Indigenous peoples of Mexico
|Regions with significant populations|
|Mexico, Yucatan, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Campeche, Veracruz, Guerrero|
|Nahuatl, Yucatec, Tzotzil, Mixtec, Zapotec, Otomi, Huichol, Totonac and other living 54 languages along the Mexican territory, as well as Spanish.|
|Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with an Amerindian religious elements, including Aztec and Mayan religion.)|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Other Indigenous peoples of the Americas|
The indigenous people of Mexico are those who are part of communities that trace their roots back to populations and communities that existed prior to the arrival of Europeans on the American continent. In the second article of its Constitution, Mexico is defined as a "pluricultural" nation in recognition of the diverse ethnic groups that constitute it and in which the indigenous peoples are the original foundation. According to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas, or CDI in Spanish) and the INEGI (official census institute), there are 15.7 million indigenous people in Mexico, of many different ethnic groups, which constitute 14.9% of the population in the country. The number of indigenous Mexicans is judged using the political criteria found in the 2nd article of the Mexican constitution. The Mexican census does not report racial-ethnicity but only the cultural-ethnicity of indigenous communities that preserve their indigenous languages, traditions, beliefs, and cultures.
The category of "indigena" (indigenous) can be defined narrowly according to linguistic criteria including only persons that speak one of Mexico's 62 indigenous languages, this is the categorization used by the National Mexican Institute of Statistics. It can also be defined broadly to include all persons who selfidentify as having an indigenous cultural background, whether or not they speak the language of the indigenous group they identify with. This means that the percentage of the Mexican population defined as "indigenous" varies according to the definition applied, cultural activists have referred to the usage of the narrow definition of the term for census purposes as "statistical genocide".
The indigenous peoples in Mexico have the right of free determination under the second article of the constitution. According to this article the indigenous peoples are granted:
- the right to decide the internal forms of social, economic, political, and cultural organization;
- the right to apply their own normative systems of regulation as long as human rights and gender equality are respected;
- the right to preserve and enrich their languages and cultures;
- the right to elect representatives before the municipal council in which their territories are located;
amongst other rights. Also, the Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Languages recognizes 62 indigenous languages as "national languages", which have the same validity as Spanish in all territories in which they are spoken. According to the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Data Processing (INEGI), approximately 5.4% of the population speaks an indigenous language - that is, approximately half of those identified as indigenous. The recognition of indigenous languages and the protection of indigenous cultures is granted not only to the ethnic groups indigenous to modern-day Mexican territory but also to other North American indigenous groups that migrated to Mexico from the United States in the nineteenth century and those who immigrated from Guatemala in the 1980s.
- 1 History of the indigenous peoples
- 2 Rights of Indigenous Peoples
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Development and Socio-economic indicators
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 External links
History of the indigenous peoples
The pre-Columbian civilizations of what now is known as Mexico are usually divided in two regions: Mesoamerica, in reference to the cultural area in which several complex civilizations developed before the arrival of the Spanish in the sixteenth century, and Aridoamerica (or simply "The North") in reference to the arid region north of the Tropic of Cancer in which few civilizations developed and was mostly inhabited by nomadic or semi-nomadic groups. Mesoamerica was densely populated by diverse indigenous ethnic groups which, although sharing common cultural characteristics, spoke different languages and developed unique civilizations.
One of the most influential civilizations that developed in Mesoamerica was the Olmec civilization, sometimes referred to as the "Mother Culture of Mesoamerica". The later civilization in Teotihuacán reached its peak around 600 AD, when the city became the sixth largest city in the world, whose cultural and theological systems influenced the Toltec and Aztec civilizations in later centuries. Evidence has been found on the existence of multiracial communities or neighborhoods in Teotihuacan (and other large urban areas like Tenochtitlan).
The Maya civilization, though also influenced by other Mesoamerican civilizations, developed a vast cultural region in south-east Mexico and northern Central America, while the Zapotec and Mixtec culture dominated the valley of Oaxaca, and the Purepecha in western Mexico.
By the time of the arrival of the Spanish in central Mexico, many of the diverse ethnic civilizations (with the notable exception of the Tlaxcaltecs and the Tarascan Kingdom of Michoacán) were loosely joined under the Aztec empire, the last Nahua civilization to flourish in Central Mexico. The capital of the empire, Tenochtitlan, became one of the largest urban centers in the world, with an estimated population of 350,000 inhabitants.
