Demographics of India

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Demographics of India
Population 1,236,344,631 (July 2014 est.)[1] (2nd)
Growth rate 1.51% (2009 est.) (93rd)
Birth rate 20.22 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate 7.4 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Life expectancy 68.89 years (2009 est.)
 • male 67.46 years (2009 est.)
 • female 72.61 years (2009 est.)
Fertility rate 2.44 children born/woman (SRS 2011)
Infant mortality rate 44 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years 31.2% (male 190,075,426/female 172,799,553) (2009 est.)
15–64 years 63.6% (male 381,446,079/female 359,802,209) (2009 est.)
65 and over 5.3% (male 29,364,920/female 32,591,030) (2009 est.)
Sex ratio
At birth 1.12 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Under 15 1.10 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
15–64 years 1.06 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
65 and over 0.90 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Nationality
Major ethnic See Ethnic Groups of India
Language
Official See Languages of India
Crude birth rate trends in India
(per 1000 people, national average)[2][3]
Infant mortality rate trends in India
(per 1000 births, under age 1, national average)

The demographics of India are inclusive of the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people (2011 census), more than a sixth of the world's population. Already containing 17.5% of the world's population, India is projected to be the world's most populous country by 2025, surpassing China, its population reaching 1.6 billion by 2050.[4][5] Its population growth rate is 1.41%, ranking 102nd in the world in 2010.[6] Indian population reached the billion mark in 2000.

India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65% below the age of 35. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years, compared to 37 for China and 48 for Japan; and, by 2030, India's dependency ratio should be just over 0.4.[7]

India has more than two thousand ethnic groups,[8] and every major religion is represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages) as well as two language isolates (the Nihali language[9] spoken in parts of Maharashtra and the Burushaski language spoken in parts of Jammu and Kashmir).

Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic, genetic and cultural diversity of the nation of India.[10]

Salient features[edit]

India occupies 2.8% of the world's land area and supports over 17.5% of the world's population. Per the 2001 census, 72.2% of the population[11] lives in about 638,000 villages[12] and the remaining 27.8%[11] lives in more than 5,100 towns and over 380 urban agglomerations.[13]

India's population has exceeded that of the entire continent of Africa by 200 million people;[14] however, since Africa's population growth is nearly double that of India, it is expected to surpass both China and India by 2025.

Comparative demographics[edit]

Category Global Ranking Notes (Reference)
Area 7th [15]
Population 2nd [15]
Population growth rate 102nd of 212 as of 2010[6]
Population density
(people per square kilometer of land area)
24th of 212 as of 2010[6]
Male to Female ratio, at birth 12th of 214 as of 2009[16]

List of States and Union territories by demographics[edit]

