Indian Premier League

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Indian Premier League
Pepsi IPL logo.png
Countries India India
Administrator BCCI
Format Twenty20
First tournament 2008
Next tournament 2016 [1]
Tournament format Double round-robin and playoffs
Number of teams 8 (current)
Current champion KKR Kolkata Knight Riders (2nd title)
Most successful CSK Chennai Super Kings
KKR Kolkata Knight Riders
(2 titles each)
Qualification Champions League Twenty20
Most runs India Suresh Raina (3452), Chennai Super Kings
Most wickets Sri Lanka Lasith Malinga (125), Mumbai Indians
TV List of broadcasters television
Website iplt20.com
2015 Indian Premier League

The Indian Premier League (IPL) (currently known as the Pepsi Indian Premier League for sponsorship reasons[2]) is an annual Indian Twenty20 cricket tournament, founded in 2008 by the BCCI. It consists of a number of teams (currently 8) which are named after Indian cities and owned by franchises, and is held in India between April and June.[N 1]

The IPL is the most-watched Twenty20 league in the world and is also known for its commercial success. In 2010, the IPL became the first sporting event to be broadcast live on YouTube. The brand value of the 2014 Indian Premier League was estimated to be around US$7.2 billion.[4]

The IPL is currently supervised by BCCI Vice-President Ranjib Biswal, who serves as the League's chairman and Commissioner.[5] Sundar Raman has been the IPL chief operating officer (COO) since its first season, after he was appointed by the former IPL Commissioner Lalit Modi in 2008.[6]

Of the 11 teams to have competed since its inception, five have won the title: Kolkata Knight Riders (2 times), Chennai Super Kings (2), Rajasthan Royals (1), Deccan Chargers (1), and Mumbai Indians (1). Chennai Super Kings are the most successful team so far, having won the title twice and have managed to qualify for the finals in every season except in 2009 and 2014. The current champions are the Kolkata Knight Riders, who won the 2014 season by beating the Kings XI Punjab by 3 wickets.

History[edit]

The IPL was inaugurated in 2008, in the midst of the period during which the Indian Cricket League was operational. Until 2012, the Indian Premier League was sponsored by DLF after they paid $50 million for a five-year sponsorship of the competition. Pepsi took over the contract for the 2013 IPL season after paying close to $72 million for the 5-year contract.[7] In 2008, Sony paid $1 billion for the broadcasting rights over a ten-year period. The IPL is watched globally, and in 2010 made history by becoming the first sporting event to be broadcast live on YouTube.[8]

First season[edit]

The first season of IPL was sponsored by DLF. The inaugural season of the tournament took place from 18 April – 1 June 2008. The group stages featured eight teams playing against each other twice, once at home and once away basis, with the top four progressing to the semi-finals.

The final was played in DY Patil Stadium, Nerul, Navi Mumbai. The first winner of the tournament was Rajasthan Royals, who beat Chennai Super Kings in a close encounter match that went down to the last ball. Rajasthan Royals' Shane Watson was named player of the tournament.

Second season[edit]

The 2009 Indian Premier League season, also known as IPL 2, was hosted in South Africa because of the general elections in India and was played for 37 days from 18 April – 24 May 2009. Deccan Chargers beat Royal Challengers Bangalore in the final to take the title (these two were placed 8th and 7th respectively in the standings of the previous season).

Third season[edit]

The third season returned to India and it was the first IPL tournament that was broadcast live on YouTube.[8] The final four matches of the tournament were screened in 3D across theatres in India. The Chennai Super Kings defeated the Mumbai Indians in the finals to win their first title.

Fourth season[edit]

In 2011, two new teams, Pune Warriors India (PWI) from Pune and Kochi Tuskers Kerala (KTK) from Kochi made their debut in IPL 4. However, the bid for the Kochi franchise turned controversial resulting in the resignation of a minister, Shashi Tharoor from the Central Government. Later Lalit Modi was also removed from the IPL chairmanship by BCCI. On 5 December 2010, it was confirmed that Kochi would take part in the fourth season of IPL.[7]

With the addition of 2 teams, namely Sahara's Pune Warriors India and the Kochi Tuskers Kerala, the number of franchises increased from 8 to 10. The format was changed to each team playing 5 other teams in a home-away format. Of the remaining, a team would play 2 at home and 2 away matches. Thus each team played a total of 14 matches. The season ran from 8 April to 28 May 2011.

