Indian soap opera
Indian soap operas are often mass-produced under large production banners.
The most common languages in which Indian serials are made in are Hindi, Punjabi, Marathi, Gujarati, Bengali, Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, and Malayalam, though many contain a mix of the predominant language and English.
Hindi soap operas have gained popularity abroad, across South Asia and beyond into Afghanistan, Southeast Asia, and among the Indian diaspora elsewhere. A number of Hindi soap operas have also been dubbed into Mandarin and gained popularity in China. They are also aired overseas in many other countries.
India's first soap opera was Hum Log, which first aired in 1984 and concluded with 154 episodes, was the longest running serial in the history of Indian television at the time it ended. It had an audience of 60 million. Every episode of was about 25 minutes long, and the last episode was about 55 minutes. At the end of every episode, veteran Hindi film actor Ashok Kumar would discuss the ongoing story and situations with the audience using Hindi couplets and limericks. In later episodes, he would introduce the actors who played characters in the serial and end his monologue with the Indian language versions of the words "Hum Log."
It was retelecasted on Doordarshan in 2012 as Hum- Ek Chote Gaon Ki Badi Kahani. The cast included Sadiya Siddiqui, Mona Wasu, Vineet Kumar, Suhasini Mulay, Anjan Srivastva, Himani Shivpuri and Harsh Chhaya.
Biographies of famous people like Meera; Chhatrapati Shivaji Shahji Raje Bhosle; Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi, Chanakya and Rani Padmini started being produced in the form of soap operas. It was Meera for the biography of Meera, Veer Shivaji for that of Chhatrapati Shivaji Shahji Raje Bhosle, Jhansi Ki Rani for that of Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi, Chanakya for that of Chanakya and Chittod Ki Rani Padmini Ka Johur for Rani Padmini.
Crime shows also started being produced and aired like Adaalat, which is an Indian television courtroom drama series which revolves around 'Advocate K.D Pathak', a defense lawyer with an impeccable track record of winning cases and setting helpless innocent victims free, but not at the cost of upholding the truth and C.I.D., it is about a team of detectives belonging to the Crime Investigation Department in Mumbai. The protagonist of the show is Shivaji Satam. C.I.D. is the longest-running TV series in India.
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Soaps have an impact on Indian society, with regard to national integration, identity, globalisation, women and ethics. The first Indian soap opera, Hum Log, began as a family planning program, and although it quickly turned its focus to entertainment, it continued to embed pro-development messages which provided a model of utilizing the television serial as an "edutainment" method that was followed by countries around the world.
A study of cable coming to rural India showed that it led to "significant decreases in the reported acceptability of domestic violence towards women and son preference, as well as increases in women's autonomy and decreases in fertility." It also "found suggestive evidence that exposure to cable increases school enrollment for younger children, perhaps through increased participation of women in household decision-making."
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A number of serials have run more than a thousand episodes. Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi (July 3, 2000 – November 6, 2008) (1833 episodes) set records for getting the highest television rating points (TRPs). It is also the most awarded show of Indian Television till date. It went off-air on November 6, 2008 after a dispute between the production house and the channel. Other long running serials include Kahaani Ghar Ghar Kii, Balika Vadhu, Kumkum - Ek Pyar Sa Bandhan, Kasautii Zindagii Kay, Woh Rehne Waali Mehlon Ki,
- Television in India
- List of television stations in India
- List of Hindi language television channels
- Indian soap operas in Pakistan
- Pak-Hind Ka Swag, Book 5 "Culture, Technology and fun", chapter 16 "soap opera, Serials and films"
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- The Power of TV: Soap Operas
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- Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi is the most Awarded Show of Indian Television
- The longest running Show of Indian Television, Kyunki...ends after dispute between Ekta & Star
- Ekta's Kahaani bids adieu after completing 1661 episodes
- "A grand show". Indian Express. 24 June 2009. Retrieved 13 July 2010.