Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis
|Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis|
Lead artist William Eaken's cover artwork depicts the main characters Indiana Jones and Sophia Hapgood.
|Release date(s)||Original release
July 8, 2009
Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis is a point-and-click adventure game by LucasArts originally released in 1992. Almost a year later, it was reissued on CD-ROM as an enhanced "talkie" edition with full voice acting and digitized sound effects. In 2009, this version was also released as an unlockable extra of the Wii action game Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings, and as a digitally distributed Steam title. The seventh game to use the script language SCUMM, Fate of Atlantis has the player explore environments and interact with objects and characters by using commands constructed with predetermined verbs. It features three unique paths to select, influencing story development, gameplay and puzzles. The game used an updated SCUMM engine and required VGA graphics and a 286-based PC for the first time, although it still runs entire as a real-mode DOS application. A sound card was mandatory and there is no PC speaker support. The CD talkie version required EMS memory enabled to load the voice data.
The plot is set in the fictional Indiana Jones universe and revolves around the eponymous protagonist's global search for the legendary sunken city of Atlantis. Sophia Hapgood, an old co-worker of Indiana Jones who gave up her archaeological career to become a psychic, supports him along the journey. The two partners are pursued by the Nazis who seek to use the power of Atlantis for warfare, and serve as the adventure's antagonists. The story was written by Hal Barwood and Noah Falstein, the game's designers, who had rejected the original plan to base it on an unused movie script. They came up with the final concept while researching real-world sources for a suitable plot device.
Fate of Atlantis was praised by critics and received several awards for best adventure game of the year. It became a million-unit seller and is widely regarded as a classic of its genre today. Two concepts for a supposed sequel were conceived, but both projects were eventually canceled due to unforeseen problems during development. They were later reworked into two separate Dark Horse Comics series by Lee Marrs and Elaine Lee.
Fate of Atlantis is based on the SCUMM story system by Ron Gilbert, Aric Wilmunder, Brad P. Taylor, and Vince Lee, thus employing similar gameplay to other point-and-click adventures developed by LucasArts in the 1980s and 1990s. The player explores the game's static environments while interacting with sprite-based characters and objects; they may use the pointer to construct and give commands with a number of predetermined verbs such as "Pick up", "Use" and "Talk to". Conversations with non-playable characters unfold in a series of selectable questions and answers.
Early on, the player is given the choice between three different game modes, each with unique cutscenes, puzzles to solve and locations to visit: the Team Path, the Wits Path, and the Fists Path. In the Team Path, protagonist Indiana Jones is joined by his partner Sophia Hapgood who will provide support throughout the game. The Wits Path features an abundance of complex puzzles, while the Fists Path focuses heavily on action sequences and fist fighting, the latter of which is completely optional in the other two modes. Atypical for LucasArts titles, it is possible for the player character to die at certain points in the game, though dangerous situations were designed to be easily recognizable. A score system, the Indy Quotient Points, keeps track of the puzzles solved, the obstacles overcome and the important objects found.
The story of Fate of Atlantis is set in 1939, on the eve of World War II. At the request of a visitor named Mr. Smith, archaeology professor and adventurer Indiana Jones tries to find a small statue in the archives of his workplace Barnett College. After Indiana retrieved the horned figurine, Smith uses a key to open it, revealing a sparkling metal bead inside. Smith then pulls out a gun and escapes with the two artifacts, but he loses his coat in the process. The identity card inside reveals "Smith" to be Klaus Kerner, an agent of the Third Reich. Another pocket of the coat holds an old magazine containing an article about an expedition on which Indiana collaborated with Sophia Hapgood, who has since given up archeology to become a psychic. Fearing that she might be Kerner's next target, Indiana travels to New York in order to warn her and to find out more about the mysterious statue. There, he interrupts her lecture on the culture and downfall of Atlantis, and the two return to Sophia's apartment. They discover that Kerner ransacked her office in search of Atlantean artifacts, but Sophia says that she keeps her most valuable item, her necklace, with her. She owns another of the shiny beads, now identified as the mystical metal orichalcum, and places it in the medallion's mouth, invoking the spirit of the Atlantean god Nur-Ab-Sal. She explains that a Nazi scientist called Dr. Hans Ubermann is searching for the power of Atlantis to use it as an energy source for warfare.