The IPL was scheduled just 7 days after India won the 2011 Cricket World Cup on April 2, 2011 . The Chennai Super Kings won their second consecutive title after defeating the Royal Challengers Bangalore by 58 runs in the final.[9]

The Kochi Tuskers Kerala withdrew at the end of this IPL season.

Fifth season[edit]

The fifth season featured nine teams after the termination of the Kochi franchise. The auction of the players was held on 4 February 2012. Maximum number of players in each squad was increased from 30 to 33. A total of 76 matches were played from 4 April to 27 May.[10] The Delhi Daredevils, the Kolkata Knight Riders, the Mumbai Indians and the Chennai Super Kings qualified for the playoffs. The final was hosted by Chennai on 27 May, where the Chennai Super Kings played against the Kolkata Knight Riders. The Kolkata Knight Riders won the match by 5 wickets.

This edition of the IPL was the most competitive with 14 matches producing results in the very last over, and a couple in the last ball.[11][12] Towards the end of the league, it encountered many hurdles including a spot fixing case, which allegedly included five players caught on a sting operation carried by a news channel.[13][14]

Sixth season[edit]

Pepsi replaced DLF as the title sponsor.[15] Nine teams participated in the sixth season. The sixth season took place 3 April – 26 May 2013. Deccan Chargers franchise was terminated by the IPL governing council which was later replaced by Sunrisers Hyderabad owned by Sun Group.

Chennai Super Kings, Mumbai Indians, Rajasthan Royals and Sunrisers Hyderabad were the four teams in the league stage to qualify for the playoffs. Rajasthan Royals defeated Sunrisers Hyderabad by 4 wickets in the eliminator played at Feroz Shah Kotla in New Delhi.[16] Mumbai Indians defeated Rajasthan Royals in the second qualifier and faced Chennai Super Kings in the Final. Mumbai Indians defeated Chennai Super Kings by 23 runs for their first title win. Shane Watson was named man of the tournament. Sachin Tendulkar[17] announced his retirement from IPL after Mumbai Indians Won the tournament[18]

Pune Warriors India team was dissolved on the same day.

Seventh season[edit]

The league ran 16 April – 1 June 2014 and due to security demands for the 2014 Lok Sabha Elections the early matches were played in the UAE, before the seventh edition of Indian Premier League returned to India for the remainder of the tournament. As Pune Warriors India had been dissolved, this left 8 team participating in the 2014 season.

The auction of players for the seventh season of IPL took place on 13 and 15 February 2014 in Bangalore. For the second time after 2011 IPL teams were allowed to retain up to 5 players. 7 teams retained at least 2 players from the previous squad.

Kings XI Punjab, Kolkata Knight Riders, Chennai Super Kings and Mumbai Indians were the four teams that made it to the playoffs. Kolkata Knight Riders defeated Kings XI Punjab by 28 runs in first qualifier to reach the final. Chennai Super Kings faced Kings XI Punjab in the second qualifier after defeating Mumbai Indians by 7 wickets in the eliminator, Kings XI Punjab defeated them by 24 runs to reach the finals.[19] In the finals held on 1 June,Kolkata Knight Riders beat Kings XI Punjab by 3 wickets, to become the winner of IPL 2014, their second IPL victory. The orange cap was won by Kolkata Knight Riders's Robin Uthappa & the Purple cap was won by Chennai Super King's Mohit Sharma. Glenn Maxwell was named Man of the Tournament. This was the first IPL tournament where the winner of the orange cap represented the team winning the tournament.[20][21]

Eighth season[edit]

The eighth season started on 8 April 2015 and will run until the final on 24 May 2015. There has been a fresh auction of players among teams. This season had to be adjusted around a week late than every year because of the tight scheduling of teams due to the 2015 Cricket World Cup.

League organization[edit]

Franchises[edit]

The winning bidders for the eight franchises (or clubs) were announced on 24 January 2008.[22] While the total base price for auction was US$400 million, the auction fetched US$723.59 million.[23] Chennai Super Kings, Delhi Daredevils, Kings XI Punjab, Kolkata Knight Riders, Mumbai Indians, Rajasthan Royals, Royal Challengers Bangalore and Deccan Chargers were the founding clubs of the new professional league.

