Information and communication technologies in education
Information and communication technologies in education refers to teaching and learning the subject matter that enables understanding the functions and effective use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). As of 2004, a review and contextualization of the literature on teaching ICT as a subject implied that there was limited, systematically-derived, quality information.
Educating educators about technology
In order to use technology effectively, educators need to be trained in using technology and they need to develop a good understanding of it. Technology is used to enhance learning, therefore it is important for educators to be comfortable using it to ensure that students get the full advantages of educational technology. Teaching with technology is different from teaching in a typical classroom. Teachers must be trained in how to plan, create, and deliver instruction within a technological setting. It requires a different pedagogical approach. Teachers must find a way to assess students on what they take away from a class and meaningful, known knowledge, especially within an eLearning setting. Education will only change when our design methods, perspectives, and values change. Teachers have many roles when instruction is designed. They can be artists, architects, craftspeople, and engineers. Technology does not mean that using interactive electronic boards and LCD PowerPoint presentation is the most effective. So many more applications are available for students to be hands-on with their learning and gain deeper knowledge than they could before.
Technology training appears to focus mainly on technology knowledge and skills while overlooking the relationships between technology, pedagogy, and content. As a result, teachers learn about “cool” stuff, but they still have difficulty applying it for their students’ learning. Teacher candidates need opportunities to practice effective technology integration strategies in supportive contexts during technology courses, technology-integrated methods courses, and field experiences. Experienced teachers also need opportunities to learn about new technologies and ways to integrate them effectively in their classroom. Teacher education programs can facilitate improvements not only in students’ technology skills but also in their beliefs and intentions regarding integrating technology into instruction. Technology training directly affects pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy and value beliefs, which in turn influence their student-centered technology use. 
- Thomas, Michael. Deconstructing Digital Native: Young People, Technology and the New Literacies (Routledge, 2011).
- Thomas, Michael. Digital Education: Opportunities for Social Collaboration (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).
- Hammond, Michael (2004). "The peculiarities of teaching information and communication technology as a subject: A study of trainee and new ICT teachers in secondary schools". Technology, Pedagogy and Education 13: 29. doi:10.1080/14759390400200171.
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- Aristovnik, A. (2012). "The Impact of ICT on Educational Performance and its Efficiency in Selected EU and OECD Countries: A Non-Parametric Analysis". TOJET 11 (3): 144–152.http://www.tojet.net/articles/v11i3/11314.pdf
- Digital Media and Learning. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
- The FITS Foundation - Framework for ICT Technical Support
- ICT in Education Programme, UNESCO Bangkok
- UNESCO Guide To Measuring Information And Communication Technologies (ICT) In Education