Sophia then gets a telepathic message from Nur-Ab-Sal, instructing them to find the Lost Dialogue of Plato, the Hermocrates, a book that will guide them to the city. After gathering information, Indiana and Sophia eventually find it in a collection of Barnett College. Correcting Plato's "tenfold error", a mistranslation from Egyptian to Greek, the document pinpoints the location of Atlantis in the Mediterranean, 300 miles from Greece, instead of 3000 as mentioned in the dialogue Critias. It also says that in order to gain access to the Lost City and its colonies, three special stones are required. At this point, the player has to choose between the Team, Wits, or Fists Path, which influences the way the stones are acquired. In all three paths, Sophia gets captured by the Nazis, and Indiana makes his way to the underwater entrance of Atlantis near Thera.
The individual scenarios converge at this point and Indiana starts to explore the Lost City. He saves Sophia from a prison, and they make their way to the center of Atlantis, where her medallion guides them to the home of Nur-Ab-Sal. The Atlantean god takes full possession of Sophia and it is only by a trick that Indiana rids her of the necklace and destroys it, thus freeing her. Meanwhile, they notice grotesquely deformed bones all over the place. They advance further and eventually reach a large colossus the inhabitants of the city built to transform themselves into gods. Using ten orichalcum beads at a time would enable them to control the water with the powers they gained, keeping the sea level down to prevent an impending catastrophe.
Unknowingly, Indiana starts the machine with the stones, upon which Kerner, Ubermann, and the Nazi troops invade the place and announce their intention to use the machine to become gods. The machine was responsible for creating the mutated skeletons seen earlier, but the Nazis believe that it will work on them due to their Aryan qualities. Ubermann wants to use Indiana as a test subject, but Kerner steps onto the platform first, claiming himself to be most suitable for godhood. Just as Ubermann wants to start the machine, Indiana mentions Plato's tenfold error, which convinces Kerner to use one bead instead of ten. He is then turned into a horribly deformed and horned creature, and falls into the lava. Indiana is forced to step on the platform next but threatens Ubermann with eternal damnation once he is a god. Fearing his wrath, Ubermann uses the machine on himself, feeding it one hundred beads. He is turned into a green ethereal being before vanishing completely. Three bad endings see one of the protagonists undergo the second transformation if Indiana could not convince Ubermann to use the machine instead, or if Sophia was not freed from her prison or Nur-Ab-Sal's influence. In the good ending, Atlantis succumbs to the eruption of the still active volcano as the duo flees from the city. The final scene depicts Indiana kissing Sophia on top of the escape submarine, to comfort himself for the lack of evidence for their discovery.
At the time a sequel to Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure was decided, most of the staff of Lucasfilm Games was occupied with other projects such as The Secret of Monkey Island and The Dig. Designer Hal Barwood had only created two computer games on his own before, but was put in charge of the project because of his experience as a producer and writer of feature films. The company originally wanted him to create a game based on Indiana Jones and the Monkey King/Garden of Life, a rejected script written by Chris Columbus for the third movie that would have seen Indiana looking for Chinese artifacts in Africa. However, after reading the script Barwood decided that the idea was substandard, and requested to create an original story for the game instead. Along with co-worker Noah Falstein, he visited the library of George Lucas' workplace Skywalker Ranch to look for possible plot devices. They eventually decided upon Atlantis when they looked at a diagram in "some cheap coffee-table book on the world's unsolved mysteries", which depicted the city as built in three concentric circles.
