||It has been suggested that Indos in colonial history be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since April 2013.|
|Netherlands||582,000 (including 263,000 second generation with at least one parent born in Indonesia)|
|Elsewhere||124,000 (100,000 in the United States)|
Indo is a term used to describe Europeans, Asians, and Eurasian people, who were a migrant population who associated themselves with and experienced the colonial culture of the former Dutch East Indies, a Dutch colony in Southeast Asia that became Indonesia after World War II. It was used to describe people acknowledged to be of mixed Dutch and Indonesian descent, or it was a term used in the Dutch East Indies to apply to Europeans who had partial Asian ancestry. The European ancestry of these people was predominantly Dutch, and also Portuguese, British, French, Belgian, German, and others.
Other terms used were Indos, Dutch Indonesians, Eurasians, Indo-Europeans, Indo-Dutch, and Dutch-Indos. In Indonesian common synonomous terms are Sinjo, Belanda-Indo, Indo-Belanda, and Indo means Eurasian: a person with European and Indonesian parentage. Indo is an abbreviation of the term Indo-European which originated in the Dutch East Indies of the 19th century as an informal term to describe the Eurasians. Indische is an abbreviation of the Dutch term Indische Nederlander. Indische was a term that could be applied to everything connected with the Dutch East Indies. In the Netherlands the term Indische Nederlander includes all Dutch nationals that lived in the Dutch East Indies, either Dutch or mixed ancestry. To distinguish between the two, Eurasians are called Indo and native Dutch are called Totok. In the Dutch East Indies (today's Indonesia), these families did not form "a racially, culturally and socially homogenous community between the Totoks (European newcomers) and the indigenous population". They were historically Christians and spoke Dutch, Portuguese, English and Indonesian. They were compared to Afrikaners from South Africa, who aslo share Dutch ancestry and culture.
- 1 History
- 2 Immigration from the Dutch East Indies (1945-1965)
- 3 Indonesia
- 4 See also
- 5 References
Portuguese and Spanish in Southeast Asia (16th century)
Eurasians and Europeans in the Dutch East Indies were descendants of Europeans who travelled to Asia between the 16th and the 20th century. The earliest presence of Europeans in South East Asia were the Portuguese and Spanish. One of the main Portuguese strongholds was in the Maluku Islands (the Moluccas), the fabled "Spice Islands". Similarly the Spanish established a dominant presence further north in the Philippines. These historical developments were instrumental in building a foundation for large Eurasian communities in this region. The oldest Eurasian/European families descend from Portuguese traders and explorers, some Portuguese family names include Simao, De Fretes, Perera, and Henriques.
In early pre-colonial (16-18th century) history Eurasians were referred to by a Portuguese term mestiço (Dutch: Mesties) or as coloured (Dutch: Kleurling). Additionally a wide range of more contumacious terms, such as for instance liplap can be found in literature from previous centuries.
Dutch and English in Southeast Asia (17th and 18th century)
During the 1620s Jan Pieterszoon Coen in particular insisted that families and orphans be sent from Holland to populate the colonies. As a result, a number of single women were sent and an orphanage was established in Batavia to raise Dutch orphan girls to become East India brides. Around 1650, the number of mixed marriages, frequent in the early years of the VOC, declined sharply. There was a large number of women from the Netherlands recorded as marrying in the years around 1650. At least half the brides of European men in Batavia came from Europe. Many of these women were widows, already previously married in the Indies, but almost half of them were single women from the Netherlands marrying for the first time. There were still considerable numbers of women sailing eastwards to the Indies at this time. The ships' passenger lists from the 17th century also evidence this. Not until later in the 17th century did the numbers of passengers to Asia drop drastically.
Given the small population of their country, the Dutch had to fill out their recruitment for Asia by looking for overseas emigration candidates in the underprivileged regions of north-western Europe. Originally, most Dutch VOC employees were traders, accountants, sailors and adventurers, their intentions may have been to stay, some may have thought of themselves as temporary sojourners. In 1622, over half the Batavia garrison of 143 consisted of foreigners (Germans were the majority among them), there were also French, Scots, English, Danes, Flemings, and Walloons (they were half of the VOC overall). Europeans living in Batavia also included: Norwegians, Italians, Maltese, Poles, Irish, Spaniards, Portuguese, and Swedes. It is acknowledged that the number of Swedes travelling to the East on Dutch ships numbered in their thousands. Many settled in Batavia for long periods. Some of the settlers in the 18th and early 19th centuries were men, without wives and mixing occurred with the local inhabitants, others brought family. The VOC and later the colonial government to a certain extent encouraged this, partly to maintain their control over the region. An Indo-European society developed in the Dutch East Indies. Although most of its members became Dutch citizens, their culture was strongly Eurasian in nature, with focus on both Asian and European heritage. European society in the Indies was dominated by this Indo culture into which non-native born European settlers integrated. This would change coming the formal colonization by the Dutch in the 19th century.
Eurasian men were recruited by the colonial regime as go-betweens in both the civil administration and the military, where their mastery of two languages made them valuable employees. Few European women came to the Indies during the Dutch East India Company period to accompany the administrators and soldiers who came from the Netherlands. There is evidence of considerable care by officers of the Dutch East India Company for their illegitimate Eurasian children: boys were sometimes sent to the Netherlands to be educated, and sometimes never returned to Indonesia.
