In the history of the European colonization of North America, the term "Indian massacre" was often used to describe either mass killings of people of European descent by indigenous people of the North American continent (Indians) or mass killings of indigenous people perpetrated by the people of European descent and/or other indigenous people.
Determining how many people died in these massacres overall is difficult. In the book The Wild Frontier: Atrocities during the American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee, lawyer and amateur historian William M. Osborn tallied every recorded incident he considered an atrocity in the area that would eventually become the continental United States, from first contact (1511) to the closing of the frontier (1890), and determined that 7,193 people died from atrocities perpetrated by whites, and 9,156 people died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans. Osborn has been criticized by Anthony Day of the Los Angeles Times as being biased towards whites and against Native Americans.
List of massacres
This is a listing of some of the events reported then or referred to now as "Indian massacre".
|1325||Crow Creek massacre||486 known dead near Chamberlain, South Dakota, at an archaeological site and a U.S. National Historic Landmark number 66000710.|||
|1539||Napituca Massacre||After defeating resisting Timucuan warriors, Hernando de Soto had 200 executed, in the first large-scale massacre by Europeans on what became American soil.|||
|1540||October 18||Mabila Massacre||The Choctaw retaliated against Hernando de Soto's expedition, killing 200 soldiers, as well as many of their horses and pigs, for their having burned down Mabila compound and killed c. 2,500 warriors who had hidden in houses of a fake village.|||
|1541–42||Tiguex Massacres||After the invading Spaniards seized the houses, food and clothing of the Tiguex, and raped their women, the Tiguex resisted. The Spanish attacked them, burning at the stake 50 people who had surrendered. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado's men laid siege to the Moho Pueblo, and after a months-long siege, they killed 200 fleeing warriors.|||
|1599||January 22–24||Acoma Massacre||In retaliation for the killing of 11 Spanish soldiers, Juan de Oñate led a punitive expedition against the natives in a three-day battle at the Acoma Pueblo, killing approximately 800. King Philip III later punished Oñate for his excesses.|||
|1601||Sandia Mountains||Spanish troops destroyed 3 Indian villages in the Sandia Mountains, New Mexico. According to Spanish sources, 900 Tompiro Indians were killed.|||
|1622||March 22||Jamestown Massacre||Powhatan (Pamunkey) killed 347 English men, women and children throughout the Virginia colony, almost one-third of the English population of the Jamestown colony, in an effort to push the English out of Virginia.|||
|1623||May 12||Pamunkey Peace Talks||The English poisoned the wine at a "peace conference" with Powhatan leaders, killing about 200; they physically attacked and killed another 50.|||
|1637||May 26||Mystic Massacre||In the Pequot War, English colonists commanded by John Mason, with Mohegan and Narragansett allies, launched a night attack on a large Pequot village on the Mystic River in present-day Connecticut, where they burned the inhabitants in their homes and killed all survivors, for total fatalities of about 600–700.|||
|1643||February 25||Pavonia Massacre||In 1643 the Mohawk attacked a band of Wappinger and Tappan, who fled to New Amsterdam seeking the protection of New Netherland governor, William Kieft. Kieft dispersed them to Pavonia and Corlears Hook. They were later attacked, 129 being killed. This prompted the beginning of Kieft's War, driven by mercenary John Underhill.|||
|1643||August||Hutchinson Massacre||As part of Kieft's War in New Netherland, near the Split Rock (now northeastern Bronx in New York City), local Lenape (or Siwanoy) killed Anne Hutchinson, six of her children, a son-in-law, and as many as seven others (servants). Susanna, one of Hutchinson's daughters, was taken captive and lived with the natives for several years.|||
|1644||March||Pound Ridge Massacre||As part of Kieft's War in New Netherland, at present day Pound Ridge, New York, John Underhill, hired by the Dutch, attacked and burned a sleeping village of Lenape, killing about 500 Indians.|||
|1655||September 11–15||Peach Tree War||In retaliation for Director-General of New Netherland Peter Stuyvesant's attacks to their trading partners and allies at New Sweden, united bands of natives attacked Pavonia, Staten Island, Colen Donck and other areas of New Netherland.|||