Writing the story involved extensive research on a plethora of pseudo-scientific books. Inspiration for the mythology in the game, such as the description of the city and the appearance of the metal orichalcum, was primarily drawn from Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias, and from Ignatius Loyola Donnelly's book Atlantis: The Antediluvian World that revived interest in the myth during the nineteenth century. The magical properties of orichalcum and the Atlantean technology depicted in the game were partly adopted from Russian spiritualist Helena Blavatsky's publications on the force vril. The giant colossus producing gods was based on a power-concentrating device called "firestone", formerly described by American psychic Edgar Cayce.
Once Barwood and Falstein completed the rough outline of the story, Barwood wrote the actual script, and the team began to conceive the puzzles and to design the environments. The Atlantean artifacts and architecture devised by lead artist William Eaken were made to resemble those of the Minoan civilization, while the game in turn implies that the Minoans were inspired by Atlantis. Barwood intended for the Atlantean art to have an "alien" feel to it, with the machines seemingly operating on as yet unknown physics rather than on magic. The majority of the 256-color backgrounds in the game were mostly mouse-drawn with Deluxe Paint, though roughly ten percent were paintings scanned at the end of the development cycle. As a consequence of regular design changes, the images often had to be revised by the artists. Character animations were fully rotoscoped with video footage of Steve Purcell for Indiana's and Collette Michaud for Sophia's motions. The main art team that consisted of Eaken, James Dollar and Avril Harrison was sometimes consulted by Barwood to help out with the more graphical puzzles in the game, such as a broken robot in Atlantis.
The addition of three different paths was suggested by Falstein and added about six more months of development time, mainly because of all the extra dialogue that had to be implemented for the interaction between Indiana and Sophia. Altogether, the game took around two years to finish, starting in early 1990, and lasting up to the floppy disk release in June 1992. The only aspect Barwood was not involved in at all was the production of voices for the enhanced "talkie" edition released on CD-ROM in May 1993, which was instead handled by Tamlynn Barra. The voice-over recordings for the approximately 8000 lines of dialogue took about four weeks, and were done with actors from the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. Harrison Ford was not available to record Indiana Jones's voice, so a substitute actor was used. The "talkie" version was later included as an extra game mode in the Wii version of the 2009 action game. Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings, and distributed via the digital content delivery software Steam as a port for Windows XP, Windows Vista and Mac OS X that same year. The versions on the Wii and available on Steam have improved MIDI versions of the soundtrack, along with both voices and text.
The package illustration for Fate of Atlantis was inspired by the Indiana Jones movie posters of Drew Struzan. It was drawn by Eaken within three days, following disagreements with the marketing department and an external art director over which concept to use. Clint Bajakian, Peter McConnell and Michael Land created the soundtrack for the game, arranging John Williams' main theme "The Raiders March" for a variety of compositions. The DOS version uses sequenced music played back by either an internal speaker, the FM synthesis of an AdLib or Sound Blaster sound card, or the sample-based synthesis of a Roland MT-32 sound module. During development of the game, William Messner-Loebs and Dan Barry wrote a Dark Horse Comics series based on Barwood's and Falstein's story, then titled Indiana Jones and the Keys to Atlantis. In an interview, Eaken mentioned hour-long meetings of the development team trying to come up with a better title than Fate of Atlantis, though the staff members could never think of one and always ended up with names such as "Indiana Jones Does Atlantis". The final title was Barwood's idea, who first had to convince the company's management and the marketing team not to simply call the game "Indy's Next Adventure".
LucasArts developed a port of the enhanced edition for the Sega CD, but the release was eventually canceled because The Secret of Monkey Island failed to be much of a commercial success on the platform. The arcade-style game Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis: The Action Game designed by Attention To Detail was released almost simultaneously with its adventure counterpart, and loosely follows its plot.