S.No. Census Year Population [17] % Change [17]
1 1951 361,088,000 -----
2 1961 439,235,000 21.6
3 1971 548,160,000 24.8
4 1981 683,329,000 24.7
5 1991 846,387,888 23.9
6 2001 1,028,737,436 21.5
7 2011 1,210,193,422 17.6
Population distribution in India by states
Rank State /
Union Territory
Type Population % [18] Males Females Sex Ratio
[19]
Literacy Rural [20]
Population
Urban [20]
Population
Area [21]
(km²)
Density
(/km²)
1 Uttar Pradesh State 199,812,341 16.5 104,480,510 95,331,831 912 67.68 131,658,339 34,539,582 240,928 828
2 Maharashtra State 112,374,333 9.28 58,243,056 54,131,277 929 82.34 55,777,647 41,100,980 307,713 365
3 Bihar State 104,099,452 8.6 54,278,157 49,821,295 918 61.80 74,316,709 8,681,800 94,163 1,102
4 West Bengal State 91,276,115 7.54 46,809,027 44,467,088 950 76.26 57,748,946 22,427,251 88,752 1,030
5 Andhra Pradesh State 84,580,777 6.99 42,442,146 42,138,631 993 67.02 55,401,067 20,808,940 275,045 308
6 Madhya Pradesh State 72,626,809 6.00 37,612,306 35,014,503 931 69.32 44,380,878 15,967,145 308,245 236
7 Tamil Nadu State 72,147,030 5.96 36,137,975 36,009,055 996 80.09 34,921,681 27,483,998 130,058 555
8 Rajasthan State 68,548,437 5.66 35,550,997 32,997,440 928 66.11 43,292,813 13,214,375 342,239 201
9 Karnataka State 61,095,297 5.05 30,966,657 30,128,640 973 75.36 34,889,033 17,961,529 191,791 319
10 Gujarat State 60,439,692 4.99 31,491,260 28,948,432 919 78.03 31,740,767 18,930,250 196,024 308
11 Orissa State 41,974,218 3.47 21,212,136 20,762,082 979 72.87 31,287,422 5,517,238 155,707 269
12 Kerala State 33,406,061 2.76 16,027,412 17,378,649 1084 94.00 23,574,449 8,266,925 38,863 859
13 Jharkhand State 32,988,134 2.72 16,930,315 16,057,819 948 66.41 20,952,088 5,993,741 79,714 414
14 Assam State 31,205,576 2.58 15,939,443 15,266,133 958 72.19 23,216,288 3,439,240 78,438 397
15 Punjab State 27,743,338 2.29 14,639,465 13,103,873 895 75.84 16,096,488 8,262,511 50,362 550
16 Chhattisgarh State 25,545,198 2.11 12,832,895 12,712,303 991 70.28 16,648,056 4,185,747 135,191 189
17 Haryana State 25,351,462 2.09 13,494,734 11,856,728 879 75.55 15,029,260 6,115,304 44,212 573
18 Delhi UT 16,787,941 1.39 8,987,326 7,800,615 868 86.21 944,727 12,905,780 11,297 9,340
19 Jammu and Kashmir State 12,541,302 1.04 6,640,662 5,900,640 889 67.16 7,627,062 2,516,638 222,236 56
20 Uttarakhand State 10,086,292 0.83 5,137,773 4,948,519 963 78.82 6,310,275 2,179,074 53,483 189
21 Himachal Pradesh State 6,864,602 0.57 3,481,873 3,382,729 972 82.80 5,482,319 595,581 55,673 123
22 Tripura State 3,673,917 0.30 1,874,376 1,799,541 960 87.22 2,653,453 545,750 10,486 350
23 Meghalaya State 2,966,889 0.25 1,491,832 1,475,057 989 74.43 1,864,711 454,111 22,429 132
24 Manipur State 2,855,794 0.21 1,290,171 1,280,219 992 79.21 1,590,820 575,968 22,327 122
25 Nagaland State 1,978,502 0.16 1,024,649 953,853 931 79.55 1,647,249 342,787 16,579 119
26 Goa State 1,458,545 0.12 739,140 719,405 973 88.70 677,091 670,577 3,702 394
27 Arunachal Pradesh State 1,383,727 0.11 713,912 669,815 938 65.38 870,087 227,881 83,743 17
28 Pondicherry UT 1,247,953 0.10 612,511 635,442 1037 85.85 325,726 648,619 479 2,598
29 Mizoram State 1,097,206 0.09 555,339 541,867 976 91.33 447,567 441,006 21,081 52
30 Chandigarh UT 1,055,450 0.09 580,663 474,787 818 86.05 92,120 808,515 114 9,252
31 Sikkim State 610,577 0.05 323,070 287,507 890 81.42 480,981 59,870 7,096 86
32 Andaman and Nicobar Islands UT 380,581 0.03 202,871 177,710 876 86.63 239,954 116,198 8,249 46
33 Dadra and Nagar Haveli UT 343,709 0.03 193,760 149,949 774 76.24 170,027 50,463 491 698
34 Daman and Diu UT 243,247 0.02 150,301 92,946 618 87.10 100,856 57,348 112 2,169
35 Lakshadweep UT 64,473 0.01 33,123 31,350 946 91.85 33,683 26,967 32 2,013
TOTAL India 28 + 7 1,210,193,422 100 623,724,248 586,469,174 940 74.04 833,087,662 377,105,760 3,287,240 382

States in India[edit]

Rank India/State/UT No. of Districts
in 2001
No. of Districts
in 2011
No. of Districts
without any geographical change
1 Uttar Pradesh 75 85 -
2 Madhya Pradesh 45 50 36
3 Bihar 37 38 34
4 Maharashtra 35 35 31
5 Rajasthan 32 33 18
6 Tamil Nadu 30 32 25
7 Karnataka 27 30 24
8 Orissa 30 30 26
9 Assam 23 27 15
10 Gujarat 25 26 20
11 Jharkhand 18 24 9
12 Andhra Pradesh 23 23 23
13 Jammu and Kashmir 14 22 5
14 Haryana 19 21 17
15 Punjab 17 22 8
16 West Bengal 18 19 17
17 Chhattisgarh 16 27 8
18 Kerala 14 14 14
19 Arunachal Pradesh 13 16 10
20 Uttarakhand 13 13 11
21 Himachal Pradesh 12 12 12
22 Nagaland 8 11 4
23 Delhi 9 9 9
24 Manipur 9 9 9
25 Mizoram 8 8 4
26 Meghalaya 7 7 4
27 Sikkim 4 4 4
28 Tripura 4 4 2
29 Puducherry 4 4 4
30 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 2 3 1
31 Goa 2 2 2
32 Daman and Diu 2 2 2
33 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 1 1
34 Chandigarh 1 1 1
35 Lakshadweep 1 1 1
Total INDIA 593 640 464

[22]

Religious demographics[edit]

The table below summarizes India's demographics (excluding Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati District of Manipur state due to cancellation of census results) according to religion per 2001 census in percent. The data is "unadjusted" (without excluding Assam and Jammu and Kashmir); The 1981 census was not conducted in Assam and the 1991 census was not conducted in Jammu and Kashmir.