|1675||September 18||Bloody Brook Massacre||During King Philip's War, Indian warriors killed 60 soldiers of Deerfield, Massachusetts.|||
|1675||December 19||Great Swamp Massacre||Colonial militia attacked a Narragansett fort near South Kingstown, Rhode Island. At least 40 warriors were killed and 300 women, children and elder men burnt in the village.|||
|1676||March 26||Nine Men's Misery||During King Philip's War, warriors subjected nine captive soldiers to ritual torture and death.|||
|1676||May 10||Turner Falls Massacre||Captain William Turner and 150 militia volunteers attacked a fishing Indian camp at present-day Turners Falls, Massachusetts. At least 100 women and children were killed in the attack.|||
|1676||July 2||Rhode Island||Militia volunteers under Major Talcott attacked a band of Narragansetts on Rhode Island, killing 34 men and 92 women and children.|||
|1680||August 10||Pueblo Revolt||Pueblo warriors killed 380 Spanish settlers, and drove other Spaniards from New Mexico.|||
|1689||August 5||Lachine massacre||1,500 Mohawk warriors attacked the small settlement of Lachine, New France and killed more than 90 of the village's 375 French residents, following widespread French attacks on Mohawk villages in present-day New York.|||
|1689||Zia Pueblo||Governor Jironza de Cruzate destroyed the pueblo of Zia, New Mexico. 600 Indians were killed and 70 survivors enslaved.|||
|1690||February 8||Schenectady Massacre||As part of the Beaver Wars, French and Algonquins destroyed Schenectady, New York, killing 60 Dutch and English settlers, including ten women and at least twelve children.|||
|1692||January 24||Candlemas Massacre||During King William's War, 200-300 Abenaki and Canadiens killed 75, took 100 prisoner and burned the town of York, Maine district of the Province of Massachusetts Bay|||
|1704||Apalachee Massacre||Former Carolina Governor James Moore launched a series of brutal attacks on the Apalachee villages of Northern Florida. They killed 1000 Apalachees and enslaved at least 2000 survivors.|||
|1704||February 29||Deerfield Massacre||During Queen Anne's War, a force composed of Abenaki, Kanienkehaka, Wyandot and Pocumtuck, led by a small contingent of French-Canadian militia, sacked the town of Deerfield, Massachusetts, killing 56 civilians and taking more than 100 as captives.|||
|1712||May||Fox Indian Massacre||French troops and Indian allies slaughtered around 1,000 Fox Indians men, women and children in a five-day massacre near the head of the Detroit River.|||
|1713||March 20–23||Fort Neoheroka||Militia volunteers and Indian allies under Colonel James Moore attacked Ft. Neoheroka, the main stronghold of the Tuscarora Indians. 200 Tuscaroras were burned to death in the village and 900–1000 others were subsequently killed or captured.|||
|1715||April 15||Pocotaligo Massacre||Yamassee Indians killed 4 British traders and representatives of Carolina at Pocotaligo, near present-day Yemassee, South Carolina. 90 other traders were killed in the following weeks.|||
|1724||August 24||Norridgewock Massacre||Captains Jeremiah Moulton and Johnson Harmon led 200 rangers to the Abenaki village of Norridgewock, Maine to kill Father Sebastian Rale and destroy the Indian settlement. The rangers massacred 80 Abenakis (including two dozen women and children).|||
|1729||November 29||Natchez Massacre||Natchez Indians attacked French settlements near present-day Natchez, Mississippi, killing more than 200 French colonists.|||
|1730||September 9||Massacre at Fox Fort||A French army of 1,400 soldiers and its Indian allies massacred about 500 Fox Indians (including 300 women and children) as they tried to flee their besieged camp.|||
|1747||October||Chama River||Spanish troops ambushed a group of Utes on the Chama River, killing 111 Indians and taking 206 as captives .|||
|1755||Jul 8||Draper's Meadow massacre||5 settlers killed by Shawnee Indians at Draper's Meadow, Virginia|||
|1757||August 9||Battle of Fort William Henry||Following the fall of Fort William Henry during the Seven Years' War, Indians allied with the French killed between 70 and 180 British and colonial prisoners.|||
|1758||March 16||San Saba Mission Massacre||A large party of Comanche, Tonkawa and Hasinai Indians attacked the mission of San Saba, Texas, killing 8 people and burning down the mission.|||
