Ingleton, North Yorkshire
Ingleton and the viaduct across Swilla Glen
Ingleton shown within North Yorkshire
|OS grid reference|
|- London||205 mi (330 km) SE|
|Shire county||North Yorkshire|
|Region||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|UK Parliament||Skipton and Ripon|
Ingleton is a village and civil parish in the Craven district of North Yorkshire, England. The village is 19 miles (30 km) from Kendal and 17 miles (28 km) from Lancaster on the western side of the Pennines. It is 9.3 miles (15 km) from Settle;. The River Doe and the River Twiss join together in the village to form the source of the River Greta, itself a tributary of the River Lune. It is on the A65 and a the head of the A687. The B6255 takes the south bank of the River Doe to Ribblehead and Hawes. The village no longer has a railway station, and the railway viaduct that is central to the village has had the track removed, it is now used as a walking trail.[unreliable source]
There are major quarries within the parish. Ingleton Granite Quarry is active Meal Bank Quarry no longer is, but extracted Carboniferous limestone and possesses an early Hoffman kiln. Formerly there was a textile mill (National Building Register:63815: ), and a small coal field supporting twelve or more colleries, but Ingleton is mostly known for its tourism, being partially in the Yorkshire Dales National Park, offering waterfalls in a SSSI, limestone caves and Karst landscape walking opportunities.
- 1 History
- 2 Governance
- 3 Geography
- 4 Geology
- 5 Economy
- 6 Local facilities
- 7 Landmarks
- 8 Transport
- 9 Population change
- 10 Education
- 11 Religion
- 12 Notable people
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Ingleton and the surrounding area was settled in the Iron Age. A fort was built on top of Ingleborough with walls a kilometer in circumference. It was occupied by the Brigantes. The Romans defeated them in battle, and built a fort alongside the Brigantes hill fort. The valley were crossed by Roman roads as Ingleton was a strategic river crossing. By the twelfth century the Normans had built a church in the village.
Lowthers, Walkers and Bouch
Willian Lowther (1574–1641) of Ingleton Hall, Lord of the Manor of Ingleton, Justice of the Peace for the West Riding had seven children- Richard (1602–1645) inherited the manor and had 13 children. Two other boys joined the church and had 17 children, Frances (1612–1665) married John Walker who leased the Ingleton Colleries, while Elizabeth (1615-?) married Anthony Bouch in 1636 and mortgaged Ingleton Manor. Richard (Collonell(sic), governor of Pontefract) and his son Gerrard were on the losing Royalist side at the Civil War siege of Pontefract Castle (1645), and later at Newark. The war ended and his father dead, Gerrard was fined by the new government for his delinquency, and entered into a series of agreements to pay off the debt and court appearances to maintain the estate. The Lord of Manor title had passed to Anthony Bouch by 1665, and the coal rights passed to the Walker family. This was settled in the chancery court in 1678.
Moores and Serjeantsons
The Walkers had achieved their legal victory through a son-in-Law William Knipe. Thomas Moore(?-1733) was the second husband of Marianne Walker and between 1702 and 1711 bought out other share holders in the Ingleton colliery- while building a successful medical practice in Wakefield. He left the collieries to an agent. His daughter Susannah married William Serjeantson- and family ran the collieries from 1736 to 1828. Coal continued to be delivered by horse and cart. Ingleton and Bentham Moor were enclosed in 1767. There were plans drawn up in 1780 to connect Ingleton to the Leeds & Liverpool Canal via Clapham, Settle and Foulridge, Colne- it never progressed. There were boys and girls as young as four working the collieries in the 1780, firstly as 'messengers' and then from six, underground, as 'trailers', pulling the tubs.
Ingleton is a civil parish in its own right and the Parish Council has 11 Councillors with elections held every four years. The village is a part of the Ingleton & Clapham Ward of Craven District Council and returns two members. The village lies within the Parliamentary Constituency of Skipton and Ripon, represented by Julian Smith, a member of the Conservative Party, as of the 2010 general election.
The civil parish of Ingleton is extensive, stretching from Blea Moor near Wold Fell SD 793847 in the north to Newby Moor SD704698 in the south. The north of the parish follows the former county boundary with Lancashire to Whernside SD 739816. From here is follows the ridge south-west to West Fell and down to Thornton Force on the River Twiss, and thence along the river, and the River Greta to Fourlands Hill SD 698713. The east of the parish follows the watershed of the River Ure, a headwater of the River Humber, and the River Ribble to Grove Head where it is only 200m from the Pennine Way, it drops to the B6255 road and the River Ribble at the milepost at SD 793816 The boundary follows the Ribble through Ribblehead, then takes the ridge through Park Fell and Simon Fell to Ingleborough. It passes due south over Ingleborough Common to Newbury Moss, descending to Cold Cotes on the old road at SD 722712. Ingleborough is 2,373 feet (723 m) high.
