Indochinese leopard

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Indochinese leopard
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus: Panthera
Species: P. pardus
Subspecies: P. p. delacouri
Trinomial name
Panthera pardus delacouri
Pocock, 1930

The Indochinese leopard (Panthera pardus delacouri) is a leopard subspecies native to mainland Southeast Asia and into southern China, classified as “Near Threatened” in 2008 by IUCN. In Indochina, leopards are threatened primarily by habitat loss due to deforestation, as well as poaching for the illegal trade. They are becoming increasingly rare outside protected areas, and may soon qualify for the “Vulnerable” status. The trend of the population is decreasing.[1]

Characteristics[edit]

There appears to be a disjunction around the Isthmus of Kra, where the population changes from predominantly black forms south of the Isthmus to predominantly spotted forms north of the Isthmus. Records from camera-trapping studies conducted at 22 locations in Peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand between 1996 and 2009 show that only melanistic leopards were present in samples south of the Isthmus.[2] In the dense tropical forest habitat in part of their range, melanism is quite common, and black leopards have a selective advantage for ambush.[3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The Indochinese leopard inhabits Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and South China.[1]

In Myanmar's Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary, leopards declined so drastically between the 1940s–80s, that by 2000 were estimated being close to locally extinct.[4]

Since the mid-1990s, leopard-oriented field research was carried out in only two protected areas in Thailand:

  • In 1996, three leopards were fitted with radio-collars in the south–central part of Kaeng Krachan National Park, a hilly terrain with seasonal evergreen forest. The study revealed home ranges of two male leopards of 14.6–18.0 km2 (5.6–6.9 sq mi), and of a female of 8.8 km2 (3.4 sq mi). All leopards preferred environment, where prey species accumulated and offered potential hunting opportunities — at lower elevations of 500–600 m (1,600–2,000 ft), river and valley corridors, and the main road prior to higher elevations and forested terrain. Both males slightly extended their home range during the wet season of June to October.[5]
  • Between 1994 and 1999, ten leopards were fitted with radio-collars in the north-western part of Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary and followed over 9–41 months. The analysis of tracking data revealed mean annual home ranges of adult males of 35.2–64.6 km2 (13.6–24.9 sq mi). Six adult females had the largest in Asia recorded home ranges of 17.8–34.2 km2 (6.9–13.2 sq mi), which they all extended in the dry season from November to April. All leopards preferred dry evergreen and mixed deciduous forest with flat slope near water courses.[6]

Between April 2003 to June 2004, 25 different leopards walked past camera traps set up over an area of 500 km2 (190 sq mi) in the Nam Et-Phou Louey National Protected Area in Laos.[7] Leopards are reported to occur in Laos' Nam Kan National Protected Area as well.[8]

In Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary on the Thai-Malaysian border, only two leopards walked past camera traps deployed between October 2004 and October 2007.[9]

In April 2010, a spotted leopard was camera-trapped in the Taman Negara Endau-Rompin National Park in Malaysia's southern state of Johor, where previously only black leopards were believed to roam.[10]

Threats[edit]

There are few contiguous areas left where leopards have a chance of long-term survival. They are primarily threatened by habitat destruction following large–scale deforestation, and prey depletion through illegal hunting.[5][6] Another serious threat is hunting for the illegal wildlife trade, which has the greatest potential to do maximum harm in minimal time.[11]

Habitat destruction[edit]

Human traffic inside protected areas negatively affects leopard movements and activity. They show less diurnal activity in areas more heavily used by people.[12] In villages located in Laos' protected areas, consumption of deer and wild pig is estimated at about 28.2 kg (62 lb) annually per household — an offtake amounting to 2,840 kg (6,260 lb) ungulates per 100 km2 (39 sq mi), which is equivalent to the meat required to sustain several leopards per 100 km2 (39 sq mi).[7][13]

In a highly fragmented tropical rain forest within Malaysia’s capital agglomeration of Klang Valley leopard density has been estimated at 28.35 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi), which is one of the highest leopard densities reported. As a result of rapid shrinking of the forests, individuals may have been pushed into the remaining forest in this area, so that their population is unexpectedly high. Leopards were mostly affected by construction activities conducted inside the forest.[14][15]

Illegal wildlife trade[edit]