On 21 March 2010, teams from Pune (Pune Warriors India) and Kochi (Kochi Tuskers Kerala) were unveiled as the two new clubs for the fourth edition of the Indian Premier League. The base price was $225 million. While Pune was bought by Sahara Adventure Sports Group for $370 million, the Kochi franchise was bought by Rendezvous Sports World Limited for $333.3 million.[24] The second franchise auction fetched total $703 million.

The rights to the new Hyderabad franchise were awarded to the Sun TV Network in October 2012.[25]

Tournament rules[edit]

There are five ways that a franchise can acquire a player: In the annual auction, signing domestic players, signing uncapped players, through trading, and signing replacements.[26][27] In the trading window, the player can only be traded with his consent. The franchise will have to pay the difference between the old contract price and the new contract price. If the new contract is worth more than the older one, then the difference will be shared between the player and the franchise selling the player.[28][29]

Some of the team composition rules are:

  • A minimum squad strength of 16 players plus one physiotherapist and a coach.
  • No more than 9 foreign players in the squad and a maximum of four foreign players should be in the playing eleven.
  • A minimum of 14 Indian players must be included in each squad.
  • A minimum of six players from the BCCI under-22 pool must be included in each squad.

IPL games utilise television timeouts, hence there is no time limit for teams to complete their innings. However, there may be a penalty if the umpires find teams misusing this privilege at their own choice. Additionally, each team is given a two-and-a-half-minute "strategic timeout" during each innings; one must be taken by the bowling team between the 6th to 10th overs, and the batting team between the 11th to 16th overs.[30]

The total spending cap for a franchise in the first player auction was US$5 million. Under-22 players are to be remunerated with a minimum annual salary of US$20,000 while for others it is US$50,000.

Teams' performances[edit]

Team 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Chennai Super Kings R 4th W W R R 3rd TBD
Delhi Daredevils 4th 3rd 5th 10th 3rd 9th 8th TBD
Kings XI Punjab 3rd 5th 8th 5th 6th 6th R TBD
Kolkata Knight Riders 6th 8th 6th 4th W 7th W TBD
Mumbai Indians 5th 7th R 3rd 4th W 4th TBD
Rajasthan Royals W 6th 7th 6th 7th 3rd 5th TBD
Royal Challengers Bangalore 7th R 3rd R 5th 5th 7th TBD
Sunrisers Hyderabad DNP DNP DNP DNP DNP 4th 6th TBD
Deccan Chargers 8th W 4th 7th 8th DNP DNP DNP
Pune Warriors India DNP DNP DNP 9th 9th 8th DNP DNP
Kochi Tuskers Kerala DNP DNP DNP 8th DNP DNP DNP DNP

Notes:

  • W = Winner; R = Runner-up;      = Semifinalist; DNP = Did not play/participate; TBD = To be decided

Titles and performance[edit]

Team Span Titles Best performance
Chennai Super Kings 2008–2015 2 Champions (2010, 2011)
Kolkata Knight Riders 2008–2015 2 Champions (2012, 2014)
Mumbai Indians 2008–2015 1 Champions (2013)
Rajasthan Royals 2008–2015 1 Champions (2008)
Royal Challengers Bangalore 2008–2015 0 Runners-up (2009, 2011)
Kings XI Punjab 2008–2015 0 Runners-up (2014)
Delhi Daredevils 2008–2015 0 Semifinals (2009, 2012)
Sunrisers Hyderabad 2013–2015 0 Playoffs (2013)
Deccan Chargers 2008–2012 1 Champions (2009)
Pune Warriors India 2011–2013 0 8th place (2013)
Kochi Tuskers Kerala 2011–2011 0 8th place (2011)
  •      Defunct teams (no longer exists)

Source: Cricinfo[31]

Tournament summary[edit]