|1759||October 4||St. Francis Raid||During the Seven Years' War, in retaliation for the rumored murder of a captured Stockbridge man and detention of Captain Quinten Kennedy of the Rogers' Rangers, Major Robert Rogers led a party of approximately 150 English regulars, volunteers and Mahican into the village of Odanak, Quebec. They killed up to 30 Abenaki people, among them women and children, as confirmed via conflicting reports.|||
|1763||September 14||Devil's Hole Massacre||During the Seven Years' War, Seneca allied with the French attacked a British supply train and soldiers just south of Fort Niagara. They killed 21 teamsters from the supply train and 81 soldiers who attempted to rescue the train.|||
|1763||December||Killings by the Paxton Boys||In response to Pontiac's Rebellion, frontier Pennsylvania settlers killed 20 peaceful Susquehannock.|||
|1764||July 26||Enoch Brown school massacre||Four Delaware killed a schoolmaster, 10 pupils and a pregnant woman. Two pupils were scalped but survived.|||
|1774||September||Spanish Peaks||Spanish troops surprised a large fortified Comanche village near Spanish Peaks (Raton, New Mexico). They killed nearly 300 Indians (men, women and children) and took 100 captives.|||
|1774||April 30||Yellow Creek Massacre||Daniel Greathouse killed members of Chief Logan's family.|||
|1777||September 26||The Grave Creek Massacre||A milita company under Captain William Foreman is ambushed and killed by Indians south of Wheeling, West Virginia.|||
|1778||July 3||Battle of Wyoming||During the American Revolutionary War, following a battle with rebel defenders of Forty Fort, Iroquois allies of Loyalist forces hunted and killed those who fled; they were later accused of using ritual torture to kill those soldiers who surrendered. These claims were denied by Iroquois and British leaders at the time.|||
|1778||August 31||Stockbridge Massacre||A battle of the American Revolutionary War that rebel propaganda portrayed as a massacre.|||
|1778||November 11||Cherry Valley Massacre||British and Seneca forces attacked the fort and village at Cherry Valley, New York, killing 16 rebel troops and more than 30 settlers.|||
|1781||September 1||Dietz Massacre||During the Revolution, Iroquois allied with the British attacked the home of Johannes Dietz, Berne, New York, killing and scalping Dietz, his wife, their daughter-in-law, four children of their son's family, and a servant girl.|||
|1781||September 1||Long Run Massacre||Thirty-two settlers killed by 50 Miami people while trying to move to safety, additionally approximately 15 settlers and 17 soldiers were killed attempting to bury the initial victims.|||
|1782||March 8||Gnadenhütten massacre||During the Revolution, Pennsylvania militiamen massacred nearly 100 non-combatant Christian Lenape, mostly women and children; they killed and scalped all but two young boys.|||
|1782||May 10||Corbly Family Massacre||During the Revolution, Indians allied with the British attacked the family of John Corbly, a Christian minister in Greene County, Pennsylvania. His wife and three of their children were killed; and two daughters were scalped, but survived. The Reverend Corbly escaped.|||
|1791||November 4||Fort Recovery Massacre||At present day Fort Recovery, Ohio, an army of 1,500 Americans led by Arthur St. Clair, was ambushed by an army of Miami Indians led by chief Little Turtle. Before retreating, 700 of the 1,500 American soldiers were slaughtered.|||
|1805||January||Canyon del Muerto||Spanish soldiers led by Antonio Narbona massacred 115 Navajo Indians (mostly women, children and old men) in Canyon del Muerto, northeastern Arizona.|||
|1812||August 15||Fort Dearborn Massacre
(Battle of Fort Dearborn)
|During the War of 1812, Indians allied with the British killed American soldiers and settlers evacuating Fort Dearborn (site of present-day Chicago, Illinois). In all, 26 soldiers, two officers, two women and 12 children, and 12 trappers and settlers hired as scouts, were killed.|||
|1812||September 3||Pigeon Roost Massacre||During the War of 1812, twenty four settlers, including fifteen children, were massacred by a war party of Native Americans (mostly Shawnee, but possibly including some Delawares and Potawatomis) in a surprise attack on a small village located in what is today Scott County, Indiana.|||
|1812||September 10||Zimmer Massacre||During the War of 1812, four settlers were killed in an attack believed to be by aggrieved Lenape, in Ashland County, Ohio.|||
|1812||September 15||Copus Massacre||During the War of 1812, Northwest Indians attacked the Ashland County, Ohio homestead of Rev. James Copus, killing three militiamen and one settler; and wounding two militiamen and a settler's daughter; settlers killed two Indians.|||