In 1720, 2,000 Europeans, mainly Dutch merchants (2.2 percent of the total population), and 1,100 Eurasians lived in Batavia (Jakarta).
Dutch East Indies (1800 - 1949)
The Dutch term Indische Nederlander more accurately translated to Indies Dutchman, is a term first mentioned in literature in 1850.
Eurasians were legally classifed as European, the highest class in the colonial hierarchy. They were considered to be Dutch and held Dutch passports. People were categorized as Castiezen, Pustiezen and Christiezen (one half, one quarter, and one eighth Indonesian respectively), depending on their European ancestry.
In 1854, it was found that over 9,000 of the 18,000 Europeans in Java were Eurasians. In the 1890s there were 62,000 civilian 'Europeans' in the Dutch East Indies, most of them Eurasians, making up less than half of one per cent of the population. Indo influence on the nature of colonial society waned following World War I and the opening of the Suez Canal, when there was a substantial influx of white Dutch families.
In the twentieth century they came to be known as Indische Nederlanders. By 1925, 27.5 percent of all Europeans in Indonesia who married chose either native or mixed-blood spouses, a proportion that remained high until 1940, when it was still 20 percent. By 1930, it was estimated that between 200,000-240,000 people had European legal status in the colony, they made up less than half of one percent of the population. Almost 75% of these Europeans were in fact native Eurasians known as Indo-Europeans. Eurasian antecedents were no bar to the highest levels of colonial society. In 1940, it was estimated that they were 80 per cent of the European population, which at the previous census had numbered 250,000.
An Indo movement led by the Indo European Alliance voiced the idea of independence from the Netherlands, however only an Indo minority led by Ernest Douwes Dekker and P.F.Dahler joined the indigenous Indonesian independence movement.
Japanese occupation (1942-1945)
During World War II the European colonies in South East Asia, including the Dutch East Indies, were invaded and annexed by the Japanese Empire. The Japanese sought to eradicate anything reminiscent of European government. Many of the Indies Dutch had spent World War II in Japanese concentration camps. All Europeans were put in Japanese concentration camps. First the POWs, then all male adults and finally all females with their children and adolescents were interned. Boys of 10 years old and older were separated from their mothers and put into a boys camp usually together with old men. The Japanese failed in their attempts to win over the Indo community and Indos were made subject to the same forceful measures.
"Nine tenths of the so-called Europeans are the offspring of whites married to native women. These mixed people are called Indo-Europeans… They have formed the backbone of officialdom. In general they feel the same loyalty to Holland as do the white Netherlanders. They have full rights as Dutch citizens and they are Christians and follow Dutch customs. This group has suffered more than any other during the Japanese occupation.” Official US Army publication for the benefit of G.I.’s, 1944.
Indonesian independence (1945-1949)
Leaders of the Indonesian independence movement cooperated with the Japanese to realise an independent nation. Two days after Japan's surrender in the Pacific in August 1945, the independence leaders declared an independent Republic of Indonesia. The majority of Indo males were either captive or in hiding and remained oblivious to these developments. During the occupation, the Japanese had imprisoned some 42,000 Dutch military personnel and around 100,000 civilians - mostly Dutch people who could not provide proof of Indonesian descent. During Japan’s occupation, the Dutch were put into the lowest class. Native blood was the only thing that could free Indos from being put into concentration camps. 160,000 Indos (Eurasians) were not herded into camps.
On Nov. 24, 1945, Sutomo leaked propaganda to specifically kill the Dutch, Indo, Ambonese and unarmed civilians. Hundreds of Eurasians were murdered and killed in attacks by fanatical nationalistic Indonesian youth groups in the Bersiap Period during the last quarter of 1945.
Immigration from the Dutch East Indies (1945-1965)
In 1949, 300,000 Eurasians who had been socialized into many Dutch customs were repatriated. The Dutch established a repatriation program which lasted until 1967. Over a period of 15 years after the Republic of Indonesia became an independent state, virtually the entire Dutch population, Indische Nederlanders (Dutch Indonesians) – estimated at between 250,000 and 300,000 – left the former Dutch East Indies. Most of them moved to the Netherlands. A significant proportion arrived in the Netherlands for the first time. Some of them went to Australia, the United States or Canada. 18.5 percent departed for the United States. In 1959 Dutch people who did not embrace Indonesian citizenship were expelled. An estimated 60,000 immigrated to the United States in the 1960s.
The migration pattern of the so-called Repatriation progressed in five distinct waves over a period of 20 years.
- The first wave, 1945–1950: After Japan's capitulation and Indonesia’s declaration of independence around 100,000 people, many former captives that spent the war years in Japanese concentration camps and then faced the turmoil of the violent Bersiap period, left for the Netherlands. Although Indos suffered severely during this period, with 20,000 people killed over 8 months in the Bersiap period alone, the great majority only left their place of birth in the next few waves.
- The second wave, 1950–1957: After formal Dutch recognition of Indonesia's independence many civil servants, law enforcement and defence personnel left for the Netherlands. The colonial army was disbanded and at least 4,000 of the South Moluccan price soldiers and their families were also relocated to the Netherlands. The exact number of people that left Indonesia during the second wave is unknown. In 1956, 200,000 moved to the Netherlands - according to one estimate.