Season Champions Runners-up Semi-finalists No. of teams
2008 Rajasthan Royals Chennai Super Kings Kings XI Punjab Delhi Daredevils 8
2009 Deccan Chargers Royal Challengers Bangalore Delhi Daredevils Chennai Super Kings 8
2010 Chennai Super Kings Mumbai Indians Royal Challengers Bangalore Deccan Chargers 8
2011 Chennai Super Kings Royal Challengers Bangalore Mumbai Indians Kolkata Knight Riders 10
2012 Kolkata Knight Riders Chennai Super Kings Delhi Daredevils Mumbai Indians 9
2013 Mumbai Indians Chennai Super Kings Rajasthan Royals Sunrisers Hyderabad 9
2014 Kolkata Knight Riders Kings XI Punjab Chennai Super Kings Mumbai Indians 8
2015 TBD TBD TBD TBD 8

Source: Cricinfo[31]

Prize money[edit]

Season 7 of Indian Premier League (IPL 2014) offer a total prize money of INR40 crore (US$6.3 million). The winning team of IPL gets a prize money of INR14 crore (US$2.2 million).[32]

  • Champions: INR 200 million
  • Runner-up: INR 100 million
  • Third place: INR 75 million
  • Fourth place: INR 75 million
  • No prize money for remaining teams

It must be noted that IPL rules mandate that half of the prize money must be distributed among the players.[33]

Sponsorships[edit]

India's biggest property developer DLF Group paid 2.50 billion (around US$50 million) to be the main sponsor of the tournament for 5 years from 2008 to 2012.[34] From 2013 season, the American food and beverage company PepsiCo took over title sponsorship for five years valued at 396.8 million, and also exclusive beverage supplier for the IPL teams in the 2013 season.[35][36]

The IPL is expected to bring the BCCI an income of approximately US$1.6 billion, over a period of five to ten years. All of these revenues are directed to a central pool, 40% of which will go to IPL itself, 54% to franchises and 6% as prize money. The money will be distributed in these proportions until 2017, after which the share of IPL will be 50%, franchises 45% and prize money 5%. The IPL signed up Kingfisher Airlines as the official umpire partner for the series in a INR1.06 billion (US$17 million) (approximately £15 million) deal. This deal sees the McDowells No.1 brand on all umpires' uniforms and also on the giant screens during third umpire decisions.[37]

Other sponsorships include, a deal with Hero MotoCorp worth $22.5 million, with PepsiCo worth $12.5 million, and a deal with Kingfisher at $26.5 million.[38]

Television rights[edit]

On 17 January 2008 it was announced that a consortium consisting of India's Sony Entertainment Television(Set Max) network and Singapore-based World Sport Group secured the global broadcasting rights of the Indian Premier League.[39] The record deal has a duration of ten years at a cost of US$1.026 billion. As part of the deal, the consortium will pay the BCCI US$918 million for the television broadcast rights and US$108 million for the promotion of the tournament.[40] The initial plan was for 20% of these proceeds would go to IPL, 8% as prize money and 72% would be distributed to the franchisees from 2008 until 2012, after which the IPL would go public and list its shares.[41] However, in March 2010, IPL decided not to go public and list its shares. Sony-WSG then re-sold parts of the broadcasting rights geographically to other companies.

Revenue and profits[edit]

The UK-based brand consultancy, Brand Finance, has valued the IPL at $4.13 billion in 2010.[42] It was valued at US$2.01 billion in 2009 by the same consultancy.[43]

There are disputed figures for the profitability of the teams. One analyst said that four teams out of the eight made a profit in 2009.[44] While The Times said that all but Kings XI Punjab made a profit.[45]

In 2010, the IPL expects to have 80 official merchandising deals. It has signed a deal with Swiss watchmaker Bandelier to make official watches for the IPL.[46]

Media coverage[edit]

Current broadcasters[edit]