After the release of the game, a story for a supposed successor in the adventure genre was conceived by Joe Pinney, Hal Barwood, Bill Stoneham, and Aric Wilmunder. Titled Indiana Jones and the Iron Phoenix, it was set after World War II and featured Nazis seeking refuge in Bolivia, trying to resurrect Adolf Hitler with the philosophers' stone. The game was in development for 15 months before it was showcased at the European Computer Trade Show. However, when the German coordinators discovered how extensively the game dealt with Neo-Nazism, they informed LucasArts about the difficulty of marketing the game in their country. As Germany was an important overseas market for adventure games, LucasArts feared that the lower revenues would not recoup development costs, and subsequently canceled the game. The plot was later adapted into a four-part Dark Horse Comics series by Lee Marrs, published monthly from December 1994 to March 1995. In an interview, Barwood commented that the development team should have thought about the story more thoroughly beforehand, calling it insensitive and not regretting the cancellation of the title.
Another follow-up game called Indiana Jones and the Spear of Destiny was planned, which revolved around the Spear of Longinus. Development was outsourced to a small Canadian studio, but eventually stopped as LucasArts did not have experience with the supervision of external teams. Elaine Lee loosely reworked the story into another four-part comic book series, released from April to July 1995.
Fate of Atlantis was met with critical acclaim, and it sold one million units across all platforms on which it was released. Reviewers from Game Informer, Computer Game Review, Games Magazine and Game Players Magazine named it the best adventure game of the year, and it was later labeled a "classic" by IGN. Patricia Hartley and Kirk Lesser of Dragon called it "terrific" and "thought-provoking". They lauded the "Team, Wits, Fists" system for increasing the game's replay value, but believed that the Team option was the best. The reviewers summarized it as a "must-buy". Lim Choon Wee of the New Straits Times praised the game's graphics and arcade-style sequences. About the former, he wrote, "The attention to detail is excellent, with great colours and brilliant sprite animation." He echoed Hartley's and Lesser's opinion that "Team" was the best mode of the game. Wee ended his review by calling Fate of Atlantis "a brilliant game, even beating Secret of Monkey Island 2."
Charles Ardai of Computer Gaming World in 1992 praised its setting for containing the "right combination of gravity, silliness, genuine scholarship and mystical mumbo-jumbo", and called it a "strong enough storyline to hold its own next to any of the Indy films." He highly praised the game's Team, Wits, Fists system, about which he wrote, "Never before has a game paid this much attention to what the player wants." He also enjoyed its graphics and varied locales. Although he cited the pixelated character sprites and lack of voice acting as low points, Ardai summarized Fate of Atlantis as an "exuberant, funny, well-crafted and clever game" that bettered its predecessor, The Last Crusade. The following year, Ardai stated that "Unlike many recent CD-ROM upgrades, which have been embarrassing and amateurish", the CD-ROM version "has the stamp of quality all over it", with the added dialogue and sound effects "like taking a silent film and turning it into a talkie ... It's hard to go back to reading text off a monitor after experiencing a game like this". He concluded that "LucasArts has done an impeccable job ... a must-see". In 1992 the magazine named the title as one of the year's four best adventure games. Andy Nuttal of Amiga Format wrote, "The puzzles are very well thought-out, with some exquisite, subtle elements that give you a real kick when you solve them." He noted that the game is "littered with elements that are genuinely funny". His sole complaint was about the game's linearity compared to Monkey Island 2; but he finished by saying, "It's a minor point, anyway, and it shouldn't put you off buying what is one of the best Amiga adventures ever." In 2008, Retro Gamer Magazine praised it as "a masterful piece of storytelling, and a spellbinding adventure".
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- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Klaus Kerner: ...did you find a lock to match my key?"
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Indiana Jones: Klaus Kerner, huh? Marcus Brody: Good Lord, Indy, the man's some sort of agent from the Third Reich. What does a SPY want with a PHONY STATUE?"
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Marcus Brody: Look what else our friend was carrying, an old copy of National Archaeology, and there you are in ICELAND. Indiana Jones: Yeah...field supervisor for the Jastro expedition, my first real job. Marcus Brody: Who's the woman? Indiana Jones: Sophia Hapgood. She was my assistant, a spoiled rich kid from Boston rebelling against her family. Marcus Brody: Where is she now? Indiana Jones: She gave up archaeology to become a PSYCHIC."