- The third wave, 1957–1958: During the political conflict around the so-called ‘New-Guinea Issue’ Dutch citizens were declared undesired elements by the young Republic of Indonesia and around 20,000 more people left for the Netherlands.
- The fourth wave, 1962–1964: When finally the last Dutch ruled territory i.e. New Guinea, was released to the Republic of Indonesia. Also the last remaining Dutch citizens left for the Netherlands, including around 500 Papua civil servants and their families. The total number of people that migrated is estimated at 14,000.
- The fifth wave, 1949–1967: During this overlapping period a distinctive group of people, known as Spijtoptanten (Repentis), that originally opted for Indonesian citizenship found that they were unable to integrate into Indonesian society and also left for the Netherlands. In 1967 the Dutch government formally terminated this option. Of the 31,000 people that originally opted for Indonesian citizenship (Indonesian term: Warga negara Indonesia) 25,000 withdrew their decision over the years.
Many that had left for the Netherlands often continued to the United States America to California and Florida. A 2005 study estimates the number of Indos that went to Australia around 10,000. Research has shown that most Indo immigrants are assimilating into their host societies. The Indos are disappearing as a group.
During the 1950s and 1960s an estimated 60,000 Indos arrived in the USA, where they have integrated into mainstream American society. These Indos were sometimes also referred to as Indo-Europeans and Amerindos. They are a relatively small Eurasian refugee-immigrant group in the United States of America.
Indo's who emigrated to the United States following Indonesian independence assimilated into their new country, marrying people outside the community; most never returned to Indonesia. Migration to the United States occurred under legislative refugee measures, these immigrants were sponsored by Christian organizations such as the Church World Service and the Catholic Relief Services. An accurate count of Indo immigrants is not available, as the U.S. Census classified people according to their self-determined ethnic affiliation. The Indos may have been included in overlapping categories of "country of origin”, “other Asians," "total foreign”, “mixed parentage”, "total foreign-born” and “foreign mother tongue". However the Indos that settled via the legislative refugee measures number at least 25,000 people.
The original post-war refugee legislation of 1948, already adhering to a strict 'affidavit of support' policy, was still maintaining a colour bar making it difficult for Indos to emigrate to the USA. By 1951 American consulates in the Netherlands registered 33,500 requests and had waiting times of 3 to 5 years. Also the Walter-McCarren Act of 1953 adhered to the traditional American policy of keeping down immigrants from Asia. The yearly quota for Indonesia was limited to a 100 visas, even though Dutch foreign affairs attempted to profile Indos as refugees from the alleged pro-communist Sukarno administration.
The 1953 flood disaster in the Netherlands resulted in the Refugee Relief Act including a slot for 15,000 ethnic Dutch that had at least 50% European blood (one year later loosened to Dutch citizens with at least 2 Dutch grandparents) and an immaculate legal and political track record. In 1954 only 187 visas were actually granted. Partly influenced by the anti-western rhetoric and policies of the Sukarno administration the anti-communist representative Francis E. Walter pleaded for a second term of the Refugee Relief Act in 1957 and an additional slot of 15,000 visas in 1958.
In 1958 the Pastore-Walter Act (Act for the relief of certain distressed alliens) was passed allowing for a one off acceptance of 10,000 Dutchmen from Indonesia (excluding the regular annual quota of 3,136 visas). It was hoped however that only 10% of these Dutch refugees would in fact be racially mixed Indos and the American embassy in The Hague was frustrated with the fact that Canada, where they were more strict in their ethnic profiling, was getting the full blooded Dutch and the USA was getting Dutch "all rather heavily dark". Still in 1960 senators Pastore and Walter managed to get a second 2-year term for their act which was used by a great number of Indo 'Spijtoptanten' (Repentis).
The Indos that immigrated and their descendants can be found in all fifty states, with a majority in southern California. The 1970 U.S. Census recorded 28,000 foreign-born Dutch (Dutch not born in the Netherlands) in California, while the 6 traditional Dutch American stronghold states Michigan, New York, New Jersey, Illinois and Washington as well as Florida hosted most of the other 50,000 foreign born Dutch. The formation of Indo enclaves was prevented because of various factors. Indos settled initially with their sponsors or in locations offered to them by the sponsor. Indos also had a wide variety of occupations and in this respect were not limited to certain geographic areas. There were no forces in the host society limiting the choice of location, there was a full choice as to where to settle.
Unlike in the Netherlands, U.S. Indos do not increase numerically. This is due to their relative small numbers and geographical dispersion. Also the disappearance of a proverbial "old country" able to supply a continual influx of new immigrants stimulates the rapid assimilation of U.S. Indos into the U.S.A. Although several Indo clubs have existed throughout the second half of the 20th century, the community's elders are passing away steadily. Some experts expect that within the lifespan of the second and third generation descendants the community will be assimilated and disappear completely into American multi-cultural society. The great leap in technological innovation of the 20th and 21st century, in the areas of communication and media, is mitigating the geographical dispersion and diversity of American Indos. Triggered by the loss of family and community elders American Indos are starting to rapidly reclaim their cultural heritage as well as sense of community.
Notwithstanding Australia’s ‘White Australia policy’ during the 1950s and 1960s, approximately 10,000 Indos migrated to Australia, mostly via the Netherlands. With regard to mixed-race Eurasians, who were called NPEO’s (Non Pure European Origine) by the Australian Ministries, subjective decision making became the norm of the policy until the 1970s.
