Indonesian Navy

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Indonesian Navy
Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut
Lambang TNI AL.png
Indonesian Navy insignia
Founded 1945
Country  Indonesia
Type Navy
Size 74,000 active duty personnel
55 Aircraft
2 Submarines (+ 3 under construction)
6 Frigates (+ 2 under construction)
10 Corvettes
16 ASW Corvettes
21 Missile Boat
51 Patrol Craft
12 Minesweeper
4 Amphibious Transport Dock
Motto Jalesveva Jayamahe
(Sanskrit, lit:"Victorious on the Sea")
Anniversaries 10 September 1945 (founded)
Engagements Battle of Arafura Sea
Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation
Incorporation of West Papua into Indonesia
Indonesian Invasion of East Timor
Insurgency in Aceh
Commanders
Chief of Staff of the Navy Admiral Marsetio[1]
Insignia
Naval Jack Naval Jack of Indonesia.svg
Naval Aviation Roundel Roundel Indonesia naval aviation.svg

The Indonesian Navy (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut, TNI–AL) was founded on September 10, 1945. Its role is to patrol Indonesia's immense coastline, to enforce and patrol the territorial waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Indonesia, to protect Indonesia's maritime strategic interests, to protect the islands surrounding Indonesia, and to defend against seaborne threats.

The Indonesian Navy is the largest navy in South East Asia based on the number of active personnel and ships. As of 2009, the Indonesian Navy had about 74.963 active personnel and more than 150 marine vessels in active service. The Indonesian Navy is one of a few navies in the region backed by a substantial domestic defence industry and armed with marine corps, supersonic missiles and attack submarines.

All commissioned ships of the TNI-AL have the prefix KRI (Kapal Perang Republik Indonesia), which means Republic of Indonesia warship.

Indonesian Naval vessels
KRI Makassar 590

Mission[edit]

According to Undang-Undang Nomor 34/2004 about TNI Article 9, the Navy has the following tasks:

  1. perform military duties in national defense;
  2. enforce the law and secure the order in the sea area of national jurisdiction in accordance with national laws and ratified international laws;
  3. perform diplomatic duties in support of foreign policy set by the government;
  4. engage other duties relevant for the maintenance and development of naval power;
  5. support civilian empowerment in sea defense areas.

History[edit]

The Indonesian Navy's history began on September 10, 1945, at the outset of the Indonesian National Revolution. The administration of the early Indonesian government established the People's Marine Security Agency (BKR Laut), the predecessor to the modern Indonesian Navy. BKR Laut was initially composed of Indonesian sailors who had served in the ranks of the Royal Netherlands Navy during the Dutch colonial period, and who had fought the Japanese during the years of military occupation, plus active militias who served with the Japanese.

The formation of the Indonesian military organization known as the People's Security Army (TKR) in 1949, at the height of the National Revolution, helped spur the further existence of the TKR Naval Branch, which later became the Republic of Indonesia Navy (ALRI).

Between 1949-1959, the Navy enhanced its strengths and capabilities with the formation of the Fleet Command, the Marine Corps, then known as the Marine Commando Forces Corps Command (KKO-AL), Naval Aviation and Maritime Area Command as a command of the defense of the territorial sea aspect.

In the 1990s the Navy received a major boost when it took delivery of several new types of warships, including the Parchim Class Corvette, the Frosch class landing ship tank (LST), and the Kondor class mine sweeper.

Organization[edit]

The navy comprises the following:

  • Headquarters Staff (HQ, Jakarta) under the overall command of the Navy Chief of Staff,
  • Two Fleet Commands :
    • Eastern Fleet Command, in Surabaya, conterminous with Army's KODAM V and KODAMs VII through IX and Air Force's Operation Command II.
    • Western Fleet Command, in Jakarta, conterminous with Army's KODAMs I through IV and VI and Air Force's Operation Command I.
  • Several Naval Main Bases and Naval Bases throughout Indonesia. Apart from the major bases at Surabaya and Jakarta, forward operating bases exist at Kupang, West Timor and Tahuna, Sulawesi.
  • Marine Corps, with two Marine Forces
  • Naval Aviation Center,
  • Military Sealift Command - coordinates the navy's logistical support systems.

