Indians in Afghanistan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Indians in Afghanistan
Total population
3,000–4,000
Regions with significant populations
Kabul · Jalalabad
Languages
Hindi · English · Punjabi · Pashto · Persian (Dari) · Urdu · other Indian languages
Religion
Hinduism · Sikhism · Islam
Related ethnic groups
Hindki, Hindkowans, Rajputs, Gujjars, Jats, Khatri, Awans, North Indian tribes and various other Indo-Aryan speaking peoples in Afghanistan that come from Indo-Aryan castes (and may not speak indo-aryan languages anymore)

Indians in Afghanistan include Afghans of Indian origin as well as Indian construction and aid workers involved in rebuilding and humanitarian assistance efforts. India is often described as acting as a soft power in Afghanistan. Having committed a $2.3 billion aid program, India is one of the largest donors to Afghanistan, investing in the economy, humanitarian aid, education, development, construction and electrical projects.[1] According to Foreign Policy among Afghans there is a positive perception of India's role in the reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan.[2]

Indian nationals in Afghanistan have become the target of the Taliban Haqqani network and the Pakistani Lashkar-e-Taiba terrorist organizations, both widely believed to receive strong support of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence, which Pakistan denies.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

Hindki or Hindkowan is a term used by Pashtuns to denote people who speak a dialect of Punjabi or Lahnda. Hindko literally means "of indina", understanding that these ethnicities are collectively grouped as Indo-Aryan. Indo-Aryan tribes are various vedic Rajput/Indo-Aryan clans or tribes such as Jats, Khatris, Gujjars as well Awans who claim Arab descent but assimilated into Indo-Aryan culture. Most are Muslim yet very few are Sikhs and Hindus, with most recent migrations coming from Sikh campaigns against the durranis in the 19th century. They are not Indian in the legal definition but the term hindko creates a linguistic Pan-Indo-Aryan identity. Indo-Aryans have diverged from Dards, Nuristianis and Iranic peoples from proto-indo-iranian times.

History[edit]

An edict of Ashoka from Kandahar, now in the Kabul museum.

Afghanistan and the Indian subcontinent were historically and ethnically linked in earlier times. An edict of the Mauryan emperor Ashoka has been found in Kandahar, marking the western extent of his dominion.[9] The mahajanapada of Gandhara extended from the Kabul river to the Punjab, comprising Hindu and Buddhist dynasties, and lasted a thousand years till the 11th Century AD when it was overthrown by the Ghaznavids.[10] Trade ties with Afghanistan go back hundreds of years with trade blooming during the reign of the Mughal emperors in India with their fondness for fruit and other produce from Central Asia.[11]

Migration of Hindu community to Afghanistan was mainly from the neighbouring kingdom of Punjab, later a province of British India.[12] By the nineteenth century a large Hindu community, comprising ethnic groups such as Lohanis and Shikarpuri Khatris, was widespread throughout the region and tribes and concerned primarily with commerce. A city peopled by Khatri Hindus, Shikarpur, was established in the 1800s and rose to be one of Afghanistan's main centres of commerce – primarily a money market and banking centre, which had outlying partnerships with places as widely apart as "Bombay, Punjab, Sindh, Khorasan, parts of Persia and Russia". They eventually developed control of the banking throughout Central Asia ranging from "Astrakhan to Meshid to Calcutta" (vide Alexander Burnes).[11] Known by the local epithet of Hindkis, they spoke a variant of Punjabi, gained employment in financial and clerical posts throughout the region, were shopkeepers, grain merchants, money-lenders and goldsmiths, forming a vital part of the economy of the region.[11] Shah Shuja employed as his finance minister, Lalla Jeth Mall, a Khatri Hindu from Shikarpur.[11] Barnes records that the population of Hindkis in Afghanistan at that time to be about 300,000.[11]

The Khilafat movement of 1920 saw a spontaneous migration of Indian Muslims to be free of perceived British bondage of Islam by emigrating to neighbouring Afghanistan. Encouraged by their religious leaders, thousands of peoples sold their belongings and migrated to Afghanistan choking the Khyber Pass with their possessions on bullock cart, camel and cycles. Overwhelmed by the migration, the Amir of Afghanistan blocked the emigration. Large numbers of muhajirin were robbed by Afghan tribes, and died of heat, thirst and hunger. Thousands returned home destitute.[13]