The village sits at the foot of Ingleborough, separated from Thornton-in-Lonsdale by the Rivers Greta and Twiss, some of the facilities that form the settlement are thus outside the civil parish. The peaks of Ingleborough and Whernside lies within the parish; separated by the deeply eroded valley of the River Doe. Both these peaks are formed by millstone grit on limestone footings. To the north of the river are the Twistleton Crags with the important limestone pavement of Scales Moor. Here are two SSSIs: Whernside and Scales Moor Common which is managed as stinted common pasture land.[a] To the south of the river is one SSSI: Ingleton on the stinted Ingleton Common, in the number of an equivalent limestone pavement. This area of challenging potholes and caves. The show cave White Scar Caves SD 712745 has its entrance. Ingleton Common adjoins Clapham Coommon and the are collectively referred to as Ingleborough Common.
Historically, mining and agriculture were the predominant industries in the area. Coal was extracted from the Ingleton Coalfield from the early 1600s, to the turn of the 20th century, eventually closing in 1936. The New Village estate was built for mine workers.
A varied and notable geology may be found within the boundaries of the parish of Ingleton, ranging from rocks laid down in the Iapetus Ocean in Ordovician times, through the Carboniferous limestones of the Askrigg Block on Whernside and Ingleborough and coal measures within the Craven Basin, to the Quaternary drumlin field in Ribblehead. It is a classic field study area for students of geology.
Much of the parish is dominated by Carboniferous deposits deposited on the submarine platform of the Askrigg Block, which was a relatively high area forming a shelf sea buoyed up by Devonian Wensleydale Granite. It is separated from the Craven Basin to the south and west by the Craven Fault system. The lower Carboniferous deposits are dominated by the 200 metres (660 ft) thick Great Scar limestones laid down during the Viséan stage. A mature karst landscape has formed where this outcrops, with bare limestone pavements, subterranean streams, and major solutional cave systems such as White Scar Caves and Meregill Hole. Scales Moor on the Whernside flanks of Chapel-le-Dale has one of the largest exposures of pavement in the Dales, measuring some 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) long 800 metres (870 yd) wide. On Whernside and Ingleborough above the flat plateau formed by the top of the Great Scar limestone, are the Brigantian and Namurian aged Yoredale cyclothem sequences of sandstone, limestone, and shale which were deposited on the edge of a huge delta. The upper ramparts of these hills are capped by thick beds of Grassington Grit, a course poorly-sorted sandstone laid down in shallower water as the delta prograded south.
The Carboniferous rocks were deposited unconformably onto basement rocks which are exposed as inliers in Chapel-le-Dale and lower Kingsdale (Swilla Glen). They are Ordovician in age, deposited as turbidites about 480 million years ago in the Iapetus Ocean, and heavily folded and lightly metamorphosed in late Ordovician times. They are currently quarried for roadstone, and were once quarried for slate in the Ingleton Glens.
Just to the north of Ingleton village the Craven Faults running north-west to south-east mark the southern margin of the Askrigg Block. The North Craven Fault has a downthrow of about 200 metres (660 ft), and a few hundred yards away the South Craven Fault has a downthrow of about 1,200 metres (3,900 ft). The fault plane of the North Craven Fault is exposed in Swilla Glen. To the south of the Craven Faults is the Craven Basin where the Westphalian stage Pennine Coal Measures are exposed, once exploited by the Ingleton coalfield.
Tourism, mostly from hiking and caving, accounts for most of the economic activity of the village, especially in the Spring and Summer. There are some local craft businesses, such as pottery. There is still some local quarrying, though mining has ceased in the area.
In 1933 an open-air swimming pool was dug out and built by local volunteers, with materials supplied by the New Ingleton Colliery. The European (Objective 5b) Community Fund, the National Lottery and private donations have been used recently to improve and modernise the pool.
Ingleton, though a small village, provides its residents and visitors with curiosity shops, sports shops (for the hikers, cavers and climbers), a toy shop, hairdressers, cafés and public houses.
