Inductive charging (also known as "wireless charging") uses an electromagnetic field to transfer energy between two objects. This is usually done with a charging station. Energy is sent through an inductive coupling to an electrical device, which can then use that energy to charge batteries or run the device.
Induction chargers typically use an induction coil to create an alternating electromagnetic field from within a charging base station, and a second induction coil in the portable device takes power from the electromagnetic field and converts it back into electrical current to charge the battery. The two induction coils in proximity combine to form an electrical transformer. Greater distances between sender and receiver coils can be achieved when the inductive charging system uses resonant inductive coupling. Recent improvements to this resonant system include using a movable transmission coil ie mounted on an elevating platform or arm, and the use of advanced materials for the receiver coil made of silver plated copper or sometimes aluminium to minimize weight and decrease resistance due to the skin effect.
- Protected connections – no corrosion when the electronics are all enclosed, away from water or oxygen in the atmosphere.
- Safer for medical implants – for embedded medical devices, allows recharging/powering through the skin rather than having wires penetrate the skin, which would increase the risk of infection.
- Durability – Without the need to constantly plug and unplug the device, there is significantly less wear and tear on the socket of the device and the attaching cable.
- No e-waste
- Non radiative energy transfer
- Lower efficiency, waste heat – The main disadvantages of inductive charging are its lower efficiency and increased resistive heating in comparison to direct contact. Implementations using lower frequencies or older drive technologies charge more slowly and generate heat within most portable electronics.
- Slower charging – due to the lower efficiency, devices can take longer to charge when supplied power is the same amount.
- More expensive – Inductive charging also requires drive electronics and coils in both device and charger, increasing the complexity and cost of manufacturing.
Newer approaches reduce transfer losses through the use of ultra thin coils, higher frequencies, and optimized drive electronics. This results in more efficient and compact chargers and receivers, facilitating their integration into mobile devices or batteries with minimal changes required. These technologies provide charging times comparable to wired approaches, and they are rapidly finding their way into mobile devices.
- An example of something that is not inductive power transfer is the crystal radio which uses the power of the radio signal itself to power headphones. Inductive power transfer is a near field effect. The radio waves received by a crystal radio are a far field effect.
- Transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) systems in artificial hearts and other surgically implanted devices.
- Oral-B rechargeable toothbrushes by the Braun company have used inductive charging since the early 1990s.
- Hughes Electronics developed the Magne Charge interface for General Motors. The General Motors EV1 electric car was charged by inserting an inductive charging paddle into a receptacle on the vehicle. General Motors and Toyota agreed on this interface and it was also used in the Chevrolet S-10 EV and Toyota RAV4 EV vehicles.
- In 2006, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology reported that they had discovered an efficient way to transfer power between coils separated by a few meters. The team, led by Marin Soljačić, theorized that they could extend the distance between the coils by adding resonance to the equation. The MIT inductive power project, called WiTricity, uses a curved coil and capacitive plates.
- At the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in January 2007, Visteon unveiled their inductive charging system for in vehicle use that could charge only specially made cell phones to mp3 players with compatible receivers.
- April 28, 2009: An Energizer inductive charging station for the Wii remote is reported on IGN.
- At CES in January 2009, Palm, Inc. announced their new Pre smartphone would be available with an optional inductive charger accessory, the "Touchstone". The charger came with a required special backplate that became standard on the subsequent Pre Plus model announced at CES 2010. This was also featured on later Pixi, Pixi Plus, and Veer 4G smartphones. Upon launch in 2011, the ill-fated HP Touchpad tablet (after HP's acquisition of Palm Inc.) had a built in touchstone coil that doubled as an antenna for their NFC-like Touch to Share feature .
- In August 2009, a consortium of interested companies called the Wireless Power Consortium announced they were nearing completion for a new industry standard for low-power Inductive charging called Qi
- In January, 2012, The IEEE announced the initiation of the Power Matters Alliance (PMA) under the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) Industry Connections. The alliance is formed to publish set of standards for inductive power that are safe, with smart power management and energy efficient. The PMA will also focus on the creation of an inductive power ecosystem
- Intel and Samsung plan to launch Qi inductive charging devices for phones and laptops in 2013.
