Inman Line

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City of Glasgow of 1850 established that steamships could operate on the Atlantic without subsidies.

The Inman Line which operated from 1850 until its 1893 absorption into American Line, was one of the three largest 19th-century British passenger shipping companies on the North Atlantic, along with the White Star Line and Cunard Line. The firm's formal name for much of its history was the Liverpool, Philadelphia and New York Steamship Company, but it was also variously known as the Liverpool and Philadelphia Steamship Company, as Inman Steamship Company, Limited, and, in the last few years before absorption, as the Inman and International Steamship Company.

By embracing new technology, the Inman Line was the first to show that unsubsidized ocean liners could profitably operate on the North Atlantic. With its first steamer, City of Glasgow of 1850, Inman led the drive to replace wood-hulled paddle steamers with iron-hulled ships equipped with screw propulsion. In 1852, Inman established that steerage passengers could be transported in steamships. Inman's City of Paris of 1866 was the first screw liner that could match the speed of the paddlers.

By 1870, Inman landed more passengers in New York than any other line. In 1886, the American-owned International Navigation Company purchased the Inman line and started renewal of the express fleet with two Blue Riband winners, City of New York and the second City of Paris, ushering in the double screw era that ended the need for auxiliary sails.[1]

History[edit]

1850–1866[edit]

William Inman (1825-1881)

The Inman Line had its roots in a line of sailing packets owned by John Grubb Richardson and his brothers along with their young business partner, William Inman (1825 - 1881). In 1850, Inman persuaded his partners to form the Liverpool and Philadelphia Steamship Company and buy an advanced new ship, City of Glasgow.[2] She proved profitable because her iron hull required less repair, and her screw propulsion system left more room for passengers and freight. City of Glasgow's moderate speed considerably reduced coal consumption.[1] The ship's first voyage for her new owners departed for Philadelphia on 17 December 1850.[3] The next year, she was joined by a larger edition, City of Manchester.[1]

In 1852, the Inman broke new ground by transporting steerage passengers under steam. As Irish Quakers, the Richardsons were concerned about the poor conditions experienced by immigrants traveling to America. Until then, immigrants traveled by sailing ship with unpredictable passage times.[4] Steerage passengers were required to bring their own food, and often ran short. In 1836, Diamond lost 17 of her 180 steerage passengers to starvation when the ship required 100 days to make the crossing. From the beginning, Inman provided better steerage quarters and adopted the recommendation of a Parliamentary Committee to provide cooked meals to immigrants. As a result, Inman was able to charge steerage rates of 8 guineas, while the fastest sailing packets charged 4 to 6 guineas. During the period, Inman liners typically carried 500 passengers, 80 percent in steerage.[1]

Disaster struck the new firm in 1854 when the company lost both City of Glasgow with all hands and the brand new City of Philadelphia, albeit with no loss of life.[2] The remaining liner, City of Manchester was chartered to the French Government for the Crimean War along with three additional liners that were completed or purchased in 1855. The Richardsons withdrew from the firm because of its involvement with the war. William Inman then assumed complete control.[1]

At the end of the conflict, Inman resumed service to Philadelphia. However, New York was now the primary gateway to the west, and Inman decided to alternate between the two ports. The firm's name was changed to the Liverpool, Philadelphia and New York Steam Ship Company, but all ships were routed to New York after the line's SS Kangaroo was trapped by ice in the Delaware River.[1] Until 1857 the firm ran a fortnightly service from Liverpool. That same year, following the collapse of the Collins Line, Inman took its place carrying the U.S. Mails. In 1859, a call at Queenstown was added to pick up Irish immigrants. The next year, Inman ran a weekly service, increasing in 1863 to three sailings every fortnight, and twice a week during summer in 1866.[2]

1866–1887[edit]

SS City of Paris of 1866 was Inman's first liner that matched the speed of Cunard's express liners.

