Indians in Pakistan include Indian citizens residing, working or studying as expatriates in Pakistan, Indian emigrants to Pakistan (post-independence era), Indian spouses married to Pakistanis, as well as Indians who have become naturalised Pakistani citizens and other people of Indian origin in Pakistan. Due to Pakistan and India being neighbours, there has been a history of immigration occurring between the two countries. Between 1979 and 1981, there were estimated to be roughly 18,302 Indians who were overstaying illegally in Pakistan. In 2005, the Indian government acknowledged that there were 1,348 Indians in Pakistani jails - which included civilians, fishermen, convicted criminals and prisoners of war.
According to Pakistani government figures in 1995, there were believed to be hundreds of Indian immigrants living in Karachi. In 2008, the Indian foreign ministry advised its citizens to avoid travel to Pakistan after several Indian nationals in Pakistan were arrested and "accused of being terrorists" connected to a blast in Lahore. In 2011, David Headley alleged that there were some Indians living in Karachi who were willing to carry out attacks against India. In the past, India has alleged that Indian underworld don Dawood Ibrahim is based in Karachi although this claim has been rejected by Pakistan several times.