Location Television Broadcaster(s) Years Terms of Deal Refs
Africa (Sub-Saharan)[List 1] SuperSport 2008-2017 [47]
Bangladesh Maasranga Television 2008- [48]
Bhutan SET Max (Hindi)
Sony SIX (English)
2008-2017
2013-
[48]
Brunei Astro 2008- [48]
Canada Sportsnet One
Sportsnet World
Omni Television
ATN-Asian Radio (radio)
2011-
2011-
2011
2008-
Exclusive broadcast rights [49][50]
Caribbean [List 2] SportsMax 2008- [39]
Europe Sky Sports 2015- [51]
Hong Kong PCCW 2010- [48]
India SET Max (Hindi)
Sony SIX (English)
Sony KIX (Tamil)
Sony KIX (Telugu)
Sony KIX (Bangla)
2008-2017
2013-
2015-
2015-
2015-
INR87 billion (US$1.4 billion) (revised) [39][52]
Malaysia Astro 2008- [48]
Middle East and North Africa[List 3] OSN 2015- [39][48]
Nepal SET Max (Hindi)
Sony SIX (English)
2008-2017
2013-
[48]
New Zealand Sky Sport 2008-2010, 2012- [48]
Pakistan GEO Super 2008-2010, 2012- [48]
Singapore StarHub
Singtel
2008-
2015-
[48]
Sri Lanka Carlton Sports Network 2012- [48]
United Kingdom SkySports 2015- Exclusive broadcast contract [53]
United States NEO Cricket
ESPN
2008-2010, 2012-
2015-2017
Merged contract in 2012. Rights to distribute on television, radio, broadband and Internet. [48][54][51]
Worldwide The Times Group 2011- Global Rights to distribute on broadband, mobile and radio. [55]

Former broadcasters[edit]

The third season of the IPL saw interest rise dramatically in the United Kingdom, due to telecasts being moved from the subscription-based Setanta Sports to the free-to-air ITV4. Lalit Modi, then chairman and Commissioner, also expressed immense satisfaction on the way IPL has been accepted by the British audience. "ITV beats Sky Sports over the weekend in number of viewers. This is great going. This is huge by all imaginations. UK figures for viewership on ITV already 10 times that of last year. This is just fantastic news," he said.[56]

Location Television broadcaster(s) Years Terms of Deal Refs
Australia Network Ten
One
2008
2009-10
5 years, 2008–2012 at A$10–15 million. [57][58]
Canada Asian Television Network 2008-10 Exclusive broadcast deal.
Middle East and North Africa[List 4] Arab Digital Distribution (CricOne) 2008-2014 [39][48]
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Rupavahini Corporation (Channel Eye) 2008-11
United Kingdom ITV4
Setanta Sports
2010-14
2008-09
[59]
United States Dish Network
DirecTV
Willow
2008,2011
2008-10
2011-2014
[51]
  1. ^ Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
  2. ^ Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Barbados, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Sint Maarten, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States Virgin Islands
  3. ^ Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen
  4. ^ Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen

Mobile applications[edit]

DCI Mobile Studios (A division of Dot Com Infoway Limited), in conjunction with Sigma Ventures of Singapore, have jointly acquired the rights to be the exclusive Mobile Application partner and rights holder for the Indian Premier League cricket matches worldwide for the next 8 years (including the 2017 season). Recently[when?], they have released the IPL T20 Mobile applications for iPhone, Nokia Smartphones and BlackBerry devices. It is available across all other major Mobile platforms including the Android, Windows Mobile, Palm & others.[60]

Official website[edit]

The IPL negotiated a contract with the Canadian company Live Current Media Inc. to run and operate its portals and the minimum guarantee has been negotiated at US$50 million over the next 10 years.[61] In 2010, the contract was nullified and the BCCI decided to run the IPL Digital properties in-house. The official website of the tournament is www.iplt20.com. Incorporating popular forms of social media, the website now contains a more holistic presence across all online mediums to empower user interaction.

Fantasy Cricket[edit]

A number of portals piggyback on the immense popularity of the Indian Premier League and offer users an opportunity to play fantasy cricket leagues specially designed for the IPL. Fantasy cricket is a game which allows users to make a virtual team and then allots points to them based on how their chosen players perform in the actual matches. There are some basic rules that need to be followed while creating a virtual team. It is hugely popular in India and among Indians living abroad during the eight weeks of the Indian Premier League. It can be played on official website of IPL.