- Nokia launched two smartphones (the Lumia 820 and Lumia 920) on 5 September 2012, which feature Qi inductive charging.
- Google and LG launched the Nexus 4 which supports inductive charging using the Qi standard.
- Motorola Mobility launched their Droid 3 and Droid 4, both optionally support the Qi standard.
- On November 21, 2012 HTC launched the Droid DNA, which also supports the Qi standard.
- March 15, 2013 Samsung launched the Samsung Galaxy S4, which supports inductive charging with an accessory back.
- July 26, 2013 Google and ASUS launched the Nexus 7 2013 Edition with integrated inductive charging.
- October 31, 2013 Google and LG launched the Nexus 5, which supports inductive charging with Qi.
- January 2014 Bezalel Inc. launched the world's first portable wireless charger Ark on Kickstarter, which supports inductive charging with Qi.
- September 9, 2014 Apple announced the Apple Watch (to be released in early 2015), which will support wireless inductive charging.
As mentioned above, Magne Charge inductive charging was employed by several types of electric vehicles around 1998, but was discontinued after the California Air Resources Board selected the SAE J1772-2001, or "Avcon", conductive charging interface for electric vehicles in California in June 2001.
In 2009, Evatran, a subsidiary of MTC Transformers, formally began development of Plugless Power, an inductive charging system they claim is the world’s first hands-free, plugless, proximity charging system for Electric Vehicles. With the participation of the local municipality and several businesses, field trials were begun in March 2010, on the system scheduled to be available in fourth quarter 2010.
Researchers at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) have developed an electric transport system (called Online Electric Vehicle, OLEV) where the vehicles get their power needs from cables underneath the surface of the road via non-contact magnetic charging (where a power source is placed underneath the road surface and power is wirelessly picked up on the vehicle itself). As a possible solution to traffic congestion and to improve overall efficiency by minimizing air resistance and so reduce energy consumption, the test vehicles followed the power track in a convoy formation. In July 2009, the researchers successfully supplied up to 60% power to a bus over a gap of 12 cm.
In one inductive charging system, one winding is attached to the underside of the car, and the other stays on the floor of the garage.
The major advantage of the inductive approach for vehicle charging is that there is no possibility of electric shock, as there are no exposed conductors, although interlocks, special connectors and RCDs (ground fault interruptors, or GFIs) can make conductive coupling nearly as safe. An inductive charging proponent from Toyota contended in 1998 that overall cost differences were minimal, while a conductive charging proponent from Ford contended that conductive charging was more cost efficient.
In 2010 onwards, car makers are signalling their interest in wireless charging as another piece of the digital cockpit. A group was launched in May 2010 by the Consumer Electronics Association to set a baseline for interoperability for chargers. In one sign of the road ahead a General Motors executive is chairing the standards effort group. Toyota and Ford managers said they also are interested in the technology and the standards effort.
Daimler’s Head of Future Mobility, Professor Herbert Kohler, however have expressed caution and said the inductive charging for EVs is at least 15 years away and the safety aspects of inductive charging for EVs have yet to be looked into in greater detail. For example, what would happen if someone with a pacemaker is inside the vehicle? Another downside is that the technology requires a precise alignment between the battery and the charging facility.
In November 2011, the Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, and Qualcomm announced a trial of 13 wireless charging points and 50 EVs in the Shoreditch area of London's Tech City, due to be rolled out in early 2012.
In January 2015, eight electric buses were introduced to Milton Keynes, England, which utilises inductive charging in the road at either end of the journey to prolong overnight charges.
- Charging station
- Conductive wireless charging
- Wardenclyffe Tower
- In-road electric vehicle charger
- Resonant energy transfer
- Wireless energy transfer
- Conductive charging
- "How can an electric toothbrush recharge its batteries when there are no metal contacts between the toothbrush and the base?" (Commercial website). HowStuffWorks, Inc., via howstuffworks.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-23.