The Ingleton Coalfield has been worked for 400 years, it is about 6 miles long by 4 mile wide and extends into the neighbouring parishes of Burton in Lonsdale and Thornton-in-Lonsdale. The coalfield terminates at the South Craven fault. The coal measures are shallow and represent the lowest layers in the Pennine coal measures sequence. The earliest coal mining occurred along the River Greta where Four Foot and Six Foot seams outcrop. Most deep mining was at New Ingleton Pit sunk in 1913. Its sinking led to the discovery of the Ten Foot seam (house and steam coal) at 127 yards, and the Nine Foot seam (steam and house coal) at 134 yards. Beneath them are the Four Foot seam (house, gas and coking coal) at 233 yards, the Three Foot seam (house and gas coal) at 236 yards and the Six Foot seam (steam and house coal) at 260 yards. Commercially viable deposits of fireclay lay under the Three Foot seam and pottery clay beneath the Six Foot seam used to make Ingleton Bricks.
There are two major quarries within the parish. Ingleton Granite Quarry, owned by Hanson Aggregates, is still active and extracts Ordivician greywacke for roadstone. Meal Bank Quarry is no longer active, but extracted Carboniferous limestone and possesses an early Hoffman kiln.
Formerly there was a textile mill (National Building Register:63815: ).
Within the civil parish:
White Scar Caves is a network of caves under Ingleborough near Chapel-le-Dale that has been opened up as a show cave. Discovered in August 1923 by two amateur geologists, Christopher Long and J.H. Churchill it is a 6.5-kilometre (4.0 mi) long resurgence system. The cave was surveyed in 1971 revealing one of the largest known cave chambers in Great Britain, at 90 metres (300 ft) long. An access tunnel has been cut to allow visitors to visit.
Within the village.
The parish church
The present building designed by Cornelius Sherlock dates principally from 1886 and is dedicated to St Mary the Virgin, though there have been previous buildings ion the site. As with most things in Ingleton the geology is to blame. The church stands on a bank of boulders and sediment from the last ice age which make for unstable foundations. The Norman font is dated at around 1150, and the fifteenth century tower is built in the perpendicular style. The nave was replaced on new compacted foundations in 1743 then demolished in 1886 to make way for the present one, that is built in blue limestone from the Skirwith Quarry. The foundations were consolidated with concrete in 1930 and again in 1946. In the 1960s it was thought a better option may be to replace the church on a more stable site, but no action was taken. The church was dedicated to St Leonard but in the eighteenth century the dedication was changed. Other treasures include a Vinegar Bible and a reredos with a carving of the Last Supper.
Ingleton had two railway stations at opposite ends of Ingleton Viaduct. Ingleton (Midland) station opened for ten months only in 1849, then reopened in 1861 until 1954. Ingleton (L&NW) station opened along with the Ingleton Branch Line in 1861, but such was the rivalry between competing railway companies that initially passengers were forced to walk between the stations across the Greta valley floor, despite the viaduct between them. The L&NW station closed in 1917. The nearest railway station is now Bentham, 3.5 miles (6 km) by road to the south of Ingleton. Ingleton Viaduct is a Grade II listed building.
The Settle-Carlisle Railway passes through the north of the parish. The spectacular Ribblehead Viaduct is the longest viaduct on that line. Ribblehead railway station is located less than half a mile to the south of the viaduct. Just to the north of it is the Blea Moor Tunnel, the longest tunnel on the line. The viaduct is curved, and so may be seen by passengers on the train. Rail excursion trains headed by steam locomotives regularly use the route. British Rail attempted to close the line in the 1980s, citing the reason that the viaduct was unsafe and would be expensive to repair. A partial solution was to single the line across the viaduct in 1985, preventing two trains from crossing simultaneously. A 20 mph speed limit is also in force. The closure proposals generated tremendous protest and were eventually retracted. The viaduct, along with the rest of the line, was repaired and maintained and there are no longer any plans to close it. The other north south main lines are the West Coast Main Line through Penrith and the East Coast Main Line via Newcastle. There are five regular passenger return journeys a day, and diesel hauled freight relieving the pressure on the other two routes.
|Population changes in Ingleton, North Yorkshire since 1801|
|Sources: Vision of Britain, Online Historical Population Reports, and 2001 and 2011 UK Census Data|
There is now one school in the village, Ingleton Primary School,. It is a partner in 'The Three Peaks Family of Schools', a grouping of Secondary Schools, primary schools and middle schools. serving North Craven. Ingleton Primary School is a small school, that teaches pupils in mixed classes, two classes serve the Key stage 1 pupils, years 3 and 4 are together and years 5 and 6.
This was once a first school until the re-organisation on 31 August 2012. The pupils transferred to the adjacent Ingleton Middle School after year 5, at the age of ten. They remained here until 13 when the transferred to the upper school in Settle. The Middle School buildings are now used as a Community Information Centre which is run as a not-for-profit organisation. The playing fields have been sold. Settle Middle school buildings were transferred to Settle College to provide the extra capacity needed for two extra year groups.
The Parish Church is St Mary's Church of England. There is also a Methodist Chapel and an Evangelical Church.
