Indore State

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This article is about the princely state during the British Raj. For the dynasty, see Holkar.
Indore State
इंदौर
Princely State of British India

1818–1948
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Location of Indore
Map of the territories of Indore State, some forming enclaves in neighbouring Gwalior and Bhopal states
History
 -  Maratha Confederacy, British protectorate 1818
 -  Indian independence 15 June 1948
Area
 -  1931 24,605 km2 (9,500 sq mi)
Population
 -  1931 1,325,089 
Density 53.9 /km2  (139.5 /sq mi)
Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
The Rajawada (Old Palace) of Indore.
The Sukhnivas Palace.
The Maharaja of Indore on his state elephant.
Tukojirao Holkar III, Maharaja of Indore.
Maharani Shrimant Chandravati Bai Sahib Holkar, First Wife of Maharaja Tukojirao Holkar III of Indore.
Maharani Indira Bai Sahib Holkar, Second Wife of Maharaja of Indore Tukojirao Holkar III.

Indore State, also known as Holkar State,[1] was a Maratha princely state in India during the British Raj. Its rulers belonged to the Holkar dynasty and the state was under the Central India Agency.

Indore princely state was located in the present-day Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The capital of the state was the city of Indore. The state had an area of 24,605 km² and a population of 1,325,089 inhabitants in 1931; other important towns besides Indore were Rampura, Khargon, Maheshwar, Mehidpur, Barwaha and Bhanpura; there were also a total of 3,368 villages.[2]

History[edit]

See also: Holkar

The predecessor state was founded in 1733 by Malhar Rao Holkar (1694-1766) when he established the dynasty's rule over Indore. In the 1720s, he led Maratha armies into the Malwa region, and in 1733 was granted 9 parganas in the vicinity of Indore by the Peshwa.[3]

After the defeat of the Holkar rulers in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, an agreement was signed on 6 January 1818 with the British and Indore State became a British protectorate. The Holkar dynasty was able to continue to rule Indore as a princely state mainly owing to the efforts of their Dewan (Chief minister) Tatya Jog.

The capital was moved from Maheshwar to Indore on 3 November 1818 and the Indore Residency, a political residency with a British resident was established in the city. Later Indore would be established as the headquarters of the British Central India Agency. In 1906 electric supply was started in the city, a fire brigade was established in 1909 and in 1918, the first master-plan of the city was drawn by noted architect and town planner Patrick Geddes.

During the period of Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar II (1852–86) efforts were made for the planned development and industrial development of Indore. During the reigns of Maharaja Shivaji Rao Holkar, Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar III and Maharaja Yeshwant Rao Holkar business in Indore flourished thanks to the railways that had been introduced in the state in 1875.

Post Independence[edit]

After the independence of India in 1947, Indore State, along with a number of neighbouring princely states acceded to India. Yashwant Rao Holkar II, the last ruler of the state, signed the instrument of accession to the Indian Union on 1 January 1950. The territories of the state became part of the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat.

Rulers[edit]

The kings of Indore held the title of 'Maharaja' Holkar. The rulers of the state were entitled to a 19 gun salute by the British authorities.[4]

Rulers (title Maharaja Holkar)[edit]

  • 1731 - 20 May 1766 Malhar Rao I Holkar I (b. 1694 - d. 1766)
  • 20 May 1766 - 5 Apr 1767 Male Rao Holkar II (b. 1745 - d. 1767)
  • Apr 1767 - 13 Aug 1795 Ahalya Bai Holkar (III)(f)-Regent (b. 1725 - d. 1795)
  • 13 Aug 1795 - 29 Jan 1797 Tukoji Rao I Holkar IV (b. 1723 - d. 1797) (also listed as co-ruler from Apr 1767)
  • 29 Jan 1797 - Jan 1799 Kashi Rao Holkar V (b. 17.. - d. 1808)
  • Jan 1799 - 1806 Khande Rao I Holkar VI (b. 1798 - d. 1806)
  • 1806 - 27 Oct 1811 Yashwant Rao I Holkar (b. 1776 - d. 1811) (regent Jan 1799 - 1806)
  • Nov 1811 - 27 Oct 1833 Malhar Rao III Holkar VII (b. 1801 - d. 1833)
  • Nov 1811 - 20 Dec 1817 Maharani Tulsi Bai (f) -Regent (d. 1817)
  • 27 Oct 1833 - 2 Feb 1834 Martand Rao Holkar VIII (b. 1830 - d. 1849)
  • 2 Feb 1834 - 24 Oct 1843 Hari Rao Holkar IX (b. 1795 - d. 1843)
  • 24 Oct 1843 - 17 Feb 1844 Khande Rao II Holkar X (b. 1828 - d. 1844)
  • 24 Oct 1843 - 17 Feb 1844 Maharani Maji (f)-Regent (1st time)(d. 1849)
  • 27 Jun 1844 - 17 Jun 1886 Tukoji Rao II Holkar XI (b. 1835 - d. 1886) (from 25 Jun 1861, Sir Tukoji Rao II Holkar XI)
  • 27 Jun 1844 - Sep 1849 Maharani Maji (f)-Regent (2nd time)(s.a.)
  • 17 Jun 1886 - 31 Jan 1903 Shivaji Rao Holkar XII (b. 1859 - d. 1908) (from 30 Jun 1887, Sir Shivaji Rao Holkar XII)
  • 31 Jan 1903 - 26 Feb 1926 Tukoji Rao III Holkar XIII (b. 1890 - d. 1978) (from 1 Jan 1918, Sir Tukoji Rao III Holkar XIII)
  • 26 Feb 1926 - 15 Aug 1947 Yashwant Rao II Holkar XIV (b. 1908 - d. 1961) (from 1 Jan 1935, Yashwant Rao II Holkar XIV)
  • 26 Feb 1926 - 9 Nov 1930 Siremal Bapna -Regent (b. 1882 - d. 1964)