Table 2: Census information for 2001
Composition Hindus[24] Muslims[25] Christians[26] Sikhs[27] Buddhist[28] Jains[29] Others1[30]
 % total of population 2001 80.5% 13.4% 2.3% 1.9% 0.8% 0.4% 0.6%
10-Yr Growth % (est '91–'01)[31] 20.3% 29.5% 22.6% 18.2% 18.2% 26.0% 103.1%
No. of females/1000 males. (avg. = 944) 944 940 1009 895 955 940 1000
Literacy rate (71.7% for Age 7 and above)[32] 75.5% 60.0% 90.3% 70.4% 73.0% 95.0% 50.0%
Work Participation Rate 40.4 31.3 39.7 37.7 40.6 32.9 48.4
Rural sex ratio[31] 1000 953 1001 895 958 937 995
Urban sex ratio[31] 922 907 1026 886 944 941 966
Child sex ratio (0–6 yrs) 925 950 964 786 942 870 976

^1 including Bahá'ís, Jews, and Parsis. Tribal Animists (and non religious) are included after 1926 (1931 census onwards)

Neonatal and infant demographics[edit]

The table below represents the infant mortality rate trends in India, by gender, in the last 15 years. In the urban areas of India, average male infant mortality rates are slightly higher than the female infant mortality rates.

Infant mortality demographic trends of India per 1000 births
Year Infant (0–1 year), male Infant (0–1 year), female Reference
1998 70 74 [33]
2005 56 58 [34]
2009 49 52 [35]

Some activists believe India's 2011 census shows a serious decline in the number of girls under the age of seven - activists fear eight million female foetuses may have been aborted between 2001 and 2011.[36] These claims are controversial. Scientists who study human sex ratios and demographic trends suggest that birth sex ratio between 1.08 to 1.12 can be because of natural factors, such as the age of mother at baby's birth, age of father at baby's birth, number of babies per couple, economic stress, endocrinological factors, etc.[37] The 2011 census birth sex ratio in India, of 917 girls to 1000 boys, is similar to 870-930 girls to 1000 boys birth sex ratios observed in Japanese, Chinese, Cuban, Filipino and Hawaiian ethnic groups in the United States between 1940 to 2005. They are also similar to birth sex ratios below 900 girls to 1000 boys observed in mothers of different age groups and gestation periods in the United States.[38][39]

Population within the age group of 0–6[edit]

State/UT Code India/State/UT Person Males Females
01 Jammu and Kashmir 2,008,644 1,080,662 927,982
02 Himachal Pradesh 763,864 400,681 363,183
03 Punjab 2,941,570 1,593,262 1,348,308
04 Chandigarh 117,953 63,187 54,766
05 Uttarakhand 1,328,844 704,769 624,075
06 Haryana 3,297,724 1,802,047 1,495,677
07 Delhi 1,970,510 1,055,735 914,775
08 Rajasthan 10,504,916 5,580,212 4,924,704
09 Uttar Pradesh 29,728,235 15,653,175 14,075,060
10 Bihar 18,582,229 9,615,280 8,966,949
11 Sikkim 61,077 31,418 29,659
12 Arunachal Pradesh 202,759 103,430 99,329
13 Nagaland 285,981 147,111 138,870
14 Manipur 353,237 182,684 170,553
15 Mizoram 165,536 83,965 81,571
16 Tripura 444,055 227,354 216,701
17 Meghalaya 555,822 282,189 273,633
18 Assam 4,511,307 2,305,088 2,206,219
19 West Bengal 10,112,599 5,187,264 4,925,335
20 Jharkhand 5,237,582 2,695,921 2,541,661
21 Odisha 5,035,650 2,603,208 2,432,442
22 Chhattisgarh 3,584,028 1,824,987 1,759,041
23 Madhya Pradesh 10,548,295 5,516,957 5,031,338
24 Gujarat 7,564464 3,974,286 3,519,890
25 Daman and Diu 25,880 13,556
26 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 49,196 25,575 23,621
27 Maharashtra 12,848,375 6,822,262 6,026,113
28 Andhra Pradesh 8,642,686 4,448,330 4,194,356
29 Karnataka 6,855,801 3,527,844 3,327,957
30 Goa 139,495 72,669 66,826
31 Lakshadweep 7,088 3,715 3,373
32 Kerala 3,322,247 1,695,889 1,626,358
33 Tamil Nadu 6,894,821 3,542,351 3,352,470
34 Puducherry 127,610 64,932 62,678
35 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 39,497 20,094 19,403
INDIA 158,789,287 82,952,135 75,837,152