|1813||January 22||River Raisin Massacre||During the War of 1812, Indians allied with the British killed between 30 and 60 Kentucky militia after their surrender.|||
|1813||August 18||Dilbone Massacre||During the War of 1812, an Indian allegedly killed three settlers (David Garrard and Henry Dilbone and wife) in Miami County, Ohio. Settlers later killed the Indian they suspected of the murders.|||
|1813||August 30||Fort Mims Massacre||After Creek were attacked by US forces in the Battle of Burnt Corn (which the Creek won), a band of Red Sticks sacked Fort Mims, Alabama, killing 400 civilians and taking 250 scalps. This action brought the US into the internal Creek War, at the same time as the War of 1812.|||
|1813||November 18||Hillabee Massacre||Tennessee troops under General White launched a dawn attacked on an unsuspecting Creek town (the village leaders were engaged in peace negotiations with General Andrew Jackson). About 65 Creek Indians were shot or bayoneted.|||
|1813||November 29||Autossee Massacre
(Battle of Autossee)
|Georgia Militia General Floyd attacked a Creek town on Tallapoosa River, in Macon County, Alabama, killing 200 Indians before setting the village afire.|||
|1818||April 22||Chehaw Affair||During the First Seminole War, U.S. troops attacked a non-hostile Muscogee village, killing an estimated 10 to 50 men, women and children.|||
|1824||March 22||Fall Creek Massacre||Six settlers in Madison County, Indiana killed and robbed eight Seneca. One suspect escaped trial and another was a witness at subsequent trial. Of those charged with murder, one man was hanged 12 January 1825, and two were hanged 2 June 1825. The last defendant was pardoned at the last minute.|||
|1826||Dressing Point Massacre||A posse of Anglo-Texan settlers massacred a large community of Karankawa Indians near the mouth of the Colorado River in Matagorda County, Texas. Between 40 and 50 Karankawas were killed.|||
|1832||May 20||Indian Creek Massacre||A party of Potawatomi, with a few Sauk allies, killed fifteen men, women and children and kidnapped two young women, who were later ransomed.|||
|1832||May 24||St. Vrain massacre||4 killed by Ho-Chunk while delivering dispatches during Black Hawk War near present day Pearl City, Illinois during Black Hawk War|||
|1832||June 14||Spafford Farm massacre||Five men were attacked by a Kickapoo war party, four whites and one Indian died, during Black Hawk War, near present day South Wayne, Wisconsin|||
|1832||August 1||Battle of Bad Axe||Soldiers under General Henry Atkinson and armed volunteers killed around 150 Indian men, women and children near present-day Victory, Wisconsin.|||
|1833||Exact date unknown||Cutthroat Gap Massacre||Osage tribe attacked a Kiowa camp west of the Wichita Mountains in southwest Oklahoma where one hundred and fifty Kiowa tribal inhabitants were brutally slaughtered in the Osage attack.|||
|1835||December 28||Dade Massacre||During the Second Seminole War, Seminole killed almost all of a command of 110 American soldiers in Central Florida. All but two of the soldiers were killed; and one survivor died a few months later from his wounds.|||
|1836||May 19||Fort Parker Massacre||Comanche killed seven European Americans in Limestone County, Texas. The five captured included Cynthia Ann Parker.|||
|1837||April 22||Johnson Massacre||At least 20 Apaches were killed near Santa Rita del Cobre, New Mexico while traiding with a group of American settlers led by John Johnson. The Anglos blasted the Apaches with a canon loaded with musket balls, nails and pieces of glass and finished off the wounded.|||
|1838||October 5||Killough Massacre||Indians massacred eighteen members and relatives of the Killough family in Texas.|||
|1838 or 1839||Exact date unknown||Webster Massacre||Comanche killed a party of settlers attempting to ford the Bushy Creek near present day Leander, Texas. All of the Anglo men were killed and Mrs. Webster and her two children were captured.|||
|1840||March 19||Council House Massacre||The 12 leaders of a Comanche delegation (65 people including 35 women and children) were shot in San Antonio, Texas, while trying to escape the local jail. 23 others including 5 women and children were killed in or around the city.|||
|1840||August 7||Indian Key Massacre||During the Seminole Wars, Florida Seminole attacked and destroyed an Indian Key settlement, killing 13 inhabitants, including noted horticulturist Dr. Henry Perrine.|||