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Marcus Brody: Indy, Kerner found YOU, what if he finds HER? We should WARN the woman. Indiana Jones: You're right. I want to know more about that statue!"
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Sophia Hapgood: Here, my friends, is ATLANTIS as it might have appeared in its heyday...glorious...prosperous...socially and technically advanced beyond our wildest dreams! [...] However it happened, on that fateful day when proud Atlantis sank beneath the waves...or perhaps it was a volcanic eruption, and SOMETHING remains even now."
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Sophia Hapgood: Kerner missed the grand prize... Indiana Jones: What? Sophia Hapgood: ...my necklace."
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Sophia Hapgood: Watch closely. The bead is made of ORICHALCUM, the mystery metal first mentioned by Plato. Now I'll place it in the medallion's mouth. Did you see that? Indiana Jones: Yeah. Creepy. Is your electric bill paid up? Sophia Hapgood: That was Nur-Ab-Sal. His spirit is close!"
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Sophia Hapgood: Listen to this... "Germans claim victory in worldwide race to smash the uranium atom. Chief scientist Dr. Hans Ubermann announces plan to harness new sources of energy for the Third Reich." Indiana Jones: So? Practical results are years away. Sophia Hapgood: Of course they are. That's why they're looking for the POWER OF ATLANTIS."
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Sophia Hapgood: Shhhh! ...I'm getting something! Nur-Ab-Sal SPEAKS...he bids us find the...what...a book...yes...the LOST DIALOGUE OF PLATO!"
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Indiana Jones: I believe BARNETT COLLEGE owns the Ashkenazy/Dunlop/Pearce/Sprague/Ward collection."
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Hermocrates: In shame I hereby recant the time and place whereof Critias spoke. In rendering Egyptian into Greek he made a tenfold error. Instead of lying 3,000 miles hence, Atlantis may well have been 30,000 miles away. Or perhaps it was less than 300 miles from our own shores."
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Indiana Jones: Didn't you notice Plato's tenfold numbering error? Sophia Hapgood: So he got his dates mixed up, why is that so important? Indiana Jones: Plato's error means distances could ALSO be wrong. Sophia Hapgood: So what if they are? Indiana Jones: If Plato is right, Atlantis is in the MEDITERRANEAN. Sophia Hapgood: You mean-- 300 miles from Greece instead of 3,000. Indiana Jones: Yes! The cradle of civilization. Sophia Hapgood: You could be right. He once told me he came from the middle of the world. That's what "Mediterranean" means!"
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Hermocrates: Gates of the kingdom opened only with the aid of special stones. At many outposts, a Sunstone sufficed [...] At the Greater Colony a Moonstone was also needed [...] To approach Atlantis itself a Worldstone was required as well [...]"
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Alain Trottier: More important, I know where to find an entrance to the Lost City itself. [...] It's on the island of Thera, South of Greece. [...] You've read about the Lesser Colony in Plato's Lost Dialogue, have you not? [...] Of course. I'm convinced Thera is the Lesser Colony and I believe it's the way in."
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Nur-Ab-Sal: The woman that WAS is now THE KING THAT SHALL EVER BE! Address me accordingly, please."
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Hermocrates: ...as the waters rose around their city, the Kings of Atlantis, one after another, sought to hold off fate. Knowing mortal men would never rule the sea, they planned a huge colossus, which by use of orichalcum, ten beads at a time, would make them like the gods themselves. Nur-Ab-Sal was one such king. He it was, say the wise men of Egypt, who first put men in the colossus, making many freaks of nature at times when the celestial spheres were well aligned."
- LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC (June 1992). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC. "Indiana Jones: You know, a lot of my discoveries seem like tall tales, even to me. At least there's some evidence this time. Sophia Hapgood: Then again...maybe not... [...] What was that for? Indiana Jones: To ease the pain."
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