During World War II a large refugee community from the Dutch East Indies existed in Australia of which 1,000 chose to stay in Australia after the War. The Dutch-Australian agreement signed in 1951, to stimulate immigration to the Australia did not bypass Australia’s overall ‘White Australia Policy’, which considerably hampered the immigration of Indos.
In the early 50's Australian immigration officials based in 3 offices in the Netherlands screened potential Indo migrants on skin color and western orientation. Refusals were never motivated or explained. In 1956 an Australian security official publicly stated in the Australian newspaper that Dutch Eurasians may become a serious social problem and even an Asian fifth column. In the early 60's only vocationally skilled migrants were accepted to Australia. Originally applicants were required to be of one hundred percent European descent. Later emigrants were required to show a family tree proving seventy-five percent European descent. In the 70's, in an attempt to make the policy more objective, a procedure was implemented that gave the applicant the opportunity to ask for a second opinion by a different official. Both decisions were then weighed by a higher official. Anti-Asian migration policies then started to change and in 1976 Australian immigration officials were even dispatched to Asia. Consequently emigrants were less and less subject to discrimination based on skin color.
- See also List of Dutch Indos
The second generation was in 2010 263,000 people with at least one parent born in Indonesia living in the Netherlands. The total number of first and second-generation Indonesian-born was 382,400.
In the Netherlands, they are not considered as an ethnic minority, and most of them are of mixed European-Indies origin bearing European family names.
In 1990 the Dutch Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS) registered the number of first-generation Indos living in the Netherlands at around 180,000 people. In 2001 official registration, including the second generation, accumulate their numbers to around half a million. Based on this the estimations, which include the third generation descendants, reach up to at least 800,000 people. However researcher Dr. Peter Post of the NIOD estimates that there are between 1.5 to 2 million people with Indo blood living in the Netherlands. The Indo Dutch living abroad not counted. This makes them by far the largest minority community in the Netherlands.
The Indo community is considered the best integrated ethnic and cultural minority in the Netherlands. Statistical data compiled by the CBS shows that Indos belong to the group with the lowest crime rates in the country.
A CBS study of 1999 reveals that of all foreign born groups living in the Netherlands, only the Indos have an average income similar to that of citizens born in the Netherlands. Job participation in government, education and health care is similar as well. Another recent CBS study, among foreign born citizens and their children living in the Netherlands in 2005, shows that on average, Indos own the largest number of independent enterprises. A 2007 CBS study shows that already over 50% of first-generation Indos have married a native born Dutch person. A percentage that increased to 80% for the second generation. One of the first and oldest Indo organisations that supported the integration of Indo repatriates into the Netherlands is the Pelita foundation. Pelita celebrated its 60-year jubilee in 2007.
Although Indo repatriates, being born overseas, are officially registered as Dutch citizens of foreign descent, their Eurasian background puts them in the Western sub-class instead of the Non-Western (Asian) sub-class.
Two factors are usually attributed to the essence of their apparently seamless assimilation into Dutch society: Dutch citizenship and the amount of 'Dutch cultural capital', in the form of school attainments and familiarity with the Dutch language and culture, that Indos already possessed before migrating to the Netherlands.
There were few public signs of the Indo culture. The most visible one was the yearly event Pasar Malam Besar (the Great Night Market) in The Hague that currently continues under the name Tong Tong Fair.
Indo culinary culture has made an enduring impact on Dutch society. There is no other place outside Indonesia with such an abundance of Indonesian food available. Indos played a pivotal role in introducing both Indonesian cuisine and Indo fusion cuisine to the Netherlands, making it so popular some consider it an integral part of Dutch cuisine. The Countess C.van Limburg Stirum writes in her book "The Art of Dutch Cooking" (1962): There exist countless Indonesian dishes, some of which take hours to prepare; but a few easy ones have become so popular that they can be regarded as "national dishes". She then provides recipes for dishes that have all become commonplace in the Netherlands nasi goreng (fried rice), pisang goreng (fried bananas), lumpia goreng (fried spring rolls), bami (fried noodles), satay (grilled skewered meat), satay sauce (peanut sauce), and sambal oelek (chilli paste). Practically each town in the Netherlands will have an Indies or Indonesian restaurant and Toko (shop). Even most Chinese restaurants have included Indonesian dishes to their menu such as Babi Pangang (roasted pork) and changed their names into Chinese Indies Restaurants.
An important champion of Indo culture was the writer Tjalie Robinson (1911–1974), who co-founded the Tong Tong Fair. Louis Couperus' Of Old People, the Things that Pass (Van oude mensen, de dingen die voorbij gaan, 1906) is a well-known example of an older Indies narrative. Maria Dermoût is known as a nostalgic Indies writer. Marion Bloem's postmemory work evolves around an artistic exploration of Indo identity and culture, which puts her in the tradition of the Indo spokesman Tjalie Robinson.
- See also List of Indonesian Indos
During colonial times Indos were not always formally recognized and registered as Europeans. A considerable number of Indos integrated into their respective local indigenous societies and were never officially registered as either European or Eurasian sub-group. Exact numbers are unknown.