Substantial domestic skin markets exist in Myanmar, in Malaysia for traditional medicines, and in China for skins and bones, latter particularly as substitute for tiger in traditional Asian medicines and tonics. In China, the use of stockpiles of leopard bone is still permitted by the government by medicinal manufacturers, despite the domestic trade ban.[16]

In Myanmar, 215 body parts of at least 177 leopards were observed in four markets surveyed between 1991 to 2006. Among the body parts, a leopard penis and testes were openly traded, along with other parts of the freshly killed animal. Three of the surveyed markets are situated on international borders with China and Thailand, and cater to international buyers, although leopards are completely protected under Myanmar's national legislation. Effective implementation and enforcement of CITES is considered inadequate.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Henschel, P., Hunter, L., Breitenmoser, U., Purchase, N., Packer, C., Khorozyan, I., Bauer, H., Marker, L., Sogbohossou, E., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C. (2008). "Panthera pardus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 
  2. ^ Kawanishi, K., Sunquist, M. E., Eizirik, E., Lynam, A. J., Ngoprasert, D., Wan Shahruddin, W. N., Rayan, D. M., Sharma, D. S. K., Steinmetz, R. (2010) Near fixation of melanism in leopards of the Malay Peninsula. Journal of Zoology, Volume 282 (3): 201–206
  3. ^ Majerus, M. E. N. (1998) Melanism: evolution in action. New York: Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ Aung, M.; Swe, K. K.; Oo, T.; Moe, K. K.; Leimgruber, P.; Allendorf, T.; Duncan, C.; Wemmer, C. (2004). "The environmental history of Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary, a protected area in Myanmar (Burma)". Journal of Environmental Management 72: 205–216. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2004.04.013. CiteSeerX: 10.1.1.61.3531. 
  5. ^ a b Grassman, L. (1999). Ecology and behavior of the Indochinese leopard in Kaeng Krachan National Park, Thailand. Natural History Bulletin Siam Society 47: 77–93
  6. ^ a b Simcharoen, S., Barlow, A.C.D., Simcharoen, A., Smith, J.L.D. (2008). Home range size and daytime habitat selection of leopards in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. Biological Conservation 141 (9/2008): 2242–2250.
  7. ^ a b Johnson, A., Vongkhamheng, C., Hedemark, M., Saithongdam, T. (2006). Effects of human–carnivore conflict on tiger (Panthera tigris) and prey populations in Lao PDR. Animal Conservation 9: 421–430.
  8. ^ Robichaud, Insua-Cao, W. Sisomphane, P. C., Chounnavanh, S. (2010). A scoping mission to Nam Kan National Protected Area, Lao PDR. Fauna & Flora International
  9. ^ Kitamura, S., Thong-Aree, S., Madsri; S., Pooswad, P. (2010). Mammal diversity and conservation in a small isolated forest os southern Thailand. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 2010 58 (1): 145–156.
  10. ^ Wildlife Extra (2010). Spotted leopard caught on camera in Malaysia. Wildlife Extra, April 2010
  11. ^ Nowell, K., Jackson, P. (1996) Wild Cats: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
  12. ^ Ngoprasert, D., Lynam, A.J., Gale, G. A. (2007). Human disturbance affects habitat use and behaviour of Asiatic leopard Panthera pardus in Kaeng Krachan National Park, Thailand. Oryx (2007) 41: 343–351.
  13. ^ ICEM (2003). Lao PDR National Report on Protected Areas and Development. Review of Protected Areas and Development in the Lower Mekong River Region, Indooroopilly, Queensland, Australia.
  14. ^ Sanei, A., Zakaria, M. Yusof, E., Roslan, M. (2011). Estimation of leopard population size in a secondary forest within Malaysia’s capital agglomeration using unsupervised classification of pugmarks. Tropical Ecology 52 (2): 209-217
  15. ^ Sanei, A., Zakaria, M. (2009). Summary of the Malayan leopard project progress report. University Putra Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
  16. ^ Nowell, K. (2007) Asian big cat conservation and trade control in selected range States: evaluating implementation and effectiveness of CITES Recommendations. A TRAFFIC Report, June 2007
  17. ^ Shepherd, C. R., Nijman, V. (2008) The wild cat trade in Myanmar. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

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