During the conquest of the Aztec Empire, the Spanish conquistadors, vastly outnumbered by indigenous peoples, used the ethnic diversity of the country and exploited the discontentment of the subjugated groups, making important alliances with rivals of the Aztecs. While the alliances were decisive to the Europeans' victory, the indigenous peoples were soon subjugated by an equally impressive empire. However, as the Spanish consolidated their rule in what became the viceroyalty of New Spain, the crown recognized the indigenous nobility in Mesoamerica as nobles and kept the existing basic structure of indigenous city-states. Indigenous communities were incorporated as communities under Spanish rule and with the indigenous power structure largely intact. As part of the Spanish incorporation of indigenous into the colonial system, the friars taught indigenous scribes to write their languages in Latin letters so that there are huge corpus of colonial-era documentation in the Nahuatl language, Mixtec, Zapotec, and Yucatec Maya as well as others. Such a written tradition likely took hold because there was an existing tradition of pictorial writing found in many indigenous codices. Scholars have utilized the colonial-era alphabetic documentation in what is currently called the New Philology to illuminate the colonial experience of Mesoamerican peoples from their own viewpoints. Since Mesoamerican peoples had an existing requirement of labor duty and tribute in the pre-conquest era, Spaniards who were awarded the labor and tribute of particular communities in encomienda could benefit financially. Indigenous officials in their communities were involved in maintaining this system. There was a precipitous decline in indigenous populations due to the spread of European diseases previously unknown in the New World. Pandemics wrought havoc, but indigenous communities recovered with fewer members.
With contact between Europeans, the black slaves that they brought, and indigenous populations, there was intermingling of the groups, with mixed-race castas,particularly mestizos, becoming a component of Spanish cities and to a lesser extent indigenous communities. The Spanish legal structure formally separated what they called the república de indios (the republic of Indians) from the república de españoles (republic of Spaniards), the latter of which encompassed all those in the Hispanic sphere: Europeans, Africans, and mixed-race castas. Although in many ways indigenous peoples were marginalized in the colonial system, the paternalistic structure of colonial rule supported the continued existence and structure of indigenous communities. The Spanish crown recognized the existing ruling group, gave protection to the land holdings of indigenous communities, and communities' and individuals had access to the Spanish legal system. In practice in central Mexico this meant that until the nineteenth-century liberal reform that eliminated the corporate status of indigenous communities, indigenous communities had a protected status.
Although the crown recognized the political structures and the ruling elites in the civil sphere, in the religious sphere indigenous men were banned from the Christian priesthood, following an early Franciscan experiment that included fray Bernardino de Sahagún at the Colegio de Santa Cruz Tlatelolco to train such a group. Mendicants of the Franciscan, Dominican, and Augustinian orders initially evangelized indigenous in their own communities in what is often called the "spiritual conquest". Later on the northern frontiers where nomadic indigenous groups had no fixed settlements, the Spanish created missions and settled indigenous populations in these complexes. The Jesuits were prominent in this enterprise until their expulsion from Spanish America in 1767. Catholicism with particular local aspects was the only permissible religion in the colonial era.
Independence from Spain
As the New Spain became independent from Spain, the new country was named after its capital city, Mexico City. Mexico declared the abolition of black slavery in 1829 and the equality of all citizens under the law. However, indigenous communities continued to have rights as corporations to maintain land holdings until the liberal Reforma. Some indigenous individuals integrated into the Mexican society, like Benito Juárez of Zapotec ethnicity, the first indigenous president of a country in the New World. As a political liberal, however, Juárez supported the removal of protections of indigenous community corporate land holding.
The greatest change, however, came about as a result of the Mexican Revolution, a violent social and cultural movement that defined 20th century Mexico. The Revolution produced a national sentiment that the indigenous peoples were the foundation of Mexican society. Several prominent artists promoted the "Indigenous Sentiment" (sentimiento indigenista) of the country, including Frida Kahlo, and Diego Rivera. Throughout the twentieth century, the government established bilingual education in certain indigenous communities and published free bilingual textbooks. Some states of the federation appropriated an indigenous inheritance in order to reinforce their identity.
In spite of the official recognition of the indigenous peoples, the economic underdevelopment of the communities, accentuated by the crises of the 1980s and 1990s, has not allowed for the social and cultural development of most indigenous communities. Thousands of indigenous Mexicans have emigrated to urban centers in Mexico as well as in the United States. In Los Angeles, for example, the Mexican government has established electronic access to some of the consular services provided in Spanish as well as Zapotec and Mixe. Some of the Maya peoples of Chiapas have revolted, demanding better social and economic opportunities, requests voiced by the EZLN.