"...the place that the Indos ...occupy in our colonial society has been altered. In spite of everything, the Indos are gradually becoming Indonesians, or one could say that the Indonesians are gradually coming to the level of the Indos. The evolution of the deeply ingrained process of transformation in our society first established the Indos in a privileged position, and now that same process is withdrawing those privileges. Even if they retain their 'European" status before the law, they will still be on a level with the Indonesians, because there are and will continue to be many more educated Indonesians than Indos. Their privileged position thus is losing its social foundation, and as a result that position itself will also disappear.” Sutan Sjahrir, 1937
- Decolonisation of Asia
- Dutch colonialism
- Dutch East Indies
- Dutch Indies literature
- Indies Monument
- Indische Party
- Indo Europeesch Verbond
- Insulinde (Political Party)
- Pasar Malam Besar
Notes and citations
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- Greenbaum-Kasson, E. (2011). "The long way home". The Los Angeles Times.
- Hollifield, J.; Martin, P.; Orrenius, P. Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective, Third Edition. Stanford University Press. p. 262.
- van Amersfoort, H. (1982). "Immigration and the formation of minority groups: the Dutch experience 1945-1975". Cambridge University Press.
- Sjaardema, H. (1946). "One View on the Position of the Eurasian in Indonesian Society". The Journal of Asian Studies: 172–175.
- Bosma, U. (2012). Post-colonial Immigrants and Identity Formations in the Netherlands. Amsterdam University Press. p. 198.
- Lai, Selena (2002). Understanding Indonesia in the 21st Century. Stanford University Institute for International Studies. p. 12.
- J. Errington, Linguistics in a Colonial World: A Story of Language, 2008, Wiley-Blackwell, p. 138
- The Colonial Review. Department of Education in Tropical Areas, University of London, Institute of Education. 1941. p. 72.
- Bosma, U.; Raben, R. (2008). Being "Dutch" in the Indies: a history of creolisation and empire, 1500–1920. University of Michigan, NUS Press. p. 21;37;220. ISBN 9971-69-373-9. Indo's or people of Dutch descent who stayed in the new republic Indonesia after it gained independence or emigrated to Indonesia after 1949 are called Dutch-Indonesians. Although the majority of the Indos are found in the lowest strata of European society, they do not represent a solid social or economic group."
- van der Veur, P. (1968). "The Eurasians of Indonesia: A Problem and Challenge in Colonial History". Journal of Southeast Asian History.
- Knight, G. (2012). "East of the Cape in 1832: The Old Indies World, Empire Families and "Colonial Women" in Nineteenth-century Java". Itinerario: 22–48.
- Betts, R. (2004). Decolonization. Psychology Press. p. 81.
- Yanowa, D.; van der Haar, M. (2012). "People out of place: allochthony and autochthony in the Netherlands' identity discourse—metaphors and categories in action". Journal of International Relations and Development (Palgrave Macmillan Journals) 16: 227–261. doi:10.1057/jird.2012.13. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- Pattynama, P (2012). "Cultural memory and Indo-Dutch identity formations". The University of Amsterdam. pp. 175–192.
- Asrianti, Tifa (10 January 2010). "Dutch Indonesians' search for home". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "Eurasians were referred to by native Indonesians as Sinjo (or Njo for short)". A. Adam, The Vernacular Press and the Emergence of Modern Indonesian Consciousness (1855-1913), Cornell Press, 1995, p. 12
- Echols, J. (1989). An Indonesian-English Dictionary. Cornell University Press. p. 222. ISBN 979-403-756-7.
- van Amersfoort, H. (2006). "Immigration as a Colonial Inheritance: Post-Colonial Immigrants in the Netherlands, 1945-2002". Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 32 (3): 323–346.
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- J. Taylor, The Social World of Batavia: European and Eurasian in Dutch Asia (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1983). ISBN 978-0-300-09709-2
- Wertheim, W. (1947). "The Indo-European Problem in Indonesia". Pacific Affairs.
- Ming, H. (1983). "Barracks-concubinage in the Indies, 1887-1920". Indonesia.
- Dutch Colonialism, Migration and Cultural Heritage. KITLV Press. 2008. p. 104;115.
- Milone, P. (1967). "Indische Culture, and Its Relationship to Urban Life". Comparative Studies in Society and History: 407–426.
- van Goor, J.; van Goor, F. (2004). Prelude to Colonialism: The Dutch in Asia. Uitgeverij Verloren. p. 57.
- Notable Mestizo communities with Portuguese roots are the Larantuka and Topasses people, they were a powerful and independent group of Mestizo, who controlled the sandalwood trade and that challenged both the Dutch and Portuguese. Their descendants live on the islands of Flores and Timor to this day. Boxer, C.R., The Topasses of Timor,(Indisch Instituut, Amsterdam, 1947).
- Many Portuguese family names can be found on the islands of Ambon, Flores and East Timor. Although most Portuguese family names were adopted after conversion to the Christian religion, many families can still trace back their roots to Portuguese ancestors. (Dutch) Rumphius, G.E. ‘De Ambonse landbeschrijving’ (Landelijk steunpunt educatie Molukkers, Utrecht, 2002) ISBN 90-76729-29-8
- J. Van Der Kroef, The Indonesian Eurasian and His Culture
- (Portuguese) Pinto da Franca, A. ‘Influencia Portuguesa na Indonesia’ (In: ‘STUDIA N° 33’, pp. 161-234, 1971, Lisbon, Portugal)
- (Portuguese) Rebelo, Gabriel ‘Informaçao das cousas de Maluco 1569’ (1856 & 1955, Lisboa, Portugal)
- Boxer, C. R. ‘Portuguese and Spanish Projects for the Conquest of Southeast Asia, 1580-1600’ (In: ‘Journal of Asian History’ Vol. 3, 1969; pp. 118-136.)