As of 1990, the population of Afghans of Indian origin was estimated at 45,000, mostly descended from migrants from the Punjab region. They settled down in various parts of Afghanistan, particularly Jalalabad and Kabul.[12] Many left Afghanistan after the Taliban came to power in 1996, mainly due to harsh restrictions imposed on them, leaving a population of approximately 1,000, mainly based in Kabul and Jalalabad.[12] India did not have any official representation in Afghanistan while the Taliban were in power. The small Hindu and Sikh communities suffered harsh discrimination during that period.[12] In April 2001, the Taliban issued an edict requiring Hindu males to wear marks of red dots (tilak) on their forehead, were barred from wearing salwar kameez or white turban and forced to wear black caps as identification when leaving their homes.[12] Hindu women were forced to drape themselves in yellow dress and wear iron necklace.[12] Hindus also were ordered to display a yellow flag on their houses and were not allowed to reside in the same houses as Muslims.[12]

Indian aid to Afghanistan[edit]

Intersection of A01 and Delaram-Zaranj Highway near Delaram

India has no military presence in Afghanistan.[14][15][16] An estimated 3,000 Indian nationals in Afghanistan work for reconstruction companies, international aid agencies or are Indian government employees working at the consulates and embassies.[14]

As part of its humanitarian mission, India established field clinics and a children's hospital. It also runs a program providing midday-meals to about 2 million Afghan schoolchildren.[14]

In the construction sector, an important work constructed by Indians is the 217 kilometre Delaram–Zaranj Highway, or Route 606 by Indian construction agencies in Southern Afghanistan, the completion of which in August 2009 has given a viable alternative route for duty-free movement of goods through the Chahabar port in Iran to Afghanistan.[17][18] Road building has been a prominent component of India reconstruction aid – over 700 kilometres of roads have been built in the preceding eight years. The hallmark project of the Indian aid effort is a majestic domed edifice costing $125 million for the Afghan Parliament which is likely to be completed at the end of 2011.[14]

The government of India has also provided assistance in strengthening institutions and human resource development. Scholarships were provided in 2009 for 700 Afghan citizens while Afghan public servants were granted access to government training institutions in India for periods ranging from days to six months.[19] The Indian government furthermore provides scholarships to more than 1,000 Afghan students per year.[citation needed]

According to Foreign Policy, which analysed perceptions about India especially among Pashtuns from Kabul to Kandahar, "the widespread support in the Pashtun heartland for an even greater Indian role in rebuilding the Afghan economy and society" is "striking".[2] In 2011 India and Afghanistan signed the Strategic Partnership Agreement which would allow India to train and equip Afghan security forces.[20][21]

Attacks on Indians[edit]

In 2008, an attack on the Indian Embassy in Afghanistan killed 58 people and wounded 141.[7][22][23] The attacks killed an Indian defense attaché, a political consul, two embassy security guards, six Afghan police officers and many Afghan civilians.[23]

International officials believe, Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence masterminded the attacks while the Lashkar-e-Taiba in collaboration with the Haqqani network carried out the attacks.[3][4][5][6][7][14] Afghan President Hamid Karzai terming the attacks an "abominable act" by "the enemies of Afghanistan's friendship with India" said the Indian Embassy bombing in Kabul was the work of "Pakistani agents".[7][23] He also stated, "India has made a significant contribution to development and reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan. Resorting to these types of hellish acts will not damage the friendly relationship between Afghanistan and India."[23] United States President George W. Bush confronted Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani with evidence and warned him that in the case of another such attack he would have to take "serious action".[24] Pakistan denied any involvement in the attacks.[7] Pakistani foreign ministry spokesman Mohammed Sadiq said there was not enough evidence of ISI involvement.[25]

In 2009, a second attack on the Indian embassy killed 17 people.[3] The Haqqani network was blamed for the attack.[3] In 2011, Mike Mullen, Chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, stated the Haqqani network was in many ways "a strategic arm of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Agency".[26]

In 2010, six Indian construction workers and several Indian doctors were killed in terrorist attacks on two Kabul guesthouse often frequented by Indians. Saeed Ansari, spokesman for Afghanistan's National Directorate of Security, said the militants who attacked the Indian guesthouse were speaking Urdu, Pakistan's official language.[4] "We are very close to the exact proof and evidence that the attack on the Indian guesthouse ... was carried out by Lashkar-e-Taiba network, who are dependent on the Pakistan military."[4][27]

In 2013 indian writer sushmita banerjee was killed by taliban near paktika province in afganisthan.