The Chiapas conflict of 1994 led to collaboration between the Mexican government and the Zapatista Army of National Liberation, an indigenous political group. This large movement generated international media attention and united many indigenous groups. In 1996 the San Andrés Larráinzar Accords were negotiated between the Zapatista Army of National Liberation and the Mexican government. The San Andres accords were the first time that indigenous rights were acknowledged by the Mexican government.
The government has made certain legislative changes to promote the development of the rural and indigenous communities and the preservation and promotion of their languages. The second article of the Constitution was modified to grant them the right of self-determination and requires state governments to promote and ensure the economic development of the indigenous communities as well as the preservation of their languages and traditions.
Rights of Indigenous Peoples
List of Rights
Previously, indigenous people were not given rights because they were not recognized in an attempt to make one national identity for Mexico. However, now there is an effort to acknowledge Mexico as a diverse state and to aid indigenous communities in exercising their rights.
According to the constitutional reform of 2001, the following rights of indigenous peoples are recognized:
- acknowledgement as indigenous communities, right to self-ascription, and the application of their own regulatory systems
- preservation of their cultural identity, land, consultation and participation
- access to the jurisdiction to the state and to development
- recognition of indigenous peoples and communities as subject of public law
- self-determination and self-autonomy
- remunicipalisation for the advancement of indigenous communities
- administer own forms of communication and media
Land Rights and Racial Systems
During the time of colonization, when Spaniards arrived to a place where there was no European rule, they would take the land and the individuals on the land through the use of encomienda. Under encomienda, Spaniards were given the land and the rights to use indigenous labor if they agreed to convert the indigenous people to Catholicism. This was often exploited and resulted in slavery. By 1550, repartimiento where Spanish settlers forced natives to do low-paid or underpaid labor for a certain number of weeks or months on Spanish land.
The land of indigenous people is used for material reasons as well as spiritual reasons. Religious, cultural, social, spiritual, and other events relating to their identity are also tied to the land. Indigenous people use collective property so that the aforementioned services that the land provides are available to the entire community and future generations. This was a stark contrast to the viewpoints of colonists that saw the land purely in a economic way where land could be transferred between individuals. Once the land of the indigenous people and therefore their livelihood was taken from them, they became dependent on those that had land and power. Additionally, the spiritual services that the land provided were no longer available and caused a deterioration of indigenous groups and cultures.
Once repartimiento ended, the casta system was put in place. This system gave more political and social power to Spaniards so that Indigenous people and blacks could be kept in lower positions. When the ethnic origins of the person were not known, phenotypic characteristics were relied upon to determine the status of the individual. Those that were in lower statuses had to pay more to the crown.
When Mexico gained independence in 1821, the casta system was effectively eliminated but ethnic divides remained. However, eventually mexicano became the major ethnic categorization given to various castas including those that were below mestizo.
The second article of the constitution of Mexico recognizes and enforces the right of indigenous peoples and communities to self determination and therefore their autonomy to:
V. Preserve and improve their habitat as well as preserve the integrity of their lands in accordance with this constitution. VI. Be entitled to the estate and land property modalities established by this constitution and its derived legislation, to all private property rights and communal property rights as well as to use and enjoy in a preferential way all the natural resources located at the places which the communities live in, except those defined as strategic areas according to the constitution. The communities shall be authorized to associate with each other in order to achieve such goals.'
Under the Mexican government, some indigenous people had land rights under ejido and agrarian communities. Under ejidos, indigenous communities have usufruct rights of the land. Indigenous communities choose to do this when they do not have the legal evidence to claim the land. In 1992, shifts were made to the economic structure and ejidos could now be partitioned and sold. For this to happen, the PROCEDE program was established. The PROCEDE program surveyed, mapped, and verified the ejido lands. This privatization of land undermined the economic base of the indigenous communities much like the taking of their land during colonization.
The history of linguistic rights in Mexico began when Spanish first made contact with Indigenous Languages during the colonial period. During the early sixteenth century mestizaje, mixing of races of culture, led to mixing of languages as well. The Spanish Crown proclaimed Spanish to be the language of the empire; however, indigenous languages were used during conversion of individuals to Catholicism. Because of this, indigenous languages were more widespread than Spanish from 1523-1581. During the late sixteenth century, the status of Spanish language increased. By the seventeenth century, the elite minority were Spanish speakers. After independence in 1821 there was a shift to Spanish to legitimize the Mexican Spanish created by the Mexican criollos. Since then, indigenous tongues were discriminated against and seen as not modern. The nineteenth century brought with it programs to provide bilingual education at primary levels where they would eventually transition to Spanish only education. Linguistic uniformity was sought out to strengthen national identity; however, this left indigenous languages out of power structures.