With the celebrated City of Paris of 1866, the company started construction of five express liners that matched the speed of Cunard's best.[1] In 1867, responsibility for mail contracts was transferred from the Admirality to the Post Office and opened for bid. Inman was awarded one of the three weekly New York mail services and the fortnightly route to Halifax, Nova Scotia formerly held by Cunard.[5] While Cunard continued to receive a subsidy, Inman was paid sea postage.[5] However, two years later Inman's New York contract was extended for seven years at an annual subsidy of 35,000 pounds as compared to Cunard's subsidy of £70,000 for two weekly New York mail sailings.[5] In 1870, Inman landed 44,100 passengers in New York, compared to Cunard's 24,500, although Cunard still carried substantially more first class passengers.[2] Throughout the 1870s, Inman's passage times were shorter than Cunard's.[1] City of Brussels of 1869 beat Scotia's eastbound record and in 1875 City of Berlin won the Blue Riband by taking the westbound record.[6]

Record breaker City of New York of 1888.

However, in 1871 both companies faced a new rival when the White Star Line joined the Atlantic ferry with the revolutionary Oceanic and her sisters. The new White Star record breakers were especially economical because of their use of compound engines. Oceanic consumed only 58 tons of coal per day, compared to 110 tons for City of Brussels. White Star also set new standards for comfort by placing the dining saloon midships and doubling the size of cabins. With its fleet now rendered out of date, Inman quickly brought its express liners back to the ship yards for compound engines and other changes to match the new White Star liners while Cunard lagged behind.[1]

The Panic of 1873 started a five year shipping depression that strained Inman's finances as well as its rivals. To raise additional capital, the partnership was restructured in 1875 as a stock company and renamed the Inman Steamship Company, Limited. The next year, Inman and White Star agreed to coordinate their sailings to reduce competition. When the 1869 mail contracts expired, the British Post Office ended both Cunard and Inman's subsidies and paid on the basis of weight, but at a rate substantially higher than paid by the U.S Post Office.[5] Cunard's weekly New York mail sailings were reduced to one and White Star was awarded the third mail sailing. Every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, a liner from one of the three firms departed Liverpool with the mail for New York.[7] Inman reduced its fleet so that only the express liners remained.[1]

However, profits still dropped in face of other new competitors seeking the Blue Riband such as the National Line and the Guion Line, along with numerous steamship concerns from the continent competing for the immigrant trade.[4] To restore its fortunes, Inman ordered City of Rome, which was designed as the largest and fastest liner yet. Unfortunately, the ship failed to meet her design specifications and was rejected in 1882 after only six voyages.[2]

William Inman died before the ship's maiden voyage and the company suffered without his leadership. In 1883, City of Brussels was lost in the Mersey after colliding with another steamer. Meanwhile, Cunard renewed its mail fleet with four exceptional steel-hulled liners. Needing capital to match its rivals, Inman directors agreed to voluntary liquidation so that the largest creditor, the Philadelphia-based International Navigation Company could purchase Inman's assets.[1]

Closing chapter[edit]

The line was reorganized as the Inman and International Steamship Company, and its new owners provided the capital to build two outstanding record breakers, the twin-screw City of New York and City of Paris. However, the British government responded to the ownership change by revoking Inman's mail contract. After considerable lobbying, the U.S. Congress agreed to replace the contract and allow Inman to register its two new record breakers in the U.S. if International Navigation built two similar express liners in American yards.[2] Therefore, on February 22, 1893 the American flag was broken out over the two newest Inman vessels and the company merged into the American Line.[1]

Fleet[edit]

The Inman fleet—all of which built for Inman unless otherwise indicated—consisted of the following ships, presented in order of acquisition. List sourced from[1]