One of the variations of Fantasy Games is real-time fantasy where instead of picking teams in advance, fans can predict various events in a match such as "How many runs will be scored in the next over" or "How many runs will Kohli score?" when Kohli comes to bat. Matchup Cricket is a great example of how Fantasy cricket is evolving in the mobile world.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The 2009 edition was played in South Africa due to security concerns at the time of General Elections in India.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "IPL 2015 Team Guide To The Twenty20 Tournament" (Inextlive.jagran.com). 
  2. ^ "Pepsi to be new IPL team sponsor". Wisden India. Retrieved 2012-11-21. 
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  4. ^ "Clearing the fence with brand value" (PDF). American Appraisal. Retrieved 2014-11-07. 
  5. ^ "BCCI AGM 2011: Rajiv Shukla appointed IPL chief". Sahara India Pariwar. Retrieved 2011-12-12. 
  6. ^ "Captain's knack: Tete-a-tete with Sundar Raman". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2014-09-14. 
  7. ^ a b "IPL sells title rights to PepsiCo for $71m". Pepsi IPL. Retrieved 2014-06-07. 
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  9. ^ "Dhoni and his men are toast of Chennai". The Hindu. Retrieved 2014-11-07. 
  10. ^ "IPL 2012". Jagran. Retrieved 2012-04-20. 
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  13. ^ Basu, Indranil (16 May 2012). "BCCI suspends 5 cricketers for IPL spot fixing". The Times of India (New Delhi). Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  14. ^ Soutik Biswas (25 May 2012). "Is IPL a 'crony league'?". Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  15. ^ Nagraj Gollapudi (12 November 2012). "IPL sells title rights to PepsiCo for $71m". espncricinfo.com. Mumbai: ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  16. ^ Abhishek Purohit (22 May 2013). "Hodge launches Royals into qualifier". Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  17. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sachin_Tendulkar
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  20. ^ [1]
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  24. ^ Pune and Kochi unveiled as new IPL franchises
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  27. ^ IPL lays down guidelines for replacements, Discusses IPL rules on buying replacement players.
  28. ^ IPL rules when trading players. ESPNcricinfo
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  31. ^ a b "Series results". ESPNCricinfo. 14 April 2014. 
  32. ^ "Rs 40 Crore Prize Money On Offer in IPL Playoffs". The New Indian Express. 24 May 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
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  34. ^ "Kushal Pal Singh". Forbes. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  35. ^ "With eight IPL team rights, PepsiCo hopes for a shiny summer". Business Standard. Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  36. ^ "Will Pepsi change the IPL game?". Business Line. Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  37. ^ Vinaya Naidu (16 May 2013). "IPL6 Sponsors Engaging Through Social Media. Bring Fans Closer To Their Teams". Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  38. ^ "Five-year sponsorship agreements". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). 23 March 2010. Retrieved 23 March 2010. 
  39. ^ a b c d e "Sony and World Sports Group bag IPL television rights". ESPNcricinfo. 14 January 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2008. 
  40. ^ "Billion dollar rights deal for IPL". The Australian. 15 January 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2008. 
  41. ^ IndranilBasu (27 January 2008). "Does the IPL model make sense?". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 March 2008. 
  42. ^ "Stiff clauses leave only 4 in race for IPL teams". The Economic Times (India). 6 March 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  43. ^ Brand IPL touches the sky. Iplt20.com
  44. ^ IPL teams become hot commodity LiveMint article
  45. ^ Lalit Modi ambition could create problems for IPL franchises
  46. ^ IPL targets 80 licensing and merchandising deals this year
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  51. ^ a b c "ESPN awarded IPL Media Rights for US". BCCI. 28 February 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015. 
  52. ^ "Sony Kix TV Channel Live Telecast the IPL 2015 matches in Tamil, Telugu". Cricshed. 4 April 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  53. ^ "IPL on Sky Sports: Indian Premier League live on Sky from 2015". Sky Sports. 17 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015. 
  54. ^ "IPL: Willow TV gets TV rights for the Americas". Cricket Next. 9 April 2008. Retrieved 2 April 2015. 
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  56. ^ "Record ratings for IPL in the UK". 
  57. ^ "Cricinfo – Australia to get live coverage of IPL". 2 February 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2008. 
  58. ^ Knox, David. "TV Rights Dispute Shuts Out Indian Premier League". TVtonight. Retrieved 2 April 2013. 
  59. ^ "ITV to screen IPL in 2010". ITV. 4 March 2010. 
  60. ^ DCI Mobile studios and; Sigma Ventures acquire global mobile Applications rights for IPL T20
  61. ^ "Live Current Media Inc. and DLF Indian Premier League To Launch IPLT20.com as Official IPL Online Destination". livecurrent.com. 18 April 2008. 

External links[edit]