The Chiapas conflict of 1994 led to collaboration between the Mexican government and the Zapatista Army of National Liberation, an indigenous political group. In 1996 the San Andrés Larráinzar Accords were negotiated between the Zapatista Army of National Liberation and the Mexican government. The San Andres accords were the first time that indigenous rights were acknowledged by the Mexican government. The San Andres Accords did not explicitly state language but language was involved in matters involving culture and education.
In 2001, the constitution of Mexico was changed to acknowledge indigenous peoples and grant them protection. The second article of the constitution of Mexico recognizes and enforces the right of indigenous peoples and communities to self determination and therefore their autonomy to:
- Preserve and enrich their language, knowledge, and every part of their culture and identity.
In 2003, the General Law on Linguistic Rights of Indigenous People explicitly stated the protection of individual and collective linguistic rights of indigenous peoples. The final section also sanctioned the creation of a National Institute for Indigenous Languages (INALI) whose purpose is to promote the growth of indigenous languages in Mexico.
However, there has been a lack of enforcement of the law. For example, the General Law on Linguistic Rights of Indigenous People guarantees the right to a trial in the language of indigenous peoples with someone who understands their culture. According to the National Human Rights Commission (Mexico), Mexico has not abided by this law. Examples of this include Jacinta Francisca Marcial, an indigenous woman who was imprisoned for kidnapping in 2006. After three years and the assistance of Amnesty International she was released for lack of evidence.
Additionally, the General Law on Linguistics also guarantees bilingual and intercultural education. However, it is a common complaint that teachers do not know the indigenous language or do not prioritize teaching the indigenous language. In fact, some studies argue that formal education has decreased the prevalence of indigenous languages.
Some parents do not teach their children their indigenous language and some children refuse to learn their indigenous language for fear that they will be discriminated against. Scholars argue that there needs to be a social change to elevate the status of indigenous languages in order for the law to be withheld so that indigenous languages are protected.
Rights of Indigenous Women
Indigenous women are often taken advantage of because they are both women, indigenous, and often poor. Indigenous culture has been used as a pretext for Mexican government to enact laws that deny human rights to women such as the right to own land. Additionally, violence against women has been regarded by the Mexican government as a cultural practice. The Mexican government has also enforced impunity of the exploitation of indigenous women by its own government including by the military.
The EZLN accepted a Revolutionary Law for Women on March 8, 1993. The law is not fully enforced but shows solidarity between the indigenous movement and women. The Mexican government has increased militarization of indigenous areas which makes women more susceptible to harassment through military abuses.
Indigenous women are currently forming many organizations to support each other and better their position in society and to gain financial independence. Indigenous women use national and international legislation to support their claims that go against cultural norms such as domestic violence.
Reproductive justice is also an important issue to indigenous communities because there is a lack of development in these areas so there is less access to maternal care. Conditional cash transfer programs such as oportunidades have been used to encourage indigenous women to seek formal health care.
The number of indigenous Mexicans is judged using the political criteria found in the 2nd article of the Mexican constitution. The Mexican census does not report racial-ethnicity but only the cultural-ethnicity of indigenous communities that preserve their indigenous languages, traditions, beliefs, and cultures.
The Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Languages recognizes 62 indigenous languages as "national languages" which have the same validity as Spanish in all territories in which they are spoken. According to the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Data Processing (INEGI), approximately 6.7% of the population speaks an indigenous language. That is, less than half of those identified as indigenous. 6,695,228 were tallied as indigenous language speakers in the 2010 census, an increase of about 650,000 from the 2000 census. In 2000, 6,044,547 people spoke an indigenous language. The indigenous language speaking population has been increasing in absolute numbers for decades, but have nonetheless been falling in proportion to the national population.
The recognition of indigenous languages and the protection of indigenous cultures is granted not only to the ethnic groups indigenous to modern-day Mexican territory, but also to other North American indigenous groups that migrated to Mexico from the United States in the nineteenth century and those who immigrated from Guatemala in the 1980s.
