Inowrocław

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Inowrocław
Inowrocław kolaż pion-001.jpg
Flag of Inowrocław
Flag
Coat of arms of Inowrocław
Coat of arms
Inowrocław is located in Poland
Inowrocław
Inowrocław
Coordinates: 52°47′35″N 18°15′40″E / 52.79306°N 18.26111°E / 52.79306; 18.26111
Country  Poland
Voivodeship Kuyavian-Pomeranian
County Inowrocław County
Gmina Inowrocław (urban gmina)
Government
 • Mayor Ryszard Brejza
Area
 • Total 30.42 km2 (11.75 sq mi)
Highest elevation 100 m (300 ft)
Lowest elevation 85 m (279 ft)
Population (2006)
 • Total 77,095
 • Density 2,500/km2 (6,600/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 88-100
Car plates CIN
Website http://www.inowroclaw.pl

Inowrocław (Polish pronunciation: ['inɔˈvrɔt͡swaf]; German: Hohensalza) is a city in north-central Poland with a total population of 77,641 according to the 2004 Census. It is situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999, previously in the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship (1975–1998).

Inowrocław is an industrial town located about 40 kilometres (25 miles) southeast of Bydgoszcz known for its saltwater baths and salt mines. The town is the 5th largest agglomeration in its voivodeship, and is a major railway junction, where the west-east line (Poznań - Toruń) crosses the Polish Coal Trunk-Line from Chorzów to Gdynia.

History[edit]

Królowej Jadwigi Street leading to the town market
St Mary's church - Minor basilica.

The town was first mentioned in 1185 as Novo Wladislaw, possibly in honor of Władysław I Herman or after the settlers from Włocławek. Many inhabitants of Włocławek settled in Inowrocław fleeing flooding. In 1236, the settlement was renamed Juveni Wladislawia. It was incorporated two years later by Casimir Conradowicz. From 1466 to 1772, Inowrocław was the capital of Poland's Inowrocław Voivodeship, which covered northern Kuyavia. The town's development was aided by the discovery of extensive salt deposits in the vicinity during the 15th century.

Inowrocław was annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1772 during the First Partition of Poland and added to the Netze District (as German: Inowrazlaw before 1905, and in 1905-1920 and 1939-1945 Hohensalza; rarely Jung Breslau). The city was a headquarters for Napoleon Bonaparte during his invasion of Russia. Following the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Inowrocław (as first Inowraclaw and later Inowrazlaw) was administered as part of Prussia - Grand Duchy of Posen. It flourished after the establishment of a railway junction in 1872 and a spa in 1875. The city and the region were renamed Hohensalza on December 5, 1904. It was electrified in 1908.

Following the Treaty of Versailles ending World War I, the name Inowrocław was restored along with the return of the sovereign Polish state on January 10, 1920. High unemployment resulting from trade embargoes led to violent confrontations between workers and the police in 1926 and hunger strikes killed 20 in 1930. Inowrocław was part of Poznań Voivodeship until 1925, when it became an independent urban district. This district was briefly annexed to Great Pomerania during the reform of Polish regional administration just prior to World War II. Captured by the German 4th Army on September 11, 1939, Inowrocław was again renamed Hohensalza and initially administered under the military district (Militärbezirk) of Posen before being incorporated into Nazi Germany first as part of the reichsgau of Posen (1939) and then as part of Reichsgau Wartheland (1939-1945.) Between 1940