Ship Built In service for Inman Type Tonnage Notes
City of Glasgow 1850 1850-1854 iron-screw 1,600 GRT missing 1854, no survivors
City of Manchester 1851 1851-1871 iron-screw 1,900 GRT sold and converted to sail 1871
City of Philadelphia 1854 1854-1854 iron-screw 2,100 GRT wrecked, no loss of life
City of Baltimore 1855 1855-1874 iron-screw 2,400 GRT sold
City of Washington 1855 1855-1873 iron-screw 2,400 GRT wrecked 1873
Kangaroo 1854 1855-1869 iron-screw 1,850 GRT built for other owners, sold 1869
Virgo 1856 1858-1861 iron-screw 1,600 GRT built for other owners, sold to US Government 1861
Glasgow 1851 1859-1865 iron-screw 1,950 GRT built for other owners, lost 1865
Edinburgh 1855 1859-1868 iron-screw 2,200 GRT built for other owners, sold 1868
Etna 1856 1860-1875 iron-screw 2,200 GRT built for Cunard, sold 1875
City of New York 1861 1861-1864 iron-screw 2,550 GRT wrecked 1864
City of London 1863 1863-1878 iron-screw 2,550 GRT sold 1878
City of Cork 1863 1863-1871 iron-screw 1,550 GRT sold 1871
City of Limerick 1863 1863-1879 iron-screw 1,550 GRT built for other owners, sold 1879
City of Dublin 1864 1864-1873 iron-screw 2,000 GRT sold 1874 to Dominion Line
City of Boston 1865 1865-1870 iron-screw 2,200 GRT missing 1870, no survivors
City of New York 1865 1865-1881 iron-screw 2,650 GRT sold 1881
City of Paris 1866 1866-1884 iron-screw 2,650 GRT sold 1884
City of Antwerp 1867 1867-1879 iron-screw 2,400 GRT sold 1879
City of Brooklyn 1889 1867-1878 iron-screw 2,950 GRT sold 1878 to Dominion Line
City of Brussels 1869 1869-1883 iron-screw 3,100 GRT Eastbound record holder, sunk 1883, 10 lost
City of Montreal 1872 1872-1887 iron-screw 4,450 GRT burned at sea 1887, no loss of life
City of Chester 1873 1873-1893 iron-screw 4,800 GRT express liner, joined American Line 1893
City of Richmond 1873 1873-1891 iron-screw 4,800 GRT express liner, sold 1891
City of Berlin 1875 1875-1893 iron-screw 5,500 GRT Blue Riband winner, joined American Line 1893
City of Rome 1881 1881-1881 iron-screw 8,400 GRT returned to builder after 6 voyages, sold to Anchor Line
City of Chicago 1883 1883-1892 steel-screw 5,150 GRT built for other owners, wrecked 1892, no loss of life
Baltic 1871 1885-1886 iron-screw 3,850 GRT chartered from White Star
City of New York 1888 1888-1893 steel, twin screw 10,650 GRT Blue Riband winner, joined American Line 1893
City of Paris 1889 1889-1893 steel, twin screw 10,650 GRT Blue Riband winner, joined American Line 1893

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Gibbs, Charles Robert Vernon (1957). Passenger Liners of the Western Ocean: A Record of Atlantic Steam and Motor Passenger Vessels from 1838 to the Present Day. John De Graff. pp. 112–124. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Fry, Henry (1896). The History of North Atlantic Steam Navigation with Some Account of Early Ships and Shipowners. London: Sampson, Low & Marston. OCLC 271397492. 
  3. ^ Stolarik, M. Mark (1988). Forgotten Doors: The Other Ports of Entry to the United States. Philadelphia: Balch Institute Press. p. 40. ISBN 0-944190-00-6. OCLC 17480678. 
  4. ^ a b Chatterton, E. Keble (1910). Steamships and their Story. London: Cassell & Co. OCLC 2046170. 
  5. ^ a b c d Bacon, Edwin M. (1911). Manual of Ship Subsidies. 
  6. ^ Kludas, Arnold (1999). Record breakers of the North Atlantic, Blue Riband Liners 1838-1953. London: Chatham. 
  7. ^ Preble, George Henry; John Lipton Lochhead (1883). A Chronological History of the Origin and Development of Steam Navigation. Philadelphia: L.R. Hamersley. OCLC 2933332.