[22]

Population above the age of 7[edit]

State/UT Code India/State/UT Persons Males Females
01 Jammu and Kashmir 10,540,274 5,584,889 4,955,385
02 Himachal Pradesh 6,092,645 3,073,211 3,019,434
03 Punjab 24,762,666 13,041,557 11,721,109
04 Chandigarh 936,733 517,095 419,638
05 Uttarakhand- 8,787,908 4,449,409 4,338,499
06 Haryana 22,055,357 11,703,083 10,352,274
07 Delhi 14,782,725 7,920,675 6,862,050
08 Rajasthan 58,116,096 30,039,874 28,076,222
09 Uttar Pradesh 169,853,242 88,943,240 80,910,002
10 Bihar 85,222,408 44,570,067 40,652,341
11 Sikkim 546,611 290,243 256,368
12 Arunachal Pradesh 1,179,852 616,802 563,050
13 Nagaland 1,694,621 878,596 816,025
14 Manipur 2,368,519 1,187,080 1,181,439
15 Mizoram 925,478 468,374 457,104
16 Tripura 3,226,977 1,644,513 1,582,464
17 Meghalaya 2,408,185 1,210,479 1,197,706
18 Assam 26,657,965 13,649,839 13,008,126
19 West Bengal 81,235,137 41,740,125 39,495,012
20 Jharkhand 27,728,656 14,235,767 13,492,889
21 Odisha 36,911,708 18,598,470 18,313,238
22 Chhattisgarh 21,956,168 11,002,928 10,953,240
23 Madhya Pradesh 62,049,270 32,095,963 29,953,307
24 Gujarat 52,889,452 27,507,996 25,381,456
25 Daman and Diu 217,031 136,544 80,487
26 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 293,657 167,603 126,054
27 Maharashtra 99,524,597 51,539,135 47,985,462
28 Andhra Pradesh 76,022,847 38,061,551 37,961,296
29 Karnataka 54,274,903 27,529,898 26,745,005
30 Goa 1,318,228 668,042 650,186
31 Lakshadweep 57,341 29,391 27,950
32 Kerala 30,065,430 14,325,355 15,740,075
33 Tamil Nadu 65,244,137 32,616,520 32,627,617
34 Puducherry 1,116,854 545,553 571,301
35 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 340,447 182,236 158,211
INDIA 1,051,404,135 540,772,113 510,632,022

[22]

Literacy rate in India[edit]

State/UT Code India/State/UT Literate Persons (%) Males (%) Females (%)
01 Jammu and Kashmir 68.74 78.26 58.01
02 Himachal Pradesh 83.78 90.83 76.60
03 Punjab 76.6 81.48 71.34
04 Chandigarh 86.43 90.54 81.38
05 Uttarakhand 79.63 88.33 70.70
06 Haryana 76.64 85.38 66.77
07 Delhi 86.34 91.03 80.93
08 Rajasthan 67.06 80.51 52.66
09 Uttar Pradesh 69.72 79.24 59.26
10 Bihar 63.82 73.39 53.33
11 Sikkim 82.20 87.29 76.43
12 Arunachal Pradesh 66.95 73.69 59.57
13 Nagaland 80.11 83.29 76.69
14 Manipur 79.85 86.49 73.17
15 Mizoram 91.58 93.72 89.40
16 Tripura 87.75 92.18 83.15
17 Meghalaya 75.48 77.17 73.78
18 Assam 73.18 78.81 67.27
19 West Bengal 77.08 82.67 71.16
20 Jharkhand 67.63 78.45 56.21
21 Orissa 72.9 82.40 64.36
22 Chhattisgarh 71.04 81.45 60.59
23 Madhya Pradesh 70.63 80.53 60.02
24 Gujarat 79.31 87.23 70.73
25 Daman and Diu 87.07 91.48 79.59
26 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 77.65 86.46 65.93
27 Maharashtra 82.91 89.82 75.48
28 Andhra Pradesh 67.66 75.56 59.74
29 Karnataka 75.60 82.85 68.13
30 Goa 87.40 92.81 81.84
31 Lakshadweep 92.28 96.11 88.25
32 Kerala 93.91 96.02 91.98
33 Tamil Nadu 80.33 86.81 73.86
34 Puducherry 86.55 92.12 81.22
35 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 86.27 90.11 81.84
INDIA 74.03 82.14 65.46

[22]

Linguistic demographics[edit]

41.03% of the Indians speak Hindi while the rest speak Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu and a variety of other languages.

The table immediately below excludes Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati District of Manipur state due to cancellation of census results.