- "Braga Collection National Library of Australia". Nla.gov.au. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- Quote: "Liplap: A vulgar and disparaging nickname given in the Dutch East Indies to Eurasians." See: Yule, Henry, Coke Burnell, Arthur Hobson-Jobson: the Anglo-Indian dictionary (Publisher: Wordsworth Editions, 1996) P.518
- Etemad, Bouda (2007). Possessing the world: taking the measurements of colonisation from the 18th to the 20th century. Berghahn Books. p. 20.
- Megan Vaughan, Creating the Creole Island: Slavery in Eighteenth-Century Mauritius, 2005, p. 7
- Thomas Janoski, The Ironies of Citizenship: Naturalization and Integration in Industrialized Countries. Cambridge University Press, 2010. p. 163, 168 ISBN 0-521-14541-4
- J. Taylor, The Social World of Batavia: European and Eurasian in Dutch Asia (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1983). ISBN 978-0-300-09709-2
- Murdoch, Steve (2005). Network North: Scottish Kin, Commercial And Covert Associations in Northern. Brill. p. 210.
- Donald F. Lach, Edwin J. Van Kley, Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. Book 3: Southeast Asia , 1998, p. 1317
- Huigen, De Jong, Kolfin, Siegfried, Jan, Elmer (2010). The Dutch Trading Companies As Knowledge Networks. Brill. p. 362.
- Boxer C.R. ‘The Dutch Seaborne Empire 1600–1800’ (Penguin 1991) ISBN 978-0-14-013618-0  p.220
- The non-native born (totok) Europeans adopted Indo culture and customs. The lifestyle of Indos (e.g. language and dress code) only came under exceeding pressure to westernise in the following centuries of formal Dutch colonisation. J. Taylor, ‘The Social World of Batavia: European and Eurasian in Dutch Asia’ (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1983). ISBN 978-0-300-09709-2
- Blusse, Leonard. ‘Strange company: Chinese settlers, Mestizo women, and the Dutch in VOC Batavia.’ (Dordrecht-Holland; Riverton, U.S.A., Foris Publications, 1986. xiii, 302p.) number: 959.82 B659
- Boxer, C. R. ‘Jan Compagnie in war and peace, 1602-1799: a short history of the Dutch East-India Company.’ (Hong Kong, Heinemann Asia, 1979. 115p.) number: 382.060492 B788
- Masselman, George. ‘The cradle of colonialism.’ (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1963) number: 382.09492 MAS
- A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures: Continental Europe. Edinburgh University Press. p. 342.
- van der Kroef, J. (1953). "The Eurasian Minority in Indonesia". American Sociological Review: 484.
- Lehning, J. (2013). European Colonialism since 1700. Cambridge University Press. pp. 145–147.
- Dirk, Hoerder (2002). Cultures in Contact: World Migrations in the Second Millennium. Duke University Press. p. 183.
- De gids: algemeen cultureel maandblad, Volume 14, Part 2
- van Dijk, K. (2007). The Netherlands Indies and the Great War, 1914-1918. Brill Publishers. p. 26.
- Cooper, F.; Stoler, A. (1997). Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World. University of California Press. p. 201.
- Entzinger, H. (1995). "East and West Indian Migration to the Netherlands". The Cambridge survey of world migration: 342.
- Gouda, F. (2008). Dutch Culture Overseas: Colonial Practice in the Netherlands Indies, 1900-1942. pp. 112;165.
- Therborn, Göran (2004). Between Sex and Power: Family in the World, 1900-2000. Psychology Press. p. 54. ISBN 0415300770.
- Vandenbosch, A. (1930). "A Problem in Java: The Chinese in the Dutch East Indies". Pacific Affairs: 1001–1017.
- Beck, Sanderson, (2008) South Asia, 1800-1950 - World Peace Communications ISBN 0-9792532-3-3, ISBN 978-0-9792532-3-2 - By 1930 more European women had arrived in the colony, and they made up 113,000 out of the 240,000 Europeans.
- Van Nimwegen, Nico De demografische geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders, Report no.64 (Publisher: NIDI, The Hague, 2002) P.36 ISBN 9789070990923
- Knight, G. (2000). Narratives of Colonialism: Sugar, Java, and the Dutch. Nova Science Publishers. p. 48.
- 'E.F.E. Douwes Dekker (known after 1946 as Danudirja Setyabuddhi), a Eurasian and descendant of the author of Max Havelaar. A veteran of the Boer War (1899–1902) fighting on the Afrikaner side and a journalist, Douwes Dekker criticized the Ethical Policy as excessively conservative and advocated self-government for the islands and a kind of "Indies nationalism" that encompassed all the islands' permanent residents but not the racially exclusive expatriates (Dutch: Trekkers) (Indonesian: Totok).' Ref: Country studies. US Library of Congress. 
- L http://www.dutcheastindies.webs.com/index.html, Klemen (1999–2000). "Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942".