Plans exist to have a single HQ at Surabaya, with commands at Riau (West), Papua (East), and Makassar (Central).[2] JDW reported on 12 November 2003 that Admiral Bernard Kent Sondakh, the Chief of Naval Staff, was advocating a plan to merge the two fleets to form a single Main Operations and Administration Defence Command, to be headed by a three-star officer and headquartered at Surabaya.[3]

Naval bases[edit]

Naval Base is converted into sequential numbering from I to XI by location from west to east on August 1, 2006 along with the inauguration of the Naval Base Bayur Bay, Padang, West Sumatra became naval Main Base (Lantamal) II.

Naval forces are spread across several main bases under the command of two major Fleets:

  • Main Naval Base I Belawan.
  • Naval Base Sabang
  • Naval Base Dumai
  • Naval Base Lhokseumawe
  • Naval Base Tanjung Balai Asahan
  • Naval Base Simeulue
  • Naval Air Station Sabang
  • Main Naval Base II Padang.
  • Naval Base Sibolga
  • Naval Base Bengkulu
  • Main Naval Base III Jakarta.
  • Naval Base Palembang
  • Naval Base Cirebon
  • Naval Base Panjang
  • Naval Base Banten
  • Naval Base Bandung
  • Naval Base Bangka Belitung
  • Naval Air Station Pondok Cabe
  • Main Naval Base IV Tanjung Pinang.
  • Naval Base Batam
  • Naval Base Pontianak
  • Naval Base Tarempa
  • Naval Base Ranai
  • Naval Base Tanjung Balai Karimun
  • Naval Base Dabo Singkep
  • Naval Air Station Matak (Natuna Islands)
  • Naval Air Station Tanjungpinang/Kijang
  • Main Naval Base V Surabaya.
  • Naval Base Tegal
  • Naval Base Cilacap
  • Naval Base Semarang
  • Naval Base Malang
  • Naval Base Banyuwangi
  • Naval Base Denpasar
  • Naval Base Batuporon
  • Naval Air Station Juanda
  • Main Naval Base VI Makassar.
  • Naval Base Kendari
  • Naval Base Palu
  • Naval Base Balikpapan
  • Naval Base Kotabaru
  • Naval Base Banjarmasin
  • Main Naval Base VII Kupang.
  • Naval Base Mataram
  • Naval Base Maumere
  • Naval Base Kupang
  • Naval Base Tual
  • Naval Air Station Kupang
  • Main Naval Base VIII Manado.
  • Naval Base Tarakan
  • Naval Base Nunukan
  • Naval Base Tahuna
  • Naval Base Toli-Toli
  • Naval Base Gorontalo
  • Naval Air Manado
  • Main Naval Base IX Ambon.
  • Naval Base Ternate
  • Naval Base Saumlaki
  • Naval Base Morotai
  • Main Naval Base X Jayapura.
  • Naval Base Sorong
  • Naval Base Biak
  • Naval Air Station Biak
  • Main Naval Base XI Merauke
  • Naval Base Timika
  • Naval Base Aru
  • Naval Air Station Aru

Ships[edit]

The majority of the vessels in the Indonesian navy are from the Netherlands and Britain. However, since 2003, Indonesian shipyards have produced many of their own small vessels, in particular those of smaller displacement like patrol boats and fast attack crafts. Recently, two Makassar class LPDs have been launched by PT. PAL, with assistance from Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Co.(DSME) of South Korea, and there are a plans to build indigenous missile-armed corvettes (Kornas). Indonesia had built a trimaran which had stealth features KRI Klewang, which made Indonesia as the second country to operate a stealth ship after United States of America.

Submarines[edit]

Class Picture Type Quantity Ships Note
Submarines
Chang Bogo class ChangBogoSSK061Typ209Uboat.jpg submarines (3) (under construction)

Improved U209 Class Submarine

Armament:

Cakra class US Navy 050624-N-1464F-025 The Turkish submarine Preveze surfaces following the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) submarine escape and rescue exercise Sorbet Royal 2005.jpg submarines 2 KRI Cakra
KRI Nanggala

Armament:

Frigates[edit]

Class Picture Type Quantity Ships Note
Frigates
Sigma Class Frigate 10514 Frigates (2)

Under construction. A total of 2 ships will build by PT PAL Indonesia and Damen Schelde.
Armament:

Ahmad Yani Class Indonesia Frigate KRI Karel Satsuit Tubun.jpg Frigates 6 KRI Ahmad Yani (351)
KRI Slamet Riyadi (352)
KRI Yos Sudarso (353)
KRI Oswald Siahaan (354)
KRI Abdul Halim Perdanakusuma (355)
KRI Karel Satsuit Tubun (356)

Armament:

Corvettes[edit]

Class Picture Type Quantity Ships Note
Corvettes
Bung Tomo class Warships barrow dock.jpg Corvette 3 KRI Bung Tomo
KRI John Lie
KRI Usman Harun

Armament:

Diponegoro Class Kri-diponegoro-1600-1200.jpg Corvette 4 KRI Diponegoro
KRI Sultan Hasanuddin
KRI Sultan Iskandar Muda
KRI Frans Kaisiepo

Armament:

Fatahillah Class Corvette 3 KRI Fatahillah
KRI Malahayati
KRI Nala

Armament:

ASW Corvettes[edit]

Class Picture Type Quantity Ships Note
ASW Corvettes
Kapitan Patimura Class CutNyakDien.jpg ASW Corvette 16 KRI Kapitan Pattimura
KRI Untung Suropati
KRI Nuku
KRI Lambung Mangkurat
KRI Cut Nyak Dien
KRI Sultan Thaha Syaifudin
KRI Sutanto
KRI Sutedi Senoputra
KRI Wiratno
KRI Memet Sastrawiria
KRI Tjiptadi
KRI Hasan Basri
KRI Imam Bonjol
KRI Pati Unus
KRI Teuku Umar
KRI Silas Papare

Not all Kapitan Patimura class are equipped with their original ASW capabilities like sonar and torpedo launcher when Indonesia bought from former East Germany. Because of this the ship was use as an OPV.Some of the ship upgraded by Indonesia to meet their navy needs.[5][6] Armament:

Missile Boat[edit]

Class Picture Type Quantity Ships Note
Missile Boat
Mandau Class Missile Boat 4 KRI Mandau
KRI Rencong
KRI Badik
KRI Keris
Todak Class Missile Boat 4 KRI Todak
KRI Hiu
KRI Layang
KRI Lemadang
Pandrong Class Missile Boat 2 KRI Pandrong
KRI Sura
Clurit Class (KCR 40) Missile Boat 8 KRI Clurit
KRI Kujang
KRI Beladau
KRI Alamang
KRI Parang
KRI Siwar
KRI Surik
KRI Terapang
Sampari Class (KCR 60) Missile Boat 3 KRI Sampari
KRI Tombak [8]
KRI Halasan [9]

Gunboat[edit]

Class Picture Type Quantity Ships Note
Gunboat
Andau Class Gunboat 4 KRI Andau
KRI Singa
KRI Tongkak
KRI Ajak
Kakap Class Gunboat 4 KRI Kakap
KRI Kerapu
KRI Tongkol
KRI Barakuda
Sibarau Class Gunboat 8
Boa Class Gunboat 13
PC 40/PC 43/FPB 43/KRI Cucut Gunboat 15

Minesweepers[edit]

Class Picture Type Quantity Ships Note
Minesweepers
KRI Pulau Rani Minesweeper 1
Tripartite Class Minesweeper 2
Kondor Class Minesweeper 9

Amphibious Forces[edit]

Class Picture Type Quantity Ships Note
Amphibious Forces
Makassar Class Kri makassar-590.PNG LPD 4
LST 117 LST (3) (under construction)
LST 1-511 and 512-1152 classes LST 4
Tacoma Class LST 5
Frosch I Class (Type 108) and Frosch II Class (Type 109) LST 12+*1 * The status of one ship (KRI Teluk Peleng) still undefined due to the sunk incident on 18/11/2013[10]

Naval aviation[edit]

In the 1960s, the Indonesian Navy Naval Aviation had a long-range strike capability with Indonesian Navy had Il-28 medium bombers. In 1975-79, the Dinas Penerbangan Angkatan Laut (Naval Aviation Service) received 12 GAF Nomad Searchmaster B's and six Searchmaster L twin-turboprops to form a maritime patrol Squadron (800 Skwadron).[11] In mid 1996 six NC.212-MPAs also join the squadron. All aircraft fly from the Naval headquarters base of Surabaya, but detachments are at times sent to Tanjung pinang and Manado. There are plan to buy 11 ASW helicopter in the future. The candidates include Kaman SH-2G Super Seasprite and Eurocopter Panther[12] but until early 2014 there is no contract finalized yet.[13][14]

Current aircraft[edit]

IPTN NC-212-200MP Aviocar of the TNI-AL at Balikpapan in 2004.