Languages of India by number of native speakers as per the 2001 census[40]
Rank Language Speakers Percentage
1 Hindi dialects[41] 422,048,642 41.03%
2 Bengali 83,369,769 8.11%
3 Telugu 74,002,856 7.19%
4 Marathi 71,936,894 6.99%
5 Tamil 60,793,814 5.91%
6 Urdu 51,536,111 5.01%
7 Gujarati 46,091,617 4.48%
8 Kannada 37,924,011 3.69%
9 Malayalam 33,066,392 3.21%
10 Oriya 33,017,446 3.21%
11 Punjabi 29,102,477 2.83%
12 Assamese 13,168,484 1.28%
13 Maithili 12,179,122 1.18%
14 Bhili/Bhilodi 9,582,957 0.93%
15 Santali 6,469,600 0.63%
16 Kashmiri 5,527,698 0.54%
17 Nepali 2,871,749 0.28%
18 Gondi 2,713,790 0.26%
19 Sindhi 2,535,485 0.25%
20 Konkani 2,489,015 0.24%
21 Dogri 2,282,589 0.22%
22 Khandeshi 2,075,258 0.20%
23 Kurukh 1,751,489 0.17%
24 Tulu 1,722,768 0.17%
25 Meitei (Manipuri) 1,466,705* 0.14%
26 Bodo 1,350,478 0.13%
27 Khasi - Garo 1,128,575 0.112%
28 Mundari 1,061,352 0.105%
29 Ho 1,042,724 0.103%

Largest cities[edit]


Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[43][edit]

Period Births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 16,832,000 9,928,000 6,904,000 43.3 25.5 17.7 5.90 165.0
1955–1960 17,981,000 9,686,000 8,295,000 42.1 22.7 19.4 5.90 153.1
1960–1965 19,086,000 9,358,000 9,728,000 40.4 19.8 20.6 5.82 140.1
1965–1970 20,611,000 9,057,000 11,554,000 39.2 17.2 22.0 5.69 128.5
1970–1975 22,022,000 8,821,000 13,201,000 37.5 15.0 22.5 5.26 118.0
1975–1980 24,003,000 8,584,000 15,419,000 36.3 13.0 23.3 4.89 106.4
1980–1985 25,577,000 8,763,000 16,814,000 34.5 11.8 22.7 4.47 95.0
1985–1990 26,935,000 9,073,000 17,862,000 32.5 10.9 21.5 4.11 85.1
1990–1995 27,566,000 9,400,000 18,166,000 30.0 10.2 19.8 3.72 76.4
1995–2000 27,443,000 9,458,000 17,985,000 27.2 9.4 17.8 3.31 68.9
2000–2005 27,158,000 9,545,000 17,614,000 24.8 8.7 16.1 2.96 60.7
2005–2010 27,271,000 9,757,000 17,514,000 23.1 8.3 14.8 2.73 52.9
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Sample Registration System[44][45][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births1 Deaths1 Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total Fertility Rate
1981 716 493 24 289 000 8 956 000 15 333 000 33.9 12.5 21.4
1982 733 152 24 781 000 8 725 000 16 056 000 33.8 11.9 21.9
1983 750 034 25 276 000 8 925 000 16 351 000 33.7 11.9 21.8
1984 767 147 26 006 000 9 666 000 16 340 000 33.9 12.6 21.3
1985 784 491 25 810 000 9 257 000 16 553 000 32.9 11.8 21.1
1986 802 052 26 147 000 8 903 000 17 244 000 32.6 11.1 21.5
1987 819 800 26 316 000 8 936 000 17 380 000 32.1 10.9 21.2
1988 837 700 26 388 000 9 215 000 17 173 000 31.5 11.0 20.5
1989 855 707 26 185 000 8 814 000 17 371 000 30.6 10.3 20.3
1990 873 785 26 388 000 8 476 000 17 912 000 30.2 9.7 20.5
1991 891 910 26 133 000 8 741 000 17 392 000 29.3 9.8 19.5
1992 910 065 26 392 000 9 192 000 17 200 000 29.0 10.1 18.9
1993 928 226 26 640 000 8 633 000 18 007 000 28.7 9.3 19.4
1994 946 373 27 161 000 8 801 000 18 360 000 28.7 9.3 19.4
1995 964 486 27 295 000 8 680 000 18 615 000 28.3 9.0 19.3
1996 982 553 26 824 000 8 745 000 18 079 000 27.3 8.9 18.4
1997 1 000 558 27 215 000 8 905 000 18 310 000 27.2 8.9 18.3
1998 1 018 471 26 989 000 9 166 000 17 823 000 26.5 9.0 17.5
1999 1 036 259 26 943 000 9 015 000 17 928 000 26.0 8.7 17.3
2000 1 053 898 27 191 000 8 958 000 18 233 000 25.8 8.5 17.3 3.2
2001 1 071 374 27 213 000 9 000 000 18 213 000 25.4 8.4 17.0
2002 1 088 694 27 217 000 8 818 000 18 399 000 25.0 8.1 16.9
2003 1 105 886 27 426 000 8 847 000 18 579 000 24.8 8.0 16.8
2004 1 122 991 27 064 000 8 422 000 18 642 000 24.1 7.5 16.6
2005 1 140 043 27 133 000 8 664 000 18 469 000 23.8 7.6 16.2
2006 1 157 039 27 190 000 8 678 000 18 512 000 23.5 7.5 16.0
2007 1 173 972 27 119 000 8 687 000 18 432 000 23.1 7.4 15.7
2008 1 190 864 27 152 000 8 812 000 18 340 000 22.8 7.4 15.4
2009 1 207 740 27 174 000 8 817 000 18 357 000 22.5 7.3 15.2
2010 1 224 614 27 064 000 8 817 000 18 247 000 22.1 7.2 14.9 2.5
2011 1 242 738 27 092 000 8 823 000 18 268 000 21.8 7.1 14.7 2.44