|1840||October 24||Colorado River||Volunteer Rangers under Colonel Moore massacred 140 Comanches (men, women and children) in their village on the Colorado and captured 35 others (mostly small children).|||
|1840||Exact date unknown||Clear Lake Massacre||A posse led by Mexican Salvador Vallejo massacred 150 Pomo and Wappo Indians on Clear Lake, California.|||
|1846||March||Sacramento River||Captain Frémont's men attacked a peaceful band of Indians (probably Yanas) on the Sacramento River in California, killing between 120 and 200 Indians.|||
|1846||December||Pauma massacre||11 Californios killed by Indians at Escondido, California led to the Temecula massacre.|||
|1846||December||Temecula massacre||33 to 40 Indians killed in revenge for the Pauma Massacre at Escondido, California.|||
|1847||February 3–4||Storming of Pueblo de Taos||In response to a New Mexican-instigated uprising in Taos, American troops attacked the Pueblo of Taos, using a howitzer to shell the village church. The Americans slaughtered nearly 150 Indians within and near the church. Between 25 and 30 prisonners were shot by firing squads.|||
|1847||November 29||Whitman massacre||Cayuse and Umatilla killed the missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, Mrs. Narcissa Whitman and twelve others at Walla Walla, Washington, triggering the Cayuse War.|||
|1848||April||Brazos River||A hunting party of 26 friendly Wichita and Caddo Indians was massacred by Texas Rangers under Captain Samuel Highsmithe, in a valley south of Brazos River. 25 men and boys were killed, only one child managed to escape.|||
|1850||May 15||Bloody Island Massacre||Nathaniel Lyon and his U. S. Army detachment of cavalry killed 60–100 Pomo people on Bo-no-po-ti island near Clear Lake, (Lake Co., California); they believed the Pomo had killed two Clear Lake settlers who had been abusing and murdering Pomo people. (The Island Pomo had no connections to the enslaved Pomo). This incident led to a general outbreak of settler attacks against and mass killing of native people all over Northern California. Site is California Registered Historical Landmark #427|||
|1851||Old Shasta Town||Miners killed 300 Wintu Indians near Old Shasta, California and burned down their tribal council meeting house.|||
|1852||Hynes Bay Massacre||Texas militiamen attacked a village of 50 Karankawas, killing 45 of them.|||
|1852||April 23||Bridge Gulch Massacre||70 American men led by Trinity County sheriff William H. Dixon killed more than 150 Wintu people in the Hayfork Valley of California, in retaliation for the killing of Col. John Anderson.|||
|1852||November||Wright Massacre||White settlers led by a notorious Indian hunter named Ben Wright massacred 41 Modocs during a "peace parley".|||
|1853||Yontoket Massacre||A posse of settlers attacked and burnt a Tolowa rancheria at Yontocket, California. 450 Tolowa Indians killed during prayer ceremony by company of volunteers.|||
|1853||Achulet Massacre||White settlers launched an attack on a Tolowa village near Lake Earl in California, killing between 65 and 150 Indians at dawn.|||
|1853||Before December 31||"Ox" incident||US forces attacked and killed an unreported number of Indians in the Four Creeks area (Tulare County, California) in what was referred to by officers as "our little difficulty" and "the chastisement they have received".|||
|1854||August 19||Grattan Massacre||After a detachment of 30 U.S. soldiers in the Nebraska Territory opened fire on an encampment of 4,000 Brulé Sioux, killing Chief Conquering Bear, warriors attacked and killed all the soldiers and their civilian interpreter.|||
|1854||August 20||Ward Massacre||Shoshone killed 18 of the 20 members of the Alexander Ward party, attacking them on the Oregon Trail in western Idaho. This event led the U.S. eventually to abandon Fort Boise and Fort Hall, in favor of the use of military escorts for emigrant wagon trains.|||
|1855||January 22||Klamath River massacres||In retaliation for the murder of six settlers and the theft of some cattle, whites commenced a "war of extermination against the Indians" in Humboldt County, California.|||
|1855||September 2||Harney Massacre||US troops under Brigadier General William S. Harney killed 86 Sioux, men, women and children at Blue Water Creek, in present-day Nebraska. About 70 women and children were taken prisoner.|||
|1855||October 8||Lupton Massacre||A group of settlers and miners launched a night attack on an Indian village near Upper Table Rock, Oregon, killing 23 Indians (mostly elderly men, women and children).|||
|1855||December 23||Little Butte Creek||Oregon volunteers launched a dawn attack on a Tututni and Takelma camp on the Rogue River. Between 19 to 26 Indians were slaughtered.|||