Dewans (Chief ministers)[edit]

  • c.1808 - 1811 Bala Ram Seth
  • 1811 - Dec 1817 Ganpal Rao
  • 1818 - Apr 1826 Tantia Jogh (Tatya Joga) (d. 1826)
  • Apr 1826 - 1827? Raoji Trimbak
  • 1827 Daji Bakhshi
  • 1827? - 1829 Appa Rao Krishna
  • 1829 - 1834? Madhav Rao Phadnis
  • Apr 1834 - Nov 1836 Sardar Revaji Rao Phanse
  • 1836 - 1839? Abbaji Ballal (or Bhawani Bin)
  • 1839? - 1840? Bhao Rao Phanse (1st time)
  • 1840? - Oct 1841 Narayan Rao Palshikar
  • 1841 - 1842? the ruler
  • 1842? - 1848 Bhao Rao Phanse (2nd time)
  • 1848 - 1849? Ram Rao Palshikar
  • 1852 - 1873 the ruler
  • 1873 - 1875 Sir Madhava Rao (b. 1828 - d. 1891)
  • 1875 - 1881 Ragunath Rao (1st time) (b. 1831 - d. 1912)
  • 1881? - 1884? Shahamat Ali
  • 1884 - 1886 Nana Moroji Trilokekar
  • 1886 - 1888 Ragunath Rao (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • c.189. Balkrishna Atmaram Gupte
  • 189. - 1913? Munshi Nanak Chand Agarwal
  • 4 Apr 1913 - Oct 1914 Narayan Ganesh Chandravarkar
  • 1914 - 1916 ....
  • 1916 - 19.. Ram Prasad Dube (1st time)
  • Nov 1921 - 1923? Chettur Sankaran Nair (b. 1857 - d. 1934)
  • 1923? - 1926? Ram Prasad Dube (2nd time)

Prime ministers[edit]

  • Feb 1926 - 1939 Siremal Bapna (s.a.)
  • 1939 - 1942? Sardar Dina Nath
  • 1942 - 1947 Raja Gyannath Madan
  • 1947 R.G. Horton
  • 1 Sep 1947 - 3 Jan 1948 E.P. Menon
  • Jan 1948 N.C. Mehta
  • 26 Jan 1948 - Mar 1948 M.V. Bhide

British Residents[edit]

British Residents of the Indore Residency.[5]

  • 1840 - 1844 Sir Claude Martin Wade (b. 1794 - d. 1861)
  • 1845 - 1859 Robert North Collie Hamilton (b. 1802 - d. 1887)
  • 1859 - 1861 Sir Richmond Campbell Shakespear (b. 1812 - d. 1861)
  • 1861 - 1869 Richard John Meade (b. 1821 - d. 1899)
  • 1869 - 1881 Henry D. Daly
  • 1881 - 1888 Henry Lepel-Griffin (b. 1838 - d. 1908)
  • 1888 - 1890 P.F. Henvey
  • 1890 - 1894 R.J. Crosthwaite
  • 1894 - 1899 David W.K. Barr
  • 1899 - 1902 Robert Henry Jennings
  • 1902 - 1903 Francis Younghusband (b. 1863 - d. 1942)
  • 1903 - 1907 Oswald Vivian Bosanquet (1st time) (b. 1866 - d. 1933)
  • 1907 - 1909 James Levett Kaye (b. 1861 - d. 1917)
  • 1909 - 1910 Charles Beckford Luard
  • 1910 - 1916 Charles Lennox Russell
  • 1916 - 1919 Oswald Vivian Bosanquet (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • 1919? - 1921 Francis Granville Beville
  • 1921 - 1924 Denys Brooke Blakeway (b. 1870 - d. 1933)
  • 1924 - 1929 Sir Reginald Glancy
  • Mar 1927 - Oct 1927 Edward Herbert Kealy (acting for Glancy)
  • 1929 - 1930 H.R.N. Pritchard
  • 1930 - 1931 Frederick Bailey
  • 1931 - 1932 G.M. Ogilvie
  • 1933 - 21 Mar 1935 Rawdon James MacNabb (b. 1883 - d. 1935)
  • 1935 - 1940 Kenneth Samuel Fitze (b. 1887 - d. 1960)
  • 1940 - 1942 Gerald Thomas Fisher
  • 1942 - 1946 Walter F. Campbell
  • 1946 - 1947 Henry Mortimer Poulton (b. 1898 - d. 1973)

British Agents[edit]

Agents to the Governor-General for the Central India Agency. The headquarters of the agent were at Indore.

  • 1845 - 1854 Robert North Collie Hamilton (s.a.)
  • 1854 - 1899 the British Residents in Indore
  • 1899 - 1900 David W.K. Barr
  • Mar 1900 - 1905 Charles S. Bayley
  • 1905 - 1910 Hugh Daly
  • 1910 - 1912 Michael Francis O'Dwyer (b. 1864 - d. 1910)
  • 1912 - 1913 John B. Wood
  • 1913 - 1916 Oswald Vivian Bosanquet (s.a.)
  • 1916 - 1944 the British Residents in Indore
  • 1944 - 1946 Walter Campbell
  • 1946 - 1947 Henry Mortimer Poulton (b. 1898 - d. 1973)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 22°43′31″N 75°51′56″E / 22.7252°N 75.8655°E / 22.7252; 75.8655