- Smith, Andrea (2003). Europe's Invisible Migrants: Consequences of the Colonists' Return. Amsterdam University Press. p. 16.
- Touwen-Bouwsma, Elly ‘Japanese minority policy : the Eurasians on Java and the dilemma of ethnic loyalty’ No.4 vol 152 1996, p553-572 (KITLV Press, Leiden, Netherlands, 1997) ISSN: 0006-2294 
- War and Navy Departments of the United States Army, ’A pocket guide to the Netherlands East Indies.’ (Facsimile by Army Information Branch of the Army Service Forces re-published by Elsevier/Reed Business November 2009) ISBN 978-90-6882-748-4 p.18
- "NIOD (Dutch War Documentation) website with camp overview". Indischekamparchieven.nl. 1941-12-08. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- Raben, Remco (1999). Representing the Japanese Occupation of Indonesia. Personal Testimonies and Public Images in Indonesia, Japan, and the Netherlands. Washington University Press. p. 56.
- Sidjaja, Calvin Michel (22 October 2011). "Who is responsible for ‘Bersiap’?". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- Post, Peter; Touwen-Bouwsma, Elly (1997). Japan, Indonesia, and the War: Myths and Realities. KITLV Press. p. 48.
- R. B. Cribb, Audrey Kahin, Historical Dictionary of Indonesia, 2004, p. 185
- Bosma, Ulbe (2012). Post-Colonial Immigrants and Identity Formations in the Netherlands. Amsterdam University Press. p. 139.
- Spreading the 'burden'?: A review of policies to disperse asylum seekers and refugees. Policy Press.
- Herzog, B (2013). Anticolonialism, decolonialism, neocolonialism. Blackwell Publishing. p. 21.
- Robinson, Vaughan Andersson, Roger Musterd, Sako Spreading the 'burden'?: A Review of Policies to Disperse Asylum Seekers (Publisher: The Policy Press, University of Bristol, 2003) ISBN 1 86134 417 1 P.26
- "Status of Indos in the United States — AmerIndo". Amerindo.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- September 8, 2014. "Indoâ€™s and Moluccans in the Netherlands: How did they get there? | YOUR GATEWAY TO SOUTHEAST ASIA". Latitudes.nu. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- "uit Indonesi� overdracht souvereiniteit en intocht van president Sukarno in Djakarta;embed=1 Link to video footage.". Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- Dutch Culture in a European Perspective: 1950, prosperity and welfare. Uitgeverij Van Gorcum. 2004.
- Van Nimwegen, Nico De demografische geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders, Report no.64 (Publisher: NIDI, The Hague, 2002) P.23 ISSN 0922-7210 ISBN 978-90-70990-92-3 OCLC 55220176 
- Note: These people are known by the Dutch term: 'Spijtoptanten' See:nl:Spijtoptant (English: Repentis). See: Van Nimwegen, Nico De demografische geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders, Report no.64 (Publisher: NIDI, The Hague, 2002) P.38 ISBN ISSN 0922-7210 ISBN 978-90-70990-92-3 OCLC 55220176 
- "Timeline Milestones 8". Gimonca.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- "Passenger lists archive". Passagierslijsten1945-1964.nl. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- H. Brinks, "Dutch Americans, Countries and Their Cultures" (2010) Online: 
- J. Cote and L. Westerbeek, ‘Recalling the Indies: Colonial Culture and Postcolonial Identities‘, (Askant Academic Publishers, 2005). ISBN 90-5260-119-4 
- (Dutch) Willems, Wim, ’De uittocht uit Indie 1945–1995’ (Uitgeverij Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) ISBN 90-351-2361-1
- David Levinson, Melvin Ember, American immigrant cultures: builders of a nation, 1997, p. 441
- "Music News: Latest and Breaking Music News". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- "100 Greatest Guitar Solos - tablature for the best guitar solos of all time". Guitar.about.com. 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- Gosselaar, Mark-Paul (15 October 2008). "Catching up with...Mark-Paul Gosselaar". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-08-11.
- Rohit, Parimal M. (3 March 2011). "Mark-Paul Gosselaar Discusses Franklin and Bash". Santa Monica Mirror. Retrieved 2014-08-11.
- "Mark-Paul Gosselaar...From Outrageous Con Man To Reluctant Icon!". Mark-Paul Gosselaar.net. 2005. Retrieved 2014-08-11.
- "The Story of Tetris: Henk Rogers". Sramana Mitra. September 16, 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- "Henk B. Rogers's Page". TechHui. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- "UC Berkeley 'Amerindo' Research Website". Dutch.berkeley.edu. 2013-10-17. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) p.254 ISBN 90-351-2361-1
- Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indië (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) p.255 ISBN 90-351-2361-1
- Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indië (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) p.256-257 ISBN 90-351-2361-1
- Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) p.258 ISBN 90-351-2361-1
- "Holland Festival in L.A., CA". Latimesblogs.latimes.com. 2009-05-26. Event occurs at 9:28 am. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- Krancher, Jan Indos: The Last Eurasian Community in the USA? Article adapted from “American Immigrant Cultures – Builders of a Nation,” volume 1, 1997, Simon and Schuster McMillan. (Publisher: Eurasian Nation, April 2003) Online transcript: Berkeley University Website
- American Indo organisation publishing the magazine 'De Indo' once established by Tjalie Robinson. In 2007 its publisher Creutzburg was awarded Dutch royal honours in Anaheim, California for 44 years of dedication to his community.
