Indiana National Guard

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Indiana National Guard - Emblem.png

The Indiana National Guard is the armed force of the state of Indiana. It consists of the Indiana Army National Guard and the Indiana Air National Guard, and is part of the larger Army National Guard and the Air National Guard. With roots dating back to 1801, the origination of the guard was first began in 1846 during the Mexican American War, and was reorganized into its current configuration in 1903. Since then the guard has served at home and abroad as a part of multiple wars, disaster relief actions, and putting down strikes and riots.

The Indiana Army National Guard consists of the 14,000 strong 38th Infantry Division, 219th Battlefield Surveillance Brigade, and the 76th Infantry Brigade Combat Team. The Indiana Air National Guard consists of the 122nd Fighter Wing and the 181st Intelligence Wing.

The Indiana National Guard is supported by the state's official militia force, the Indiana Guard Reserve. The Indiana Guard Reserve is a military entity authorized by both the State Code of Indiana and Executive Order. The Indiana Guard Reserve is the state’s authorized militia and assumes the state mission of the Indiana National Guard in the event the Guard is mobilized.[citation needed]

The Constitution of the United States specifically charges the National Guard with dual federal and state missions. In fact, the National Guard is the only United States military force empowered to function in a state status. Those functions range from limited actions during non-emergency situations to full scale law enforcement of martial law when local law enforcement officials can no longer maintain civil control. The National Guard may be called into federal service in response to a call by the President or Congress.

When National Guard troops are called to federal service, the President serves as Commander-In-Chief. The federal mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide properly trained and equipped units for prompt mobilization for war, National emergency or as otherwise needed."

The Governor may call individuals or units of the Indiana National Guard into state service during emergencies or to assist in special situations which lend themselves to use of the National Guard. The state mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide trained and disciplined forces for domestic emergencies or as otherwise provided by state law."

Indiana Army National Guard[edit]

Headquarters, State Area Command
Indiana Army National Guard
Country United States
Allegiance Indiana
Branch Army National Guard
Type ARNG Headquarters Command
Part of Indiana National Guard
Garrison/HQ Stout Field, Indianapolis, Indiana
Commanders
Current
commander
Major General R. Martin Umbarger, The Adjutant General
Notable
commanders
William G. Everson
Seal of the Army National Guard

The Indiana Army National Guard is composed of approximately 16,000 soldiers, maintaining 69 armories in 69 communities (as of January 2009).[1] Indiana Army National Guard units are trained and equipped as part of the United States Army. The same ran ks and insignia are used and National Guardsmen are eligible to receive all United States military awards. The Indiana Guard also bestows a number of state awards for local services rendered in or to the state of Indiana.

Formations and units[edit]

[citation needed]

Duties[edit]

National Guard units can be mobilized at any time by presidential order to supplement regular armed forces, and upon declaration of a state of emergency by the governor of the state in which they serve. Unlike Army Reserve members, National Guard members cannot be mobilized individually (except through voluntary transfers and Temporary DutY Assignments TDY), but only as part of their respective units. However, there has been a significant amount of individual activations to support military operations (2001-?); the legality of this policy is a major issue within the National Guard.

Active duty callups[edit]

For much of the final decades of the twentieth century, National Guard personnel typically served "One weekend a month, two weeks a year", with a portion working for the Guard in a full-time capacity. The current forces formation plans of the US Army call for the typical National Guard unit (or National Guardsman) to serve one year of active duty for every three years of service. More specifically, current Department of Defense policy is that no Guardsman will be involuntarily activated for a total of more than 24 months (cumulative) in one six year enlistment period (this policy is due to change 1 August 2007, the new policy states that soldiers will be given 24 months between deployments of no more than 24 months, individual states have differing policies).

Indiana Air National Guard[edit]

The Indiana Air National Guard is part of the Air National Guard, which in turn is part of the Air National Guard of the United States, and a reserve component of the United States Air Force (USAF). It consists of one A-10 Fighter Squadron and one Intelligence Wing.

The first is the 122nd Fighter Wing, which is based at Fort Wayne International Airport in Fort Wayne. The other unit is the 181st Intelligence Wing, which is based at Terre Haute International Airport in Terre Haute. The 122nd Fighter Wing consists of the 163rd Fighter Squadron, which flies A-10 Thunderbolt II. The 181st Fighter Wing used to fly the F-16 with the 137th Intelligence Squadron and has now been assigned a new mission as the 181st Intelligence Wing.

History[edit]

The earliest warriors from Indiana pre-date European contact. French explorers did not reach Indiana until the end of the Beaver Wars in the 17th century. The French soon established trading posts and villages. These remote outposts were defended by local militia and Native American alliances. In 1778, during the American Revolutionary War, the militia of Vincennes, Indiana declared for the United States, and local militia Captain François Riday Busseron commissioned the first American flag in Indiana.[4] The Vincennes militia and Piankeshaw warriors resisted Lt-Governor Henry Hamilton, and in 1779 they supplied and supported United States forces under George Rogers Clark.

The Indiana Army National Guard traces its unbroken history to 1801, when William Henry Harrison, Governor of the Indiana Territory, formed a voluntary militia to defend against the aggressive actions of some of the Native American tribes in the vast territory. The Indiana Rangers were formed in 1807. The militia and rangers participated in a major action in the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe, and many participated in the invasion of Canada in the War of 1812.

Indiana units were first officially called to national action in 1840s to serve as part of the army for the invasion of Mexico during the Mexican-American War. An Indiana regiment played a critical role in the Battle of Buena Vista, a critical battle that routed the entire Mexican Army and open the way for a rapid occupation of the country.[5]

Indiana regiments were again called to national action in the American Civil War, the costliest engagement in terms of lives the state was ever involved in. Indiana in the war committed over 200,000 soldiers and casualties topped 35% among the men. During the war several regiments where mustered for duty on the home front creating the Indiana Legion which officially separated the militia from the army regiments. Today's 152nd Infantry Regiment traces part of its history to the 6th and 8th Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiments which fought in the Civil War. The state's regiments were renamed the Indiana National Guard in 1895.[5]

Regiments from the guard first went overseas in the 1898 Spanish-American War, serving in the initial occupation of the Philippines. The Militia Act of 1903 organized the various state militias into the present National Guard system. In 1916 units were mobilized to patrol the Mexican Border in response to aggressive actions by the Mexican Government, but no action occurred. The next year the entire guard was mobilized and many sent into action as part of World War I, most men being deployed to France.[5]

The guard was again called on during the Great Depression to suppress worker strikes and riots in Northern and Central Indiana, and was sent overseas again during World War II. The guard continued to see action in the second half of the 20th century, serving in the Korean War, Vietnam War, the Gulf War, and the Iraqi War.

Well-known Indiana guardsmen include former Vice President Dan Quayle, who served as a sergeant during the Vietnam War time period.

Historic units[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Sources[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ About the Indiana National Guard Website accessed 28 November 2009
  2. ^ Army Times (10 December 2012). "The Army as of Nov 29.". Army Times. 
  3. ^ Army Times (10 December 2012). "The Army as of Nov 29.". Army Times. 
  4. ^ Indiana Society SAR. Website accessed 24 April 2009
  5. ^ a b c "Indiana Army National Guard History". Indiana National Guard. Retrieved 2008-09-22. [dead link]

External links[edit]