- US 6972543 "Series resonant inductive charging circuit"not important
- David Pogue (2009-06-03). "Another Pre Innovation: The Touchstone Charging Stand". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
- "Non-contact Charging System Simultaneously Charges Multiple Mobile Devices"
- WM7200 Inductive Charger Owner’s Manual. GM Advanced Technology Vehicles, Torrance, California 90509-2923, 1-800-482-6644. 1998. p. 15. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
- Hadley, Franklin (2007-06-07). "Goodbye wires…". MIT News. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2007-08-23. MIT team experimentally demonstrates inductive power transfer, potentially useful for powering laptops, cell phones without cords.
- Castelvecchi, Davide (2006-11-15). "Wireless energy may power electronics: Dead cell phone inspired research innovation" (pdf). TechTalk (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 51 (9). Retrieved 2007-08-23.
- "Visteon to unveil wireless charger for your car at CES". mobilemag.com. 2007-01-03.
- "Energizer Induction Charger for Wii Preview". IGN.com. 2009-04-28.
- Miller, Paul (2009-01-08). "Palm Pre's wireless charger, the Touchstone". Engadget.
- Nick Mokey (February 25, 2010). "Palm Pre Plus Review". Digital Trends. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
- "wireless electricity specification nearing completion". PCWorld. 2009-08-18. Retrieved 2009-08-21.
- "Global Industry Leaders Aim To Refine Power in 21st Century as Smart and Wireless with Formation of the Power Matters Alliance". IEEE newsroom. 01/09/2012. Check date values in:
- Monica Chen (August 9, 2012). "Intel to try out wireless charging". DigiTimes. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
- Terrence O'Brien (September 5, 2012). "Nokia launches smartphones with Qi Wireless charging and Pillow 'charging dock'". Engadget. Retrieved 2012-09-05.
- "Ark by Bezalel - The Next Generation Portable Wireless Charger". Kickstarter.
- "EV1 Club Home Page". EV1 Club. Retrieved 2007-08-23.
GM Pulls the Plug on Inductive Charging: Letter from General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles (Letter dated 2002-03-15)
- "Rulemaking: 2001-06-26 Updated and Informative Digest ZEV Infrastructure and Standardization". title 13, California Code of Regulations. California Air Resources Board. 2002-05-13. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
Standardization of Charging Systems
- "ARB Amends ZEV Rule: Standardizes Chargers & Addresses Automaker Mergers" (Press release). California Air Resources Board. 2001-06-28. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
the ARB approved the staff proposal to select the conductive charging system used by Ford, Honda and several other manufacturers
- Hubbard, Nate (September 18, 2009). "Electric (Car) Company". Wytheville News. Retrieved 2009-09-19.
- Jim Motavalli (February 26, 2010). "Evatran Hoping To Cash In On Plug-Free Electric Cars". CBS Interactive Inc. (bnet.com). Retrieved 2010-03-09.
- Susan Wilson (March 1, 2010). "Evatran provides a plugless solution for EVs". Blorge.com. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
- Matsuda, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Shibuya, S.; Murata (18 April 2006), "A non-contact energy transferring system for an electric vehicle-charging system based on recycled products", Journal of Applied Physics 99 (8), Bibcode:2006JAP....99hR902M, doi:10.1063/1.2164408, retrieved 2009-04-25
- Car Companies' Head-on Competition In Electric Vehicle Charging, The Auto Channel (website), 24 November 1998, retrieved 2009-04-25
- Davis, Matt (July 2011). "Mission Critical". Electric & Hybrid, Vehicle Technology International: 68.
- "London charges ahead with wireless electric vehicle technology". Source London, Transport for London. 10 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
- "First Electric Vehicle Wireless Charging Trial Announced for London". Qualcomm Incorporated. 10 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
- "Wirelessly charged electric buses set for Milton Keynes". BBC Incorporated. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 2015-01-08.