According to the National Commission for the Development of the Indigenous Peoples (CDI) there are 14,850,000 indigenous people reported in Mexico in 2010, which constitute 13% of the population in the country. Most indigenous communities have a degree of financial, political autonomy under the legislation of "usos y costumbres", which allows them to regulate internal issues under customary law.
The absolute indigenous population is growing, but at a slower rate than the rest of the population so that the percentage of indigenous peoples is nonetheless falling. Indigenous peoples are more likely to live in more rural areas, than the Mexican average, but many do reside in urban or suburban areas, particularly, in the central states of Mexico, Puebla, Tlaxcala, the Federal District and the Yucatan peninsula.
According to the CDI, the states with the greatest percentage of indigenous population are: Yucatán, with 62.7%, Quintana Roo with 33.8% and Campeche with 32% of the population being indigenous, most of them Maya; Oaxaca with 58% of the population, the most numerous groups being the Mixtec and Zapotec peoples; Chiapas has 32.7%, the majority being Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya; Hidalgo with 30.1%, the majority being Otomi; Puebla with 25.2%, and Guerrero with 22.6%, mostly Nahua people and the states of San Luis Potosí and Veracruz both home to a population of 19% indigenous people, mostly from the Totonac, Nahua and Teenek (Huastec) groups.
- Yucatán, 62.7%
- Oaxaca, 58%
- Quintana Roo, 33.8%
- Chiapas, 32.7%
- Campeche, 32%
- Hidalgo, 30.1%
- Puebla, 25.2%
- Guerrero, 22.6%
- Veracruz, 19.9%
- San Luis Potosí, 19.2%
- Tlaxcala, 17.1%
- Morelos, 15.5%
- Queretaro, 15.1%
- Michoacan, 14.6%
- Colima, 13.3%
- Sonora, 11.9%
- State of Mexico, 11.3%
- Tabasco, 10.7%
- Nayarit, 10.1%
- Chihuahua, 8.4%
- Baja California Sur, 7.1%
- Baja California, 5.7%
- Distrito Federal, 5.2%
- Jalisco, 4.8%
- Sinaloa, 4.6%
- Guanajuato, 4.3%
- Aguascalientes, 4.2%
- Tamaulipas, 3.9%
- Durango, 3.8%
- Zacatecas, 2.9%
- Nuevo Leon, 1.9%
- Coahuila, 1.9%
In 2011 a large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans revealed 85 to 90% of mtDNA lineages of Native American origin, with the remainder having European (5-7%) or African ancestry (3-5%). Thus the observed frequency of Native American mtDNA in Mexican/Mexican Americans is higher than was expected on the basis of autosomal estimates of Native American admixture for these populations i.e. ~ 30-46%
Development and Socio-economic indicators
Generally, indigenous Mexicans live more poorly than non-indigenous Mexicans however, social development varies between states, different indigenous ethnicities and between rural and urban areas. In all states indigenous people have higher infant mortality, in some states almost double of the non-indigenous populations.
Some indigenous groups, particularly the Yucatec Maya in the Yucatán peninsula and some of the Nahua and Otomi peoples in central states have maintained higher levels of development while indigenous peoples in states such as the Guerrero or Michoacan are ranked drastically lower than the average Mexican citizen in these fields. Despite certain indigenous groups such as the Maya or Nahua retaining high levels of development, the general indigenous population lives at a lower level of development than the general population.
Literacy rates are much lower for the indigenous, particularly in the southwestern states of Guerrero and Oaxaca due lack of access to education and a lack of the educational literature available in indigenous languages. Literacy rates are also much lower, with 27% of indigenous children between 6 and 14 being illiterate compared to a national average of 12%. The Mexican government is obligated to provide education in indigenous languages, but many times fails to provide schooling in languages other than Spanish. As a result, many indigenous groups have resorted to creating their own small community educational institutions.
The indigenous population participate in the workforce longer than the national average, starting earlier and continuing longer. A major reason for this is that significant number of the indigenous practice economically under productive agriculture and receive no regular salaries. Indigenous people also have less access to health care.