[15]

Aircraft Origin Role Versions In service Note
Aircraft
GAF Nomad  Australia Light Transport N.24 Nomad 24
CASA C-212 Aviocar  Spain Maritime Patrol & Tactical Transport NC-212 MPA 6[16]
Beech Bonanza  United States Light Transport G-36 Bonanza 4[17]
CASA CN-235  European Union
 Indonesia
Maritime Patrol & Tactical Transport CN-235 MPA 5[18][19][20][21]
Helicopter
Bell 412  Canada
 United States
Utility Bell 412EP

7[16][22]

Licensed production by Indonesian Aerospace
MBB BO 105  European Union Utility NBO-105 6[16][22]
Eurocopter EC-120 Colibri  European Union Utility EC-120B Colibri 2[23]
Eurocopter AS365 Dauphin  European Union Utility Dauphin 1[24] Originally owned by BASARNAS (Indonesia Coast Guard) as a Duphin helicopter but has been painted to the TNI AL camo and transferred to the navy[25]
Eurocopter AS565 Panther  European Union Utility Dauphin AS565 MBe (11) [26] On oder. Will be used for naval anti-submarine warfare (ASW) missions and to support operations from land bases and vessels.

Commandants of Naval Aviation(Puspenerbal)[edit]

List of Naval Aviation(Puspenerbal) Commandants
Rank Name From Until Remarks
First Admiral TNI Sugianto, S.E, M.A.P. - 23 February 2013
First Admiral TNI I Nyoman Nesa 23 February 2013[27] 24 May 2014
First Admiral TNI Sigit Setyanta 24 May 2014[28] Present

Ground forces[edit]

Marines[edit]

The Korps Marinir are the Indonesian Navy's ground troops. It was created on November 15, 1945 and has the duties of being the main amphibious warfare force and quick reaction force of defence against enemy invasion.

Special Forces[edit]

  • Komando Pasukan Katak - the primary special operations force of the Indonesian Navy. They are recruited from navy sailors, and they are commonly called as "FROG MAN".
  • Batalion Intai Amfibi - the Marine Corps' Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion, which also has capability as para-commando. They are recruited from marines corps.
  • Detasemen Jala Mangkara - special operations and counter-terrorism forces of the Indonesian Navy. It is a combined detachment formed from selected personnel of the Navy's Underwater Special Unit (Kopaska) and the Marine Corps' Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion (KIPAM aka Yontaifib).

Ongoing projects[edit]

Ideally, the Navy should have 250 ships, and it has a blueprint up to 2024.[29]

In April 2011, PT PAL, in cooperation with Netherlands' Naval Shipbuilding, started designing a new light frigate for ASW purposes. It will be the largest warship built by PT PAL.[30] The first steel cutting ceremony was held on January 2014 and order for two PKR ships is confirmed. Equipped with VL Mica missiles and Oerlikon Millennium CIWS, these ships are also usable for air defense purposes.

At the same time, Indonesian Navy has accepted a grant of 2 used patrol boats equipped with guided missiles made in Britain from Brunei after upgrading itself with newer vessels.[31]

June 2011: Indonesia will pick submarine from one of three countries: French Scorpène, German Type 209 and South Korean Chang Bogo class Type 209.[32]

December 2011: A contract to build three submarines was signed by Indonesian party and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME). 2 submarines will be built in South Korea in cooperation with Indonesian state-owned shipbuilder PT PAL, while the third will be built at PT Pal's facilities. The contract was worth $1.07 billion and construction would start in January 2012 and expected deliveries in 2015 and 2016. The submarines would weigh 1,400 tons and be 61.3 meters long to carry up to 40 crewmembers and have 8 weapons tubes for torpedoes and other weapons. The procurement is an effort to keep pace with other countries in the region and not to match them.[33][34]

January 2012: The Navy had confirmed the order for the 24 guided-missile fast boats to be deployed in shallow waters in the western part of Indonesia and in North Sulawesi which are geographically dotted by small islands and divided by straits. Indonesia now has 4 KCR-40s (Kapal Cepat Rudal 40-meter, literally means 40-meters Fast Missile Boat), all in full commission by December 20, 2013.[35] KCR-40s was 45 percent locally sourced and is designed and built solely locally, worth Rp 73 billion ($7.98 million) each and has a top speed of 30 knots. The boats will carry Chinese C-705 anti-ship missiles with a range up to 120 kilometres (75 mi), a 6-barreled 30-millimeter close-in weapons system and two 20-millimeters guns.[36][37][38]

Indonesian Navy also prepared to acquire three new British corvettes,[39] classified as Bung Tomo class corvette, after its leading ship, KRI Bung Tomo 357. They were built for Brunei but rejected for not meeting their requirements, allowing Indonesia to buy them at a cheap price.

