Dominion of India

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Dominion of India
भारत अधिराज्य
Bhārata Adhirājya



Royal anthem
God Save the King
Capital New Delhi
Languages Hindi, English
Religion Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Christianity
Government Constitutional monarchy
 -  1936-1950 George VI
Governor-General previously Viceroy
 -  1947–1948 Louis Mountbatten
 -  1948–1950 C. Rajagopalachari
Prime Minister previously Secretary for State
 -  1947-1950 Jawaharlal Nehru
Legislature Constituent Assembly
Historical era First World War
 -  Indian Independence Act 15 August 1947
 -  Indo-Pakistani War 22 October 1947
 -  Constitution adopted 26 January 1950
 -  1950 3,287,263 km² (1,269,219 sq mi)
Currency Indian rupee

The Dominion of India (Hindi: भारत अधिराज्य, Bhārata Adhirājya) was a predecessor to modern-day India and an independent state that existed between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950. It was transformed into the Republic of India by the promulgation of the Constitution of India on 26 January 1950.[1]

George VI was made King of India (the head of state) and was represented by the governor-general. However, the governor-general was not designated viceroy, as had been customary under the British Raj. Two governors-general held office in India during the Dominion period (after the office of Viceroy was abolished by the Indian Independence Act, 1947): the Earl Mountbatten of Burma (1947–48) and Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (1948–50). Jawaharlal Nehru held office as prime minister formerly as Secretary for State (the head of government) of the Union of India throughout this period. Very few Dominions exist today, such as Australia and Canada. Unlike the Indian subcontinent, these countries have chosen to remain Dominions, although the topic of switching towards a republic has been discussed many times.

Standard of the Governor-General (1947–1950)

Partition of India[edit]

Main article: Partition of India

In mid-August 1947 India won independence from the British and was partitioned to create a new country, Pakistan. Two dominions were created and both joined the British Commonwealth as self-governing dominions. The partition left Punjab and Bengal, two of the biggest provinces, divided between India and Pakistan. An estimated 3.5 million people[2] migrated to India in fear of domination and suppression in Muslim Pakistan. Communal violence killed an estimated one million Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs, and gravely destabilised both Dominions along their Punjab and Bengal boundaries, and the cities of Calcutta, Delhi and Lahore.

The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution of India, drafted by a committee headed by B. R. Ambedkar, on 26 November 1949. India (with the addition of Sikkim) became a federal, democratic republic after its constitution came into effect on 26 January 1950. Rajendra Prasad became the first President of India.

See also[edit]

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