1 The numbers of births and deaths were calculated from the birth and death rates and the average population

Regional vital Statistics[edit]

Chart showing the Total Fertility Rate of Indian states (SRS survey 1996-98)[46]

The below table gives the vital statistics (Births, Deaths, IMR and NGR) for the year 2010, according to the Registrar Gen., India.[47]

State Birth
Rate
BR
Rural
BR
Urban
Death
Rate
DR
Rural
DR
Urban
NGR NGR
Rural
NGR
Urban
IMR
Andhra Pradesh 17.9 18.3 16.7 7.6 8.6 5.4 1.02% 0.97% 1.13% 46
Assam 23.2 24.4 15.8 8.2 8.6 5.8 1.49% 1.58% 1.01% 58
Arunachal Pradesh 28.1 28.8 22.0 6.8 7.0 5.6 2.13% 2.18% 1.64% 48
Chhattisgarh 25.3 26.8 18.6 8.0 8.4 6.2 1.73% 1.84% 1.24% 51
Delhi 17.8 19.7 17.5 4.2 4.6 4.1 1.36% 1.50% 1.34% 30
Gujarat 21.8 23.3 19.4 6.7 7.5 5.5 1.51% 1.58% 1.40% 44
Haryana 22.3 23.3 19.8 6.6 7.0 5.6 1.57% 1.63% 1.43% 48
Jammu and Kashmir 18.3 19.5 13.5 5.7 5.9 4.7 1.26% 1.36% 0.88% 43
Jharkhand 25.3 26.7 19.3 7.0 7.4 5.4 1.83% 1.93% 1.39% 42
Karnataka 19.2 20.2 17.5 7.1 8.1 5.4 1.21% 1.21% 1.21% 38
Kerala 14.8 14.8 14.8 7.0 7.1 6.7 0.78% 0.77% 0.81% 13
Madhya Pradesh 27.3 29.2 20.5 8.3 9.0 6.0 1.89% 2.02% 1.45% 62
Maharashtra 17.1 17.6 16.4 6.5 7.5 5.3 1.06% 1.02% 1.11% 28
Odisha 20.5 21.4 15.2 8.6 9.0 6.6 1.19% 1.24% 0.86% 61
Punjab 16.6 17.2 15.6 7.0 7.7 5.8 0.96% 0.95% 0.98% 34
Rajasthan 26.7 27.9 22.9 6.7 6.9 6.0 2.00% 2.09% 1.69% 55
Tamil Nadu 15.9 16.0 15.8 7.6 8.2 6.9 0.83% 0.78% 0.89% 24
Uttar Pradesh 28.3 29.2 24.2 8.1 8.5 6.3 2.02% 2.07% 1.79% 61
West Bengal 16.8 18.6 11.9 6.0 6.0 6.3 1.07% 1.26% 0.56% 31
Bihar 20.5 22.1 14.6 5.9 6.9 2.3 1.46% 1.52% 1.23% 31
Goa 13.2 12.6 13.7 6.6 8.1 5.7 0.66% 0.45% 0.80% 10
Himachal Pradesh 16.9 17.5 11.5 6.9 7.2 4.2 1.00% 1.03% 0.73% 40
Manipur 14.9 14.8 15.3 4.2 4.3 4.0 1.07% 1.05% 1.13% 14
Meghalaya 24.5 26.6 14.8 7.9 8.4 5.6 1.66% 1.82% 0.92% 55
Mizoram 17.1 21.1 13.0 4.5 5.4 3.7 1.25% 1.57% 0.93% 37
Nagaland 16.8 17.0 16.0 3.6 3.7 3.3 1.32% 1.33% 1.27% 23
Sikkim 17.8 18.1 16.1 5.6 5.9 3.8 1.23% 1.23% 1.23% 30
Tripura 14.9 15.6 11.5 5.0 4.8 5.7 0.99% 1.08% 0.58% 27
Uttarakhand 19.3 20.2 16.2 6.3 6.7 5.1 1.30% 1.35% 1.11% 38
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 15.6 15.5 15.8 4.3 4.8 3.3 1.13% 1.07% 1.26% 25
Chandigarh 15.6 21.6 15.0 3.9 3.7 3.9 1.16% 1.79% 1.10% 22
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 26.6 26.0 28.6 4.7 5.1 3.3 2.19% 2.09% 2.53% 38
Daman and Diu 18.8 19.1 18.3 4.9 4.9 4.8 1.39% 1.42% 1.36% 23
Lakshadweep 14.3 15.5 13.2 6.4 6.1 6.7 0.80% 0.95% 0.65% 25
Puducherry 16.7 16.7 16.7 7.4 8.2 7.0 0.93% 0.85% 0.96% 22