On December 2013, Indonesian Ministry of Defense stated that Indonesian Navy planned to buy several used Kilo class submarine still commissioned by the Russian Navy.[40] A team consisted of Indonesian Navy experts will be sent to Russia to inspect the condition of future submarines.[41] In March 2014 the plan to buy 2 kilo class submarines was cancelled.[42]

Integrated Maritime Surveillance Systems[edit]

With various coast-line radars, Indonesia has one of the world's longest Integrated Maritime Surveillance Systems (IMSS). The network covers more than 1,205 kilometres (749 mi) of coastline in the Straits of Malacca and about 1,285 kilometres (798 mi) of coastline in the Sulawesi Sea.[43]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "detikNews : KSAL dan KSAU Naik Pangkat". News.detik.com. Retrieved 2013-09-22. 
  2. ^ IISS Military Balance 2007, p.353
  3. ^ JDW 19 Nov 2003, p.16-17
  4. ^ http://www.tnial.mil.id/tabid/79/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/21446/Default.aspx
  5. ^ "Indonesian Navy Upgrades Three Corvettes with ASW Capabilities". April 16, 2014. 
  6. ^ "Indonesia Equips Frigates, Corvette with Stealth Radars". April 15, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Indonesia equips corvette with Chinese 30 mm CIWS". July 26, 2014. 
  8. ^ "PT PAL Serahkan KCR Kedua Pesanan TNI AL". August 27, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Indonesian Shipyard PT PAL launched the third 60m Fast Missile Craft KCR-60M for TNI AL". July 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ http://news.detik.com/read/2013/11/21/114848/2419450/10/penjelasan-lengkap-tni-al-soal-karamnya-kri-teluk-peleng-di-tanjung-priok
  11. ^ World Aircraft Information Files Brightstar publishing London File 333 Sheet 1
  12. ^ http://defense-studies.blogspot.com/2013/06/skuadron-100-helikopter-anti-kapal.html
  13. ^ "Indonesian Navy to acquire 16 ASW helicopters". May 3, 2014. 
  14. ^ "Indonesian navy stalks AS565 Panther deal". May 5, 2014. 
  15. ^ "OrBat Indonesia - MilAvia Press.com: Military Aviation Publications". MilAvia Press.com. Retrieved 2013-09-22. 
  16. ^ a b c http://www.flightglobal.com/airspace/media/reports_pdf/world-air-forces-2014-108161.aspx
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  18. ^ "Indonesian navy to order three CN-235 maritime patrol aircraft ~ ASIAN DEFENCE". Theasiandefence.blogspot.com. 2009-12-03. Retrieved 2013-09-22. 
  19. ^ "[Foto] CN235 MPA Untuk Puspenerbal". Garudamiliter.blogspot.com. October 3, 2013. 
  20. ^ "Indonesian Navy Operates Its First CN235 MPA Aircraft". November 12, 2013. 
  21. ^ "PT DI Serahkan CN-235 Patmar Ketiga untuk TNI AL". September 17, 2014. 
  22. ^ a b http://garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2012/06/nbell-412.html
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  29. ^ [1][dead link]
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  33. ^ "December 22, 2011 - RI orders 3 submarines worth $1b in regional ‘catch-up’". Thejakartapost.com. Retrieved 2013-11-07. 
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  37. ^ "Indonesia: Defense Minister Launches "KRI Clurit" >>". Naval Today. 2011-04-26. Retrieved 2013-09-22. 
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  39. ^ "Purchase Confirmed, Navy Waits for Three New Ships". en.tempo.co. 
  40. ^ "Indonesia borong kapal selam dari Rusia". merdeka.com. 
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  43. ^ "News". Embassyofindonesia.org. 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2013-11-07. 

External links[edit]

See also[edit]