Reverend Todd Sherlock was vicar of Ingleton from 1874 to 1879. His brother, Randall Hopley Sherlock, was killed by lightning at Ingleton Station on Holme Head Road, on the 9 August 1875. He is commemorated in the church. The Sherlocks were well known in the area, Reverend Edgar Sherlock was Rector of Bentham and the current church was designed by Cornelius Sherlock then an architect practising in Liverpool. Mary Doyle, the mother of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, lived in Masongill, a small hamlet in neighbouring Thornton-in-Lonsdale. Arthur was married to Louisa in St Oswalds church Thornton-in-Lonsdale. The Study in Scarlet was published in 1885.
- Stinted common land is a system where the commoners are restricted to the sheep they can keep in the common; this prevents overgrazing
- OS map 98, Wensleydale and Upper Wharfdale.
- "NBR63815". English Heritage.
- Bentley, Bond & Gill 2005, p. 19.
- Bentley, Bond & Gill 2005, p. 25.
- Bentley, Bond & Gill 2005, p. 29.
- Bentley, Bond & Gill 2005, p. 27.
- "Parish Council". Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "District Council". Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "Parliament". Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- Mapit overlay
- -Modern Environmental Governance: Qualitative Research Data Case Study : Ingleton North Yorkshire.
- CPGS 2003, p. 8.
- "Ingleton Virtual Field Excursion". Liverpool John Moores University. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- Waltham 2007, p. 18.
- Waltham 2007, pp. 54–57.
- Waltham et alia 1997, pp. 46–55.
- Waltham et alia 1997, pp. 43–46.
- Waltham 2007, pp. 30–31.
- Waltham 2007, pp. 40–45.
- Waltham 2007, pp. 14–18.
- Waltham 2007, p. 91.
- Waltham 2007, pp. 50.
- Waltham 2007, pp. 76–77.
- "Economy". Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "History". Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- Bentley, Bond & Gill 2005, p. 118.
- "Ingleton Swimming Pool".
- Ellis (1993). "The Ingleton Coalfield—A Slumbering Dwarf?". Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- Bentley, Bond & Gill 2005, p. 45.
- Kidd, Adrian. "The ‘Your Dales Rocks Project’ – A Draft Local Geodiversity Action Plan (2006–2011) for the Yorkshire Dales and the Craven Lowlands". North Yorkshire Geodiversity Partnership. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- Waltham 2007, p. 15.
- CPGS 2003, p. 14.
- White Scar Cave- Caving notes
- St Marys church, Ingleton: about the church
- Butt, R. V. J. (1995). The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt, platform and stopping place, past and present (1st ed.). Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. p. 126. ISBN 1-8526-0508-1. OCLC 60251199.
- Western, Robert (1990), The Ingleton Branch, Oakwood Press, Oxford, ISBN 0 85361 394 X, p.29
- English Heritage. "Ingleton Viaduct (1335083)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- Garrat, Colin & Matthews, Max-Wade (2003) Illustrated Encyclopedia of Steam And Rail, Barnes & Noble Books, New York, ISBN 0-7607-4952-3
- "Ingleton CP: total population". Vision of Britain. Retrieved on 19 March 2014.
- "Census". Online Historical Population Reports. Retrieved on 19 March 2014.
- "Ingleton Primary School". Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "The Three Peaks Family of Schools".
- "NYCC Executive Papers". 18 December 2012.
- Minsterfm "School playing field sell off".
- Proctor, Katie (22 February 2011). "Ingleton and Settle middle schools closure confirmed".
- "Settle College". Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "Queen Elizabeth School". Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "Churches". Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- St Mary's Church, Ingleton
- CPGS (2003). "Ingleton Waterfalls trail". Craven and Pendle Geological Society. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- Bentley, John; Bond, Bernard; Gill, Mike (2005). "Ingleton Coalfield". British Mining (Sheffield: Northern Mine Research Society) (78). ISBN 978-0-901450-58-6. ISSN 0308-2199. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- Waltham, Tony (2007). The Yorkshire Dales Landscape and Geology. Marlborough: Crowood Press Ltd. ISBN 9781861269720.
- Waltham, A.C.; Simms, M.J.; Farrant, A.R.; Goldie, H.S. (1997). Karst and Caves of Great Britain. London: Chapman & Hall. ISBN 0412788608.
- Media related to Ingleton at Wikimedia Commons
- The Official Ingleton Village website
- Ingleton Viaduct, the story of a 800 foot monument to railway company irrationality
- The Original Ingleton Village website
- Ingleborough Webcam Site
- LJMU Virtual Field Trip- The Geology Site
- Ingleborough Archaeology Group Reports from excavations.