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Total population

1,166,079,217 (July 2009 est. CIA)[48] 1,028.7 million (2001 Census final figures, 1 March enumeration and estimated 124,000 in areas of Manipur that could not be covered in the enumeration)

Map showing the population density of each district in India.
Rural Population

72.2%, male: 381,668,992, female: 360,948,755 (2001 Census)

Age structure

0–14 years: 30.8%, male: 188,208,196, female: 171,356,024
15–64 years: 64.3%, male: 386,432,921, female: 364,215,759
65+ years: 4.9%, male: 27,258,259, female: 30,031,289 (2007 est.)

Median age

25.1 years

Population growth rate

1.548% (2009 est.)

Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India.
Literacy rate

71.7% (Age 7 and above, as of 2001) [32]
81.4% (Total population, Age 15-25, as of 2006) [49]

Percent of the population under the poverty line

22% (2006 est.)

Unemployment Rate

7.8%

Net migration rate

−0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
under 10 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15–24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
24–64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.908 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 65.8 years (Source: UN Human Development Report 2013)

Total fertility rate

2.72 children born/woman (2009 est.), although more up to date statistics indicate that India's TFR was 2.6 in 2008 [50] The TFR (Total number of children born per women) according to Religion in 2001 was :

Hindus — 2.0 Muslims — 3.4 Sikhs — 2.1 Christians — 2.1 Buddhists — 2.1 Jains — 1.4 Animists and Others — 2.99 Tribals — 3.16 Scheduled Castes — 2.89[citation needed]

Religions

Hindu 80.5% Muslim 13.4% Christian 2.3% Sikh 1.8% Buddhists 0.8% Jains 0.4% others 0.7% unspecified 0.1% (2001 Census) [51][52][53][54]

Scheduled Castes and Tribes

Scheduled Castes: 16.2% (2001 Census) Scheduled Tribes: 8.2% (2001 Census)

Languages: See Languages of India and List of Indian languages by total speakers. There are 216 languages with more than 10,000 native speakers in India. The largest of these is Hindi with some 337 million (the second largest being Bengali with some 207 million). 22 languages are recognized as official languages. In India, there are 1,652 languages and dialects in total.[55][56]

Population projections[edit]

India is projected to overtake China as the world's most populous nation by 2030. India's population growth has raised concerns that it would lead to widespread unemployment and political instability.[57][58] Note that these projections make assumptions about future fertility and death rates which may not turn out to be correct in the event.

Source:[59]

  • 2020: 1,326,093,000
  • 2030: 1,460,743,000
  • 2040: 1,571,715,000
  • 2050: 1,656,554,000

2020 Estimate[edit]

Source:[60]

Year Under 15 15–64 65+ Total
2000 361 604 45 1010
2005 368 673 51 1093
2010 370 747 58 1175
2015 372 819 65 1256
2020 373 882 76 1331

Ethnic groups[edit]

The national Census of India does not recognize racial or ethnic groups within India,[61] but recognizes many of the tribal groups as Scheduled Castes and Tribes (see list of Scheduled Tribes in India). Nevertheless, modern anthropologists classify Indians as belonging to one of four major ethno-racial groups, which significantly overlap because of racial admixture between populations: Caucasoids, Australoids, Mongoloids and Negritos. The Caucasoids are found in the north, central and south-western regions of India and generally speak Indo-Aryan languages; Australoids are found in the south and generally speak Dravidian languages; Mongoloids are largely confined to the Northeastern region of the country and for the most part, speak Tibeto-Burman languages; and Negritos are found on the Andaman Islands located on the southeastern side of the country. These speak a language known simply as Great Andamanese, a linguistic isolate not related to any known language. And finally, Austroasiatic languages are spoken by only tribals or Adivasis, who can be of either Australoid or Mongoloid racial stock.[62]

According to a 2009 study published by Reich et al., the modern Indian population is composed of two genetically divergent and heterogeneous populations which mixed in ancient times (about 1,200-3,500 BC), known as Ancestral North Indians (ANI) and Ancestral South Indians (ASI). ASI corresponds to the Dravidian-speaking population of southern India, whereas ANI corresponds to the Indo-Aryan-speaking population of northern India.[63][64]

For a list of ethnic groups in the Republic of India (as well as neighboring countries) see ethnic groups of the Indian subcontinent or the tree diagram above.