Alleged intelligence activity and support for insurgents[edit]

Pakistani government officials have accused the Indian Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) intelligence agency of having an active presence inside Afghanistan, from where they claim it provides material support to anti-state militant groups such as the Balochistan Liberation Army against Pakistan.[28][29][30][31][32] Among these concerns is the large number of Indian consulates in Afghanistan, which Pakistan has dubbed "launching pads" for intelligence activities and covert operations adverse to Pakistan, under the cover of diplomacy.[29]

India has denied these allegations and said Pakistan had brought forward no evidence to back up such claims.[33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Indian and Afghan Leaders Forge Deeper Ties in Meeting
  2. ^ a b Indian-Afghan strategic partnership: perceptions from the ground
  3. ^ a b c d 17 Die in Kabul Bomb Attack
  4. ^ a b c d Kabul blames Pakistani militants for attack on Indians
  5. ^ a b "The Spy Who Quit". PBS. 2011. 
  6. ^ a b Mark Mazzetti and Eric Schmitt (1 Aug 2008). "Pakistanis Aided Attack in Kabul, U.S. Officials Say". New York Times. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Karzai Accuses Pakistan Of Being Behind Indian Embassy Bombing
  8. ^ Kabul blames Pakistani militants for attack on Indians
  9. ^ Aśoka (King of Magadha); Nikam, Narayanrao Appurao (15 October 1978). The Edicts of Asoka. University of Chicago Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0-226-58611-3. Retrieved 13 January 2012. 
  10. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online, s. v. "Gandhara," accessed January 13, 2012, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/225179/Gandhara.
  11. ^ a b c d e Shah Mahmoud Hanifi (11 February 2011). "Financing the Kabul Produce". Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier. Stanford University Press. pp. 95–102. ISBN 978-0-8047-7411-6. Retrieved 11 January 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g The Indian Diaspora (Chapter 2) – Afghanistan, Central Asia and Iran
  13. ^ Minault, Gail (1982). The Khilafat movement: religious symbolism and political mobilization in India. Columbia University Press. pp. 105–106. ISBN 978-0-231-05072-2. Retrieved 11 January 2012. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Thottam, Jyothi (11 April 2011). "Afghanistan: India's Uncertain Road". Time Magazine World 9online). Time Inc. Retrieved 18 January 2012. 
  15. ^ QADRI, MUSTAFA (4 February 2010). "Should we talk to the Taliban?". ABC. 
  16. ^ Raza, Maroof (25 October 2011). "The Quagmire Next Door". Times of India. Bennet, Coleman & Co. Retrieved 9 January 2012. ... any Indian military presence in Afghanistan will only add to Pakistan's anti-India hysteria of a two-front threat. 
  17. ^ Adam Bennett; International Monetary Fund (15 April 2005). Reconstructing Afghanistan. International Monetary Fund. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-58906-324-2. Retrieved 10 January 2012. 
  18. ^ Ibp Usa (15 February 2008). Global Logistics Assessments Reports Handbook: Strategic Transportation and Customs Information for Selected Countries. Int'l Business Publications. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7397-6603-3. Retrieved 10 January 2012. 
  19. ^ Malhotra, Jyoti (Oct 9, 2009). "'In Afghanistan, Indians are praised simply for being Indian' – Q&A: Jayant Prasad, Indian ambassador to Afghanistan". Business-Standard (online). Business Standard Ltd. Retrieved 18 January 2012. 
  20. ^ SCHMIDT, JOHN R. (October 18, 2011). "Pakistan's Alternate Universe". FOREIGN POLICY. 
  21. ^ HEALY, JACK; ALISSA J. RUBIN (October 4, 2011). "Afghanistan Favors India and Denigrates Pakistan". New York Times. 
  22. ^ ISI behind Mumbai attacks, bombing of Indian embassy in Kabul: BBC report
  23. ^ a b c d Kabul car blast kills 41, including Indian envoys
  24. ^ Christina Lamb (3 Aug 2008). "Rogue Pakistan spies aid Taliban in Afghanistan (Times Online)]". The Times of London. 
  25. ^ Pakistan condemns US claims of involvement in Kabul Indian embassy bombing
  26. ^ Admiral Mullen: Pakistani ISI sponsoring Haqqani attacks
  27. ^ Afghan intelligence ties Pakiistani group Lashkar-i-Taiba to recent Kabul attack
  28. ^ MPs told Russia, India and UAE involved in Baloch insurgency – The Express Tribune
  29. ^ a b www.outlookindia.com | 'RAW Is Training 600 Balochis In Afghanistan'
  30. ^ Pakistan Times! » RAW Creating Trouble for NATO in Afghanistan
  31. ^ RAW collusion suspected: Probe faults Afghan serviceman for NATO air raid, says report – The Express Tribune
  32. ^ RAW helping militants in Afghanistan: Musharraf
  33. ^ 'No evidence that India aiding Pak Baloch rebels' – Indian Express

External links[edit]