked head with a long narrow bill that ends in a hooked tip. The eye is blue and bare yellow facial skin during the non-breeding season. Breeding birds have a short white ear tuft. In some plumages it has a white throat but the white is restricted below the gape unlike in the much larger great cormorant. Sexes are similar, but non-breeding adults and juveniles are browner.[2]

Habitat and distribution[edit]

This cormorant fishes gregariously in inland rivers or large wetlands of peninsular India and northern part of Sri Lanka. It also occurs in estuaries and mangroves but not on the open coast. They breed very locally in mixed species breeding colonies.[2] They extend north-east to Assam and eastward into Thailand, Burma and Cambodia.[3][4][5][6]

Behaviour[edit]

The breeding season is July to February but depends on rainfall and water conditions. In northern India, they breed from July to February and in Sri Lanka, between November and February. The nest is a platform of twigs placed in the forks of partially submerged trees or those growing on islands. The nests are placed in close proximity to those of other Indian cormorants, storks or waterbirds in dense colonies, often with several tiers of nests. The usual clutch is three to five eggs which are bluish green and with a chalky surface.[3]

The Indian cormorant makes short dives to capture fish and a group will often fish communally, forming a broad front to drive fish into a corner.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Phalacrocorax fuscicollis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c Rasmussen PC & JC Anderton (2005). Birds of South Asia. The Ripley Guide. Volume 2. Smithsonian Institution & Lynx Edicions. p. 52. 
  3. ^ a b c d Ali S & SD Ripley (1978). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. Volume 1 (2 ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 39–41. 
  4. ^ Thomas WW & CM Poole (2003). "An annotated list of the birds of Cambodia from 1859 to 1970". Forktail 19: 103–127. 
  5. ^ Sashikumar, C (1991). "Occurrence of the Indian Shag Phalacrocorax fuscicollis Stephens in Kerala". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 88 (3): 442. 
  6. ^ Kannan, V; R Manakadan; P Rao; KK Mohapatra; S Sivakumar and V Santharam (2008). "The waterbirds of Pulicat lake, Andhra PRadesh-Tamil Nadu, India, including those of the adjoining wetlands and heronries". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 105 (2): 162–180.