Genetics[edit]

Y-chromosome DNA[edit]

[65]

Y-Chromosome DNA Y-DNA represents the male lineage, The Indian Y-chromosome pool may be summarized as follows where haplogroups R-M420, H, R2, L and NOP comprise generally more than 80% of the total chromosomes.[66]

  • H ~ 30%
  • R1a ~ 20%
  • R2 ~ 15%
  • L ~ 10%
  • NOP ~ 10% (Excluding R)
  • Other Haplogroups 15%

Mitochondrial DNA[edit]

[67]

Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA represents the female lineage. The Indian mitochondrial DNA is primarily made up of Haplogroup M[68]

Autosomal DNA[edit]

Numerous genomic studies have been conducted in the last 15 years to seek insights into India's demographic and cultural diversity. These studies paint a complex and conflicting picture.

  • In a 2003 study, Basu, Majumder et al. have concluded on the basis of results obtained from mtDNA, Y-chromosome and autosomal markers that "(1) there is an underlying unity of female lineages in India, indicating that the initial number of female settlers may have been small; (2) the tribal and the caste populations are highly differentiated; (3) the Austroasiatic tribals are the earliest settlers in India, providing support to one anthropological hypothesis while refuting some others; (4) a major wave of humans entered India through the northeast; (5) the Tibeto-Burman tribals share considerable genetic commonalities with the Austroasiatic tribals, supporting the hypothesis that they may have shared a common habitat in southern China, but the two groups of tribals can be differentiated on the basis of Y-chromosomal haplotypes; (6) the Dravidian speaking populations were possibly widespread throughout India but are regulated to South India now ; (7) formation of populations by fission that resulted in founder and drift effects have left their imprints on the genetic structures of contemporary populations; (8) the upper castes show closer genetic affinities with Central Asian populations, although those of southern India are more distant than those of northern India; (9) historical gene flow into India has contributed to a considerable obliteration of genetic histories of contemporary populations so that there is at present no clear congruence of genetic and geographical or sociocultural affinities."[69]
  • In a later 2010 review article, Majumder affirms some of these conclusions, introduces and revises some other. The on-going studies, concludes Majumder, suggest India has served as the major early corridor for geographical dispersal of modern humans from out-of-Africa. The archaeological and genetic traces of the earliest settlers in India has not provided any conclusive evidence. The tribal populations of India are older than the non-tribal populations. The autosomal differentiation and genetic diversity within India's caste populations at 0.04 is significantly lower than 0.14 for continental populations and 0.09 for 31 world population sets studied by Watkins et al., suggesting that while tribal populations were differentiated, the differentiation effects within India's caste population was less than previously thought. Majumder also concludes that recent studies suggest India has been a major contributor to the gene pool of southeast Asia.[70][71]
  • Another study covering a large sample of Indian populations allowed Watkins et al. to examine eight Indian caste groups and four endogamous south Indian tribal populations. The Indian castes data show low between-group differences, while the tribal Indian groups show relatively high between-group differentiation. This suggests that people between Indian castes were not reproductively isolated, while Indian tribal populations experienced reproductive isolation and drift. Furthermore, the genetic fixation index data shows historical genetic differentiation and segregation between Indian castes population is much smaller than those found in east Asia, Africa and other continental populations; while being similar to the genetic differentiation and segregation observed in European populations.[71]
  • In 2006, Sahoo et al. reported their analysis of genomic data on 936 Y-chromosomes representing 32 tribal and 45 caste groups from different regions of India. These scientists find that the haplogroup frequency distribution across the country, between different caste groups, was found to be predominantly driven by geographical, rather than cultural determinants. They conclude there is clear evidence for both large-scale immigration into ancient India of Tibeto-Burman speakers and language change of former Austroasiatic speakers, in the northeast Indian region.[72][73]
  • The genome studies through 2010 have been on relatively small population sets. Many are from just one southeastern state of Andhra Pradesh. Any conclusions on demographic history of India must therefore be interpreted with caution. A larger national genome study with demographic growth and sex ratio balances may offer further insights on the extent of genetic differentiation and segregation in India over the millenniums.[70]

See also[edit]

Government[edit]

Lists[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Excludes figures of Paomata, Mao Maram and Purul sub-districts of Senapati district of Manipur state
  2. ^ The data are "unadjusted" (without excluding Assam and Jammu and Kashmir); the 1981 census was not conducted in Assam and the 1991 census was not conducted in Jammu and Kashmir.

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External links[edit]