|1856||June||Grande Ronde River Valley Massacre||Washington Territorial Volunteers under Colonel Benjamin Shaw attacked a peaceful Cayuse and Walla Walla Indians on the Grande Ronde River in Oregon. 60 Indians, mostly women, old men and children were killed.|||
|1856||March||Shingletown||In reprisal for indian stock theft, white settlers massacred at least 20 Yana men, women and children near Shingletown, California.|||
|1857||Mar 8–12||Spirit Lake Massacre||Thirty-five to 40 killed and 4 taken captive by Santee Sioux in the last Native American attack on settlers in Iowa.|||
|1858-1859||Round Valley Massacres||White settlers slaughtered 150 Yuki Indians in Round Valley, California. Massacres continued through the spring and summer of 1859. In April 1859, in revenge for the killing of 3 cows and 1 stallion belonging to a white man, California militiamen massacred 240 Indians on the Eel River. On 1 May, Major Johnson reported that six hundred Yukis had been massacred by white settlers "in the last year".|||
|1859||September||Pit River||White settlers massacred 70 Achomawi Indians (10 men and 60 women and children) in their village on Pit River in California.|||
|1859||Chico Creek||White settlers attacked a Maidu camp near Chico Creek in California, killing indiscriminately 40 Indians.|||
|1860||Exact date unknown||Massacre at Bloody Rock||A group of 65 Yuki Indians were surrounded and massacred by white settlers at Bloody Rock, in Mendocino County, California.|||
|1860||February 26||Indian Island Massacre||In three nearly simultaneous assaults on the Wiyot, at Indian Island, Eureka, Rio Dell, and near Hydesville, California white settlers killed between 200 and 250 Wiyot in Humboldt County, California. Victims were mostly women, children and elders, as reported by Bret Harte at Arcata newspaper. Other villages massacred within two days. The main site is National Register of Historic Places in the United States #66000208.|||
|1860||December 18||Pease River Massacre||Texas Rangers under Captain Sul Ross attacked a Comanche village in Foard County, Texas, killing indiscriminately a considerable number of Indians.|||
|1860||September 8||Otter Massacre||Near Sinker Creek Idaho, 11 persons of the last wagon train of the year were killed and several others were subsequently killed. Some that escaped the initial massacre starved to death|||
|1861||Horse Canyon Massacre||White settlers and Indian allies attacked a Wailaki village in Horse Canyon (Round Valley, California), killing up to 240 Wailakis.|||
|1861||Cookes Canyon Massacres||Apaches massacred hundreds of Americans and Mexicans in and around Cookes Canyon, New Mexico over the course of several months.|||
|1861||Sep 2||Gallinas Massacre||Four Confederate soldiers killed by Chiricahua Apache warriors.|||
|1862||Upper Station Massacre||California settlers killed at least 20 Wailakis in Round Valley, California.|||
|1862||Big Antelope Creek Massacre||California settlers led by notorious Indian hunter Hi Good launched a dawn attack on a Yana village, massacring about 25 Indians.|||
|1862||August–September||Dakota War of 1862||As part of the U.S.-Dakota War, the Sioux killed as many as 800 white settlers and soldiers throughout Minnesota. Some 40,000 white settlers fled their homes on the frontier.|||
|1862||October 24||Tonkawa Massacre||During the U.S. Civil War, a detachment of irregular Union Indians, mainly Kickapoo, Delaware and Shawnee, accompanied by Caddo allies, attempted to destroy the Tonkawa tribe in Indian Territory. They killed 240 of 390 Tonkawa, leaving only 150 survivors.|||
|1863||January 29||Bear River Massacre||Col. Patrick Connor led a United States Army regiment killing 280 Shoshone men, women and children near Preston, Idaho.|||
|1863||April 19||Keyesville Massacre||American militia and members of the California cavalry killed 35 Tehachapi men in Kern County, California.|||
|1863 - 1865||Mowry massacres||16 settlers killed in a series of Indian raids at Mowry, Arizona Territory|||
|1864||Cottonwood||20 Yanas of both sexes killed by white settlers in the town of Cottonwood, California.|||
|1864||Massacre at Bloody Tanks||A group of white settlers led by King S. Woolsey killed 19 Apaches at a "peace parley".|||
|1864||Oak Run Massacre||California settlers massacred 300 Yana Indians who had gathered near the head of Oak Run, California for spiritual ceremony.|||
