Industrial Schools in Ireland
Industrial Schools (Irish: Scoileanna Saothair) were established in Ireland under the Industrial Schools Act of 1868 to care for "neglected, orphaned and abandoned children". By 1884, there were 5,049 children in such institutions throughout the country.
Former Industrial and Reformatory Schools in the Republic of Ireland are now officially referred to as Children Detention Schools. There are five such institutions in the State. The equivalent institution in Northern Ireland is the Juvenile Justice Centre at Rathgael, near Bangor. It is now Northern Ireland's only children's detention centre following the closure of St Patrick's in Belfast and Lisnevin in Millisle (formerly known as Training Schools).
- 1 History
- 2 Statistics
- 3 The Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse in Ireland
- 4 "A rather dangerous experiment"
- 5 Industrial Schools in Ireland (Republic of Ireland)
- 6 Industrial Schools in Ireland (Northern Ireland)
- 7 See also
- 8 External links
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 References
Establishment of reformatories and Industrial Schools
Reformatory Schools had been established in 1858 under a Poor Law amendment. Ten years later Industrial Schools were introduced by the Industrial Schools (Ireland) Act of 1868, four years after the equivalent in England. An 'upgraded' Reformatory Act was also introduced that year. Ironically, children charged with begging could not benefit under the terms of the original 1858 Act and were still being sent to adult prisons while young burglars were being sent to the more benign 'special school'. Over the next few decades there was a building boom to provide new premises for both types of institution. Reformatories were intended for children found guilty of criminal offences, while Industrial Schools were for orphaned neglected and abandoned children and those considered in danger of contact with criminality. This latter category had previously been accommodated in so called 'Ragged Schools (such as the one at the Coombe in Dublin), and in the countrywide network of Workhouses. Many private philanthropic schools were granted certificates as Reformatories or Industrial Schools for the reception of children committed by the courts. After certification they became eligible for grants from public money in proportion to the number of children catered for. Although Reformatory Schools were established first, Industrial Schools soon surpassed them, both in numbers of schools and of pupils. Between 1851 and 1858, ten Reformatories (five each for boys and girls) were certified. The 1868 Act insured that Protestant and Catholic children would be catered for separately, preventing proselytising.
1898 saw Industrial Schools reach 71 (the highest number of them) of the 61 which are in what is now the Republic of Ireland, 56 schools were Catholic run and five were Protestant run, of the 10 in what is now Northern Ireland 6 were Catholic run and 4 Protestant run. Of the 9 Protestant Industrial Schools in Ireland 5 were for girls and 4 for boys.
By 1900, only seven of the ten original Reformatories remained. A number of the reformatories were recertified as Industrial Schools so that by 1922, only five remained (one of which was a Reformatory for boys in Northern Ireland).
The reformatory school population, which was nearly 800 immediately after the passing of the 1858 Act, fell to 300 in 1882, and to 150 in 1900. However, by 1875, there were 50 industrial schools, and the highest number of industrial schools was reached in 1898, when there were a total of 71 schools, of which 61 (56 schools for Catholics and five for Protestants) were in the 26 counties.
The Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse in Ireland
The Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse was established in 2000 with functions including the investigation of abuse of children in institutions in the State. It was dependent on people giving evidence which they did in large numbers.
The conclusion of the report, issued in May 2009, was that over a period going back at least to the 1940s, many children in Industrial Schools in the Republic, had been subjected to systematic and sustained physical, sexual and emotional abuse. It also found that the perpetrators of this violence had been protected by their religious superiors, primarily out of self-interest to maintain the reputations of the institutions concerned.
It had been the intention of the Commission to investigate vaccine trials in some Industrial Schools. However, following a ruling by the High Court, this work was suspended in 2003 and never re-commenced.
"A rather dangerous experiment"
Richard Robert Cherry, a future Chief Justice of Ireland, speaking in 1911 was of the opinion that:
It is impossible to exaggerate the good effect (of).... this twin system of Reformatory and Industrial Schools. The latter have been particularly successful in Ireland; and the combination of voluntary effort and private management, with State regulation and partial support—a rather dangerous experiment—has been completely justified by the result.
In light of the findings in the Ryan report almost one hundred years later, his assessment of the 'experiment' was apparently premature.
Industrial Schools in Ireland (Republic of Ireland)
The following schools were run by religious orders and funded by the public:
- Artane Industrial school, Dublin
- Carriglea Park Industrial School, Dún Laoghaire, County Dublin.
- Meath Protestant Industrial School for Boys
- Our Lady of Succour, Newtownforbes
- Summerhill Industrial School, Dublin, Protestant run school.
- Stilorgan Industrial School, Protestant run school (closed 1917).
- St Aidan's Industrial School for Girls, New Ross County Wexford, run by the Good Shepherd Order of nuns.
- St. Ann's Industrial School for Girls, Killarney, County Kerry
- St. Anne's Industrial School for Girls, Booterstown, County Dublin
- St. Anne's Reformatory School for Girls, Kilmacud, County Dublin
- St. Ann's Industrial School for Girls and Junior Boys, Renmore, Lenaboy, County Galway
- St. Augustine's Industrial School for Girls, Templemore, County Tipperary
- St. Bernard's Industrial School for Girls, Fethard, Dundrum, County Tipperary
- St. Bridgid's Industrial School for Girls, Loughrea, County Galway
- St. Coleman's Industrial School for Girls, Cobh/Rushbrook, County Cork
- St. Columba's Industrial School for Girls, Westport, County Mayo
- St Columba's Industrial School for Boys, Killybegs, County Donegal
- St. Conleth's Reformatory School for Boys, Daingean, County Offaly
- St. Dominick's Industrial School for Girls, Waterford
- St. Finbarr's Industrial School for Girls, Sundays Well, Marymount, Cork
- St. Francis Xavier's Industrial School for Girls and Junior Boys, Ballaghadereen, County Roscommon
- St. Francis' Industrial School for Girls, Cashel, County Tipperary
- St. George's Industrial School for Girls, Limerick
- St. John's Industrial School for Girls, Birr, County Offaly
- St. Joseph's Industrial School, Letterfrack
- St. Joseph's Industrial School, Whitehall, Dublin
- St. Joseph's Industrial School, Kilkenny, Ireland
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Boys, Passage West, County Cork
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Boys, Tralee, County Kerry
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Girls and Junior Boys, Ballinasloe, County Galway
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Girls and Junior Boys, Clifden, County Galway
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Girls and Junior Boys, Liosomoine, Killarney, County Kerry
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Girls, Cavan
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Girls, Dundalk, County Louth
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Girls, Kilkenny
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Girls, Mallow, County Cork
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Girls, Summerhill, Athlone, County Westmeath
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Girls, Whitehall, Drumcondra, Dublin 9
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Senior Boys, Ferryhouse, Clonmel, County Tipperary
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Senior Boys, Glin, County Limerick
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Senior Boys, Greenmount, Cork
- St. Joseph's Industrial School for Senior Boys, Salthill, County Galway
- St. Joseph's Reformatory School for Girls, Limerick
- St. Kyran's Industrial School for Junior Boys, Rathdrum, County Wicklow
- St. Laurence's Industrial School for Girls, Sligo
- St. Laurence's Industrial School, Finglas, Dublin 11
- St. Martha's Industrial School for Girls, Bundoran, County Donegal
- St. Mary's Industrial School, Lakelands, Sandymount, Dublin 4
- St. Michael's Industrial School for Girls, Wexford
- St. Michael's Industrial School for Junior boys, Cappoquin, County Waterford
- St. Patrick's Industrial School, Kilkenny
- St. Patrick's Industrial School, Upton
- St. Vincent's (House of Charity) Industrial School for Junior Boys, Drogheda, County Louth
- St. Vincent's Industrial School for Girls, Limerick
- St. Vincent's Industrial School, Goldenbridge, Inchicore, Dublin 8
Industrial Schools in Ireland (Northern Ireland)
Some abuse victims in industrial schools in Northern Ireland are taking a legal case against religious orders. There have also been calls for an inquiry. The Industrial Schools in Northern Ireland were gradually closed and emptied in the 1920s and 1930s, and were effectively gone by 1950.
- Balmoral Industrial School for Protestant Boys, Belfast, Co. Antrim. (Males)
- Hampton House Industrial School, Belfast. (Females)
- Lisnevin Training School, Millisle, Co. Down.
- The Malone Reformatory (Training School) Belfast, Co. Antrim. (Males)
- Shamrock Lodge Industrial School, Belfast, Co. Antrim. (Females)
- St. Patrick's Training School, Belfast, Co. Antrim
- Republic of Ireland
- Reformatory and Industrial School legislation and reports for Ireland _ 1861 to 1919.
- St Michael's Industrial School, Wexford, 1901 & 1911 census
- Report of the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse, 2009
- Smith, James M. "Remembering Ireland's architecture of containment: "telling" stories in The Butcher Boy and States of Fear". Eire-Ireland:Journal of Irish Studies (CBS Interactive Inc.) (Fall-Winter, 2001).
- Cherry, Richard R. (1912). "Juvenile crime and its prevention". Journal of the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland (Dublin:: Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland) XII (Part XCI 1910/1911). hdl:2262/7921. Click VIEW/OPEN to download.
- Northern Ireland
- NORTHERN IRELAND CHILD CARE LAW “THE ROUGH GUIDE” Fourth Report of the Children Order Advisory Committee – January 2004
- Murray, Patrick Joseph Reformatory Schools For Ireland (1856) A contemporary argument for sectarian segregation of juvenile offenders from Internet Archive.
- "INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS (IRELAND). HC Deb". Hansard (UK Parliament) (vol 285 cc1022-4). 10 March 1884.
- "Detention of children and young people in Ireland". Citizens Information. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- "Report into Children's Detention Centre". Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission. 5 April 2005. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- Lady Louisa Augusta Conolly (1743–1821), by Allan Ramsay, Oxford Dictionary of Biography.
- History Conolly Family Turtle Bunbury.
- Poor Law Amendment; Reformatory Schools (Ireland) , House of Commons Debate, 20 April 1858 vol 149 c1353 1353 (Hansard)
- Reformatory and Industrial Schools – Ireland
- Luddy, Maria (1995). Women in Ireland, 1800–1918: a documentary history. Cork University Press. ISBN 978-1-85918-038-9. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- "Vaccine Trials Inquiry". The Commission To Inquire into Child Abuse. November 2003. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- Cherry, Richard R. "Juvenile crime and its prevention". Journal of the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland, (Dublin). XII Part XCI (1910/1911): 435–450. hdl:2262/7921. Check date values in:
- Clerical abuse: Northern Ireland victims fight back, Deborah McAleese, The Belfast Telegraph, 20 October 2009, retrieved 30 October 2009
- Call for child abuse inquiry in NI, RTE News, 30 October 2009
- Two Paths, One Purpose: Voluntary Action in Ireland, North and South A Report to the Royal Irish Academy Third Sector Research Programme, Royal Irish Academy.