Indigenous groups with a population of more than 100,000
|Indigenous peoples of Mexico|
|Nahuatl (Nāhuatlācah /naːwaˈt͡ɬaːkaʔ/)||2,445,969||1,659,029|
|(Yucatec) Maya (Maya’wiinik)||1,475,575||892,723|
|Mixtec (Tu'un savi)||726,601||510,801|
|Tzotzil (Batzil k'op)||406,962||356,349|
|Tzeltal (K'op o winik atel)||384,074||336,448|
|Mazatec (Ha shuta enima)||305,836||246,198|
|Chinantec (Tsa jujmí)||201,201||152,711|
|Source: CDI (2000) |
¹Number of indigenous peoples that still speak their Indigenous language
Indigenous groups with a population of more than 20,000 and less than 100,000
|Indigenous Languages of Mexico|
|Zoque (O'de püt)||86,589||34,770|
|Chontal Maya (Yokot)||79,438||43,850|
|Cuicatec (Nduudu yu)||22,984||15,078|
|Source: CDI (2000) |
1Number of indigenous peoples that still speak their Indigenous language
Indigenous groups with a population of less than 20,000
|Indigenous Languages of Mexico|
|Chontal of Oaxaca (Slijuala sihanuk)||12,663||5,534|
|Chichimeca Jonaz (Uza)||3,169||1,987|
|Chocho (Runixa ngiigua)||2,592||1,078|
|Lacandon (Hach t'an)||896||731|
|K'iche' (Quiché, Q'iché)||524||286|
|Tohono O'odham (Papago)||363||153|
|Cocopah (Es péi)||344||206|
|Cochimi (Laymón, mti'pá)||226||96|
|Source: CDI (2000) |
1Number of indigenous peoples that still speak their Indigenous language
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- "INEGI: Cada vez más mexicanos hablan una lengua indígena - Nacional - CNNMéxico.com". Mexico.cnn.com. 2011-03-30. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- "National Commission for the Development of the Indigenous Peoples". Retrieved 2014-05-18.
- "Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. México". Cdi.gob.mx. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- "Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. México". Cdi.gob.mx. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2148-11-293.pdf “For mtDNA variation, some studies have measured Native American, European and African contributions to Mexican and Mexican American populations, revealing 85 to 90% of mtDNA lineages are of Native American origin, with the remainder having European (5-7%) or African ancestry (3-5%). Thus the observed frequency of Native American mtDNA in Mexican/Mexican Americans is higher than was expected on the basis of autosomal estimates of Native American admixture for these populations i.e. ~ 30-46%. The difference is indicative of directional mating involving preferentially immigrant men and Native American women. This type of genetic asymmetry has been observed in other populations, including Brazilian individuals of African ancestry, as the analysis of sex specific and autosomal markers has revealed evidence for substantial European admixture that was mediated mostly through men. In our 384 completely sequenced Mexican American mitochondrial genomes, 12 (3.1%) are of African ancestry belonging to haplogroups L0a1a’3’, L2a1, L3b, L3d and U6a7; 52 (13.6%) belong to European haplogroups HV, JT, U1, U4, U5; and K and the majority (320, 83.3%) are of Native American ancestry.” 
- "Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. México". Cdi.gob.mx. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- CIA [US Central Intelligence Agency] (2008). "Mexico". The 2008 World Factbook (online ed.). Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. ISSN 1553-8133. OCLC 34199805. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
- Lizcano Fernández, Francisco (May–August 2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF online reproduction by UAEM). Convergencia (in Spanish) (Toluca, Mexico: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México). Año 12 (38): 185–232. ISSN 1405-1435. OCLC 61659674.
- Martínez Novo, Carmen (2006). Who defines indigenous? Identities, development, intellectuals and the State in Northern Mexico. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
- Martínez-Torres, María Elena; Rosaluz Pérez Espinosa; Aldo González Rojas (2008). "Mexico". In Katherin Wessendorf (compilation and ed.). The Indigenous World 2008 (PDF online edition). International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs yearbooks (ISSN 1024-0217). Alejandro Parellada (regional ed.). Copenhagen: IWGIA, distributed by Transaction Publishers. pp. 78–89. ISBN 978-87-91563-44-7. OCLC 30981676.
- Navarrete Linares, Federico (2008). Los pueblos indígenas de México (PDF online facsimile). Pueblos Indígenas del México Contemporáneo series (in Spanish). México, D.F.: Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. ISBN 978-970-753-157-4. OCLC 319215886.
- Satish Kumar*, Claire Bellis, Mark Zlojutro, Phillip E Melton, John Blangero and Joanne E Curran (2011). Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins.
- Comision Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indigenas (Spanish)
- Consejo Nacional de Poblacion (Spanish)
- Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (Spanish)
- Mexico and Southwest USA – Native Y-DNA Project
- Archivo de Lenguas Indígenas de México (El Colegio de México)
- Virtual museum of the indigineous languages of Mexico