Indur

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Indur
Endor1890.jpg
Indur in the 1890s.
Indur is located in Mandatory Palestine
Indur
Indur
Arabic إندور/عين دور
Name meaning Endor[1]
Also spelled Endor
Subdistrict Nazareth
Coordinates 32°38′11.32″N 35°22′52.55″E / 32.6364778°N 35.3812639°E / 32.6364778; 35.3812639Coordinates: 32°38′11.32″N 35°22′52.55″E / 32.6364778°N 35.3812639°E / 32.6364778; 35.3812639
Population 620 (1945)
Area 12,444 dunams

12.4 km²

Date of depopulation 24 May 1948[2]
Cause(s) of depopulation Military assault by Yishuv forces
Secondary cause Influence of nearby town's fall
Current localities None

Indur (Arabic: إندور‎) was a Palestinian village, located 10.5 kilometres (6.5 mi) southeast of Nazareth. Its name preserves that of ancient Endor, a Canaanite city state thought to have been located 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) to the northeast.[3] The village was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war and its inhabitants became refugees, some of whom were internally displaced. In Israel today, there are a few thousand internally displaced Palestinians who hail from Indur, and continue to demand their right of return.

Etymology[edit]

The name of this village preserves that of the ancient Canaanite city of Endor mentioned in the Bible as the place King Saul encountered a known medium. While a few scholars believe that Indur is the actual site of ancient Endor, many believe that Khirbet Safsafa, located 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) to the northeast, is a more likely candidate.[3][4][5]

History[edit]

In 1596, Indur was a part of the Ottoman nahiya ("subdistrict") of Shafa under the liwa' ("district") of Lajjun with a population of twenty-two. It paid taxes on a number of crops, including wheat, barley and olives, as well as goats and beehives.[6]

By the late nineteenth century, the village was made of adobe bricks, built against a steep hillside. To the east of the village there were several caves. [7]

In Ottoman era Palestine, an elementary school was founded in Indur, but was closed during the British Mandate in Palestine.[8] Sheikh Tawfiq Ibrahim, one of the leaders of the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine and an associate of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam, was from Indur.[8]

The village was occupied by Israel's Golani Brigade on May 24, 1948. The Golani Brigade went on "cleansing and defending" the area until early June.[8]

Today[edit]

During the 2004 commemorations of Nakba Day held by Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel, the annual right of return march led to Indur.[9] Jewish Israelis joined in the march and the event received coverage by Israeli cable and Arab satellite TV stations.[9]

Endor's former residents and their descendents number a few thousand from among the tens of thousands of internally displaced Palestinians within Israel today.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 161
  2. ^ Morris, 2004, p. xvii, village #110. Also gives causes of depopulation.
  3. ^ a b Mazar, 1971, p. 318.
  4. ^ Negev and Gibson, 2005, p. 166.
  5. ^ Freedman, etal., 2006, p. 406.
  6. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 157. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 344.
  7. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, II:83 - 84. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p.346
  8. ^ a b c Khalidi, 1992, p. 346
  9. ^ a b c Annual Return March in the Galilee, Issue No. 22, Badil, June 2004, p. 8. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]