- Indos in the USA, article on the Eurasian Nation platform
- Joe Fitzgibbon/Special to The Oregonian (2009-11-05). "Portland (US) News Article about new Indo Eurasian documentary (dd. Nov. 2009)". Oregonlive.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) ISBN 90-351-2361-1 P.272
- Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) ISBN 90-351-2361-1 P.278
- Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) ISBN 90-351-2361-1 P.270
- Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) ISBN 90-351-2361-1 P.271
- Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) ISBN 90-351-2361-1 P.271
- Spaan, Ernst; Hillmann, Felicitas; van Naerssen, Ton (2005). Asian Migrants and European Labour Markets: Patterns and Processes of Immigrant Labour Market Insertion in Europe. Taylor & Francis US. p. 240.
- "Ref. page 58 of the official CBS 2001 census document." (PDF). Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- "Indo immigration as colonial inheritance: post colonial immigrants in the Netherlands, 1945-2002". Informaworld.com. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- De Vries, Marlene (2009). Indisch is een gevoel, de tweede en derde generatie Indische Nederlanders. Amsterdam University Press. p. 369. ISBN 978-90-8964-125-0.
- 'Indisch is een gevoel': de tweede en derde generatie Indische Nederlanders
- The Dutch census protocol administered by the CBS registers first-generation Indo repatriates(emigrants with Dutch roots), as well as their children, as foreign born citizens of the Netherlands (Dutch: Allochtoon). 
- Ember, C.; Ember, M.; Skoggard, I. (2005). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Springer. p. 594.
- Thanh-Dam, Truong; Gasper, Des (2011). Transnational Migration and Human Security: The Migration-Development-Security Nexus. Springer. p. 201.
- Keasberry, Jeff Indische Keukengeheimen, recepten en verhalen van 3 generaties Keasberry's. (Publisher: Karakter Uitgevers BV, Uithoorn, 2012) ISBN 978 90 452 0274 7 P.33 Online: Official Website Author
- C. Countess van Limburg Stirum The Art of Dutch Cooking (Publisher: Andre Deutsch Limited, London, 1962) p.179-p.185
- Keasberry, Jeff Indische Keukengeheimen, recepten en verhalen van 3 generaties Keasberry's. (Publisher: Karakter Uitgevers BV, Uithoorn, 2012) ISBN 978 90 452 0274 7 P.33
- "Indo music in Europe". Rockabillyeurope.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- (Indonesian)Indo music in Indonesia - newspaper articles
- Famous Dutch Indo writers include: Louis Couperus (1863–1923), Maria Dermoût (1888–1962), Edgar du Perron (1899–1940), Adriaan van Dis (1946- ), Marion Bloem (1952- ).
- Willems, Wim Tjalie Robinson; Biografie van een Indo-schrijver (Publisher: Bert Bakker, 2008) ISBN 978-90-351-3309-9
- Nieuwenhuys, Rob Mirror of the Indies: A History of Dutch Colonial Literature - translated from Dutch by E. M. Beekman (Publisher: Periplus, 1999) 
- de Mul, Sarah (2012). The Postcolonial Low Countries: Literature, Colonialism, and Multiculturalism. Lexington Books. p. 100;109.
- Panel paper ASAA conference by Dr Roger Wiseman, University of Adelaide
- Bosma U., Raben R. Being "Dutch" in the Indies: a history of creolisation and empire, 1500–1920 (University of Michigan, NUS Press, 2008) ISBN 9971-69-373-9 
- (Dutch) Bussemaker, H. Th. Bersiap. Opstand in het Paradijs (Walburg Pers, Zutphen, 2005).
- Cooper, Frederick and Stoler, Ann Laura Tensions of empire: colonial cultures in a bourgeois world (Publisher: University of California Press, Berkeley, 1997) Googlebook
- (Indonesian) Cote, Joost and Westerbeek, Loes. Recalling the Indies: Kebudayaan Kolonial dan Identitas Poskolonial, (Syarikat, Yogyakarta, 2004).
- Crul, Lindo and Lin Pang. Culture, Structure and Beyond, Changing identities and social positions of immigrants and their children (Het Spinhuis Publishers, 1999). ISBN 90-5589-173-8
- (Dutch) De Vries, Marlene. Indisch is een gevoel, de tweede en derde generatie Indische Nederlanders. (Amsterdam University Press, 2009) ISBN 978-90-8964-125-0  
- Gouda, F. American Visions of the Netherlands East Indies/Indonesia (Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, 2002).
- Krancher, Jan A. The Defining Years of the Dutch East Indies, 1942–1949 (McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers). ISBN 978-0-7864-1707-0
- Palmer and Colton. A History of the Modern World (McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1992). ISBN 0-07-557417-9
- Ricklefs, M. C. A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1300 (Stanford University Press, 2001).
- Schenkhuizen, M. Memoires of an Indo Woman (Edited and translated by Lizelot Stout van Balgooy), (Ohio University Press (number 92) Athens, Ohio 1993).
- Taylor, Jean Gelman. The Social World of Batavia: European and Eurasian in Dutch Asia (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1983). ISBN 978-0-300-09709-2
- Taylor, Jean Gelman. Indonesia: Peoples and Histories (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003). ISBN 0-300-09709-3