|1864||Skull Valley Massacre||A group of Yavapai families was lured into a trap and massacred by soldiers under Lt. Monteith in a valley west of Prescott, Arizona (Arizona). The place was named Skull Valley after the heads of the dead Indians left unburied.|||
|1864||November 29||Sand Creek Massacre||Members of the Colorado Militia attacked a peaceful village of Cheyenne, killing at least 160 men, women and children at Sand Creek in Kiowa County.|||
|1865||March 14||Mud Lake Massacre||US troops under Captain Wells attacked a Paiute camp near Winnemucca Lake, killing 32 Indians. One soldier was slightly wounded during the attack.|||
|1865||Owens Lake Massacre||White vigilantes attacked a Paiute camp on Owens Lake in California, killing about 40 men, women and children.|||
|1866||Three Knolls Massacre||White settlers massacred a Yana community at Three Knolls on the Mill Creek, California.|||
|1866||April 21||Circleville Massacre||Mormon militiamen killed 16 Paiute men and women at Circleville, Utah. 6 men were shot, allegedly while trying to escape. The others (3 men and 7 women) had their throats cut. 4 small children were spared.|||
|1867||Aquarius Mountains||Yavapai County Rangers killed 23 Indians (men, women and children) in the southern Aquarius Mountains, Arizona.|||
|1867||July 2||Kidder Massacre||Cheyenne and Sioux ambushed and killed a 2nd US Cavalry detachment of eleven men and their Indian guide near Beaver Creek in Sherman County, Kansas. General Custer was an after-the-fact witness at the scene.|||
|1868||Campo Seco||A posse of white settlers massacred 33 Yahis in a cave north of Mill Creek, California.|||
|1868||November 27||Washita Massacre
(Battle of Washita River)
|During the American Indian Wars, Lt. Col. G.A.Custer's 7th U.S. Cavalry attacked a village of sleeping Cheyenne led by Black Kettle. Custer reported 103 – later revised to 140 – warriors, "some" women and "few" children killed, and 53 women and children taken hostage. Other casualty estimates by cavalry members, scouts and Indians vary widely, with the number of men killed ranging as low as 11 and the numbers of women and children ranging as high as 75. Before returning to their base, the cavalry killed several hundred Indian ponies and burned the village.|||
|1870||January 23||Marias Massacre||White Americans killed 173 Piegan, mainly women, children and the elderly.|||
|1871||Kingsley Cave Massacre||4 settlers killed 30 Yahi Indians in Tehama County, California about two miles from Wild Horse Corral in the Ishi Wilderness. It is estimated that this massacre left only 15 members of the Yahi tribe alive|||
|1871||April 30||Camp Grant Massacre||Led by the ex-Mayor of Tucson, William Oury, eight Americans, 48 Mexicans and more than 100 allied Pima attacked Apache men, women and children at Camp Grant, Arizona Territory killing 144, with 1 survivor at scene and 29 children sold to slavery. All but eight of the dead were Apache women or children.|||
|1871||November 5||Wickenburg massacre||Indians attacked an Arizona stagecoach, killing the driver and his five passengers, leaving two wounded survivors.|||
|1872||Between August and October||Jordan Massacre||3 settlers killed, 1 woman abducted, apparently by Indians at Middle Fork of Walnut Creek, Kansas|||
|1872||December 28||Skeleton Cave Massacre||U.S. troops and Indian scouts killed 76 Yavapai Indians men, women and children in a remote cave in Arizona's Salt River Canyon.|||
|1873||June 1||Cypress Hills Massacre||Following a dispute over stolen horses, American wolfers killed approximately 20 Nakoda in Saskatchewan.|||
|1875||April 10||Sappa Creek Massacre||Soldiers under Lt Austin Henly trapped a group of 27 Cheyenne, (19 men, 8 women and children) on the Sappa Creek, in Kansas and killed them all.|||
|1877||August 8||Big Hole Massacre||US troops under Colonel John Gibbon attacked a Nez Perce village at Big Hole, in Montana Territory. They killed 89 men, women and children before being repulsed by the Indians.|||
|1879||January 9–21||Fort Robinson Massacre||Northern Cheyenne under Dull Knife attempted to escape from confinement in Fort Robinson, Nebraska; U.S. Army forces hunted them down, killing 77 of them. The remains of those killed were repatriated in 1994.|||
|1879||September 30||Meeker Massacre||In the beginning of the Ute War, the Ute killed the US Indian Agent Nathan Meeker and 10 others. They also attacked a military unit, killing 13 and wounding 43.|||
|1880||April 28||Alma Massacre||The Apache chief Victorio led warriors in an attack on settlers at Alma, New Mexico. On December 19, 1885, the Apache killed an officer and four enlisted men of the 8th Cavalry Regiment near Alma.|||
|1889||November 2||Kelvin Grade Massacre||The Apache Kid (Haskay-bay-nay-ntayl) and his gang escaped police custody, killing two sheriffs and wounding one settler near present-day Globe, Arizona.|||
|1890||December 10||Buffalo Gap Massacre||Several wagonloads of Sioux were killed by South Dakota Home Guard militiamen near French Creek, South Dakota, while visiting a white friend in Buffalo Gap.|||
|1890||December||Stronghold||South Dakota Home Guard militiamen ambushed and massacred 75 Sioux at the Stronghold, in the northern portion of Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.|||
|1890||December 29||Wounded Knee Massacre||Members of the U.S. 7th Cavalry attacked and killed between 130 and 250 Sioux men, women and children at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.|||
|1911||January 19||Last Massacre||A group of Shoshone killed four ranchers in Washoe County, Nevada. On 26 February 1911, an American posse killed eight of the Shoshone suspects and captured four children from the band.|||
- American Indian Wars
- Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas
- List of events named massacres
- List of massacres in the United States
- List of conflicts in the United States
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- "Conquistador Statue Stirs Hispanic Pride and Indian Rage"
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- Jamestown: Legacy of the Massacre of 1622 | Americans at War: 1500–1815 Summary
- Cave, Alfred A., The Pequot War, University of Massachusetts Press, 1996, pp. 144–154.
- Wm Kieft and Pavonia
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- Find A Grave website
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- Resistance and Accommodation in New Mexico
- George, Charles; Douglas Roberts (1897). A History of Canada. Boston: The Page Company. pp. 93–94.
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- Banks, Charles Edward, History of York, Maine, successively known as Bristol (1632), Agamentious (1641), Gorgeana (1642), and York (1652). With contributions on topography and land titles by Angevine W. Gowen. Sketches by the author. (Baltimore, Regional Publishing Company, 1967 reprint of first edition: Charles E. Banks, Boston, 1931 Vol. 1
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- Ashlee, Laura R. Traveling Through Time: A Guide to Michigan's Historical Markers, University of Michigan Press, 2005, p. 502, ISBN 978-0-47203-066-8
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- Read, Milton , The tar heel state: a history of North Carolina, University of South Carolina Press, 2005, pp. 36–37, ISBN 978-1-57003-591-3
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- Grenier, John The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760, University of Oklahoma Press, 2008, p. 84, ISBN 978-0-80613-876-3
- Barnett, James F., The Natchez Indians: a history to 1735, University Press of Mississippi, 2007, p. 105, ISBN 978-1-57806-988-0
- Edmunds, R. Davids and Peyser, Joseph L. The Fox Wars: Mesquakie Challenge to New France, University of Oklahoma Press, 1993, pp. 151-156, ISBN 978-0-80612-551-0
- Blackhawk, Ned, Violence over the Land: Indians and Empires in the Early American West, Harvard University Press, 2006, p. 50, ISBN 978-0-67402-290-4
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- Taylor, Alan, American Colonies, New York: Viking Press, 2001
- "A Narrative of the Late Massacres...", Benjamin Franklin's account of the massacre and criticism of the Paxton Boys
- "A Disquisition Portraying the History Relative to the Enoch Brown Incident", Greencastle Museum
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- Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission | The Battle of Wyoming and Hartley's Expedition
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- Dietz Massacre
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- Fairfax Downed, Indian Wars of the U.S. Army 1776-1865 (1963), pp. 54-59
- Denetdale, Jennifer Nez, Reclaiming Diné History: The Legacies of Navajo Chief Manuelito and Juanita, University of Arizona Press; 2007, p. 56. ISBN 978-0-81652-660-4.
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- Sweeney, Edwin R. Cochise: Chiricahua Apache Chief, University of Oklahoma Press, 1995, p. 33, ISBN 978-0806126067
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- Letter, Brevet Capt. N. Lyon to Major E.R.S. Canby, 22 May 1850
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- ABC-CLIO Schools | Washita Massacre
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