Industry

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This article is about industry in relation to economics. For other uses, see Industry (disambiguation).
GDP composition of sector and labour force by occupation. The green, red, and blue components of the colours of the countries represent the percentages for the agriculture, industry, and services sectors, respectively.

Industry is the production of a good or service within an economy.[1] Manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. This occurred through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal.

Following the Industrial Revolution, perhaps a third of the world's economic output is derived from manufacturing industries. Many developed countries and many developing/semi-developed countries (People's Republic of China, India etc.) depend significantly on manufacturing industry. Industries, the countries they reside in, and the economies of those countries are interlinked in a complex web of interdependence.

Classification of industry[edit]

Industries can be classified in a variety of ways. At the top level, industry is often classified into sectors: Primary or extractive, secondary or manufacturing, and tertiary or services. Some authors add quaternary (knowledge) or even quinary (culture and research) sectors. Over time, the fraction of a society's industry within each sector changes. They are-

Sector Definition
Primary This involves the extraction of resources directly from the Earth; this includes farming, mining and logging. They do not process the products at all. They send it off to factories to make a profit.
Secondary This group is involved in the processing products from primary industries. This includes all factories—those that refine metals, produce furniture, or pack farm products such as meat.
Tertiary This group is involved in the delivery and sale of goods. They include truck drivers and retail workers, for example.
Quaternary This group is involved in the research of science and technology and other high level tasks. They include scientists, doctors, and lawyers.
Quinary Sector Some consider there to be a branch of the quaternary sector called the quinary sector, which includes the highest levels of decision making in a society or economy. This sector would include the top executives or officials in such fields as government, science, universities, nonprofit, healthcare, culture, and the media.

There are many other different kinds of industries, and often organized into different classes or sectors by a variety of industrial classifications. Market-based classification systems such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark are used in finance and market research. These classification systems commonly divide industries according to similar functions and markets and identify businesses producing related products.

Industries can also be identified by product, such as: chemical industry, petroleum industry, automotive industry, electronic industry, meatpacking industry, hospitality industry, food industry, fish industry, software industry, paper industry, entertainment industry, semiconductor industry, cultural industry, and poverty industry.

Industrial development[edit]

A factory, a traditional symbol of the industrial development (a paper mill in Georgetown, the United States)

The industrial revolution led to the development of factories for large-scale production, with consequent changes in society.[2] Originally the factories were steam-powered, but later transitioned to electricity once an electrical grid was developed. The mechanized assembly line was introduced to assemble parts in a repeatable fashion, with individual workers performing specific steps during the process. This led to significant increases in efficiency, lowering the cost of the end process. Later automation was increasingly used to replace human operators. This process has accelerated with the development of the computer and the robot.

Deindustrialisation[edit]

Main article: Deindustrialisation
Colin Clark's sector model of an economy undergoing technological change. In later stages, the Quaternary sector of the economy grows.

Historically certain manufacturing industries have gone into a decline due to various economic factors, including the development of replacement technology or the loss of competitive advantage. An example of the former is the decline in carriage manufacturing when the automobile was mass-produced.

A recent trend has been the migration of prosperous, industrialized nations toward a post-industrial society. This is manifested by an increase in the service sector at the expense of manufacturing, and the development of an information-based economy, the so-called informational revolution. In a post-industrial society, manufacturing is relocated to economically more favourable locations through a process of off-shoring.

The difficulty for people looking to measure manufacturing industries outputs and economic effect is finding a measurement which is stable historically. Traditionally, success has been measured in the number of jobs created. The lowering of employee numbers in the manufacturing sector has been assumed to be caused by a decline in the competitiveness of the sector although much has been caused by the introduction of the lean manufacturing process. Eventually, this will lead to competing product lines being managed by one or two people, as is already the case in the cigarette manufacturing industry.

Related to this change is the upgrading of the quality of the product being manufactured. While it is easy to produce a low tech, low skill product, the ability to manufacture high quality products is limited to companies with a highly skilled staff.

Society[edit]

Main article: Industrial society

An industrial society can be defined in many ways. Today, industry is an important part of most societies and nations. A government must have some kind of industrial policy, regulating industrial placement, industrial pollution, financing and industrial labor.

Industrial labour[edit]

A female industrial worker amidst heavy steel semi-products (KINEX BEARINGS, Bytča, Slovakia, c. 1995–2000)
Main article: Industrial labour

In an industrial society, industry employs a major part of the population. This occurs typically in the manufacturing sector. A labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts with employers. This movement first rose among industrial workers.

War[edit]

The assembly plant of the Bell Aircraft Corporation (Wheatfield, New York, United States, 1944) producing Aircobra P 39 aircraft
Main article: Industrial warfare

The industrial revolution changed warfare, with mass-produced weaponry and supplies, machine-powered transportation, mobilization, the total war concept and weapons of mass destruction. Early instances of industrial warfare were the Crimean War and the American Civil War, but its full potential showed during the world wars. See also military-industrial complex, arms industry, military industry and modern warfare.

ISIC[edit]

ISIC[3] stands for International Standard Industrial Classification of all economic activities, the most complete and systematic industrial classification made by the United Nations Statistics Division.

ISIC is a standard classification of economic activities arranged so that entities can be classified according to the activity they carry out. The categories of ISIC at the most detailed level (classes) are delineated according to what is, in most countries, the customary combination of activities described in statistical units, considering the relative importance of the activities included in these classes.

While ISIC Rev.4 continues to use criteria such as input, output and use of the products produced, more emphasis has been given to the character of the production process in defining and delineating ISIC classes.

List of countries by industrial output[edit]

Largest countries by industrial output according to IMF and CIA World Factbook, 2014
Economy
Countries by industrial output in 2014 (billions in USD)
(—)  European Union
4,636
(01)  China
4,546
(02)  United States
3,396
(03)  Japan
1,221
(04)  Germany
1,150
(05)  Russia
771
(06)  Brazil
592
(07)  United Kingdom
584
(08)  South Korea
568
(09)  France
543
(10)  India
528
(11)  Italy
520
(12)  Canada
509
(13)  Saudi Arabia
486
(14)  Mexico
474
(15)  Australia
406
(16)  Indonesia
399
(17)  Spain
364
(18)  Nigeria
256
(19)  United Arab Emirates
254
(20)  Netherlands
224

The twenty largest countries by industrial output in 2014, according to the IMF and CIA World Factbook.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Krahn, Harvey J., and Graham S. Lowe. Work, Industry, and Canadian Society. Second ed. Scarborough, Ont.: Nelson Canada, 1993. xii, 430 p. ISBN 0-17-603540-0

External links[edit]

  • The dictionary definition of industry at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Industries at Wikimedia Commons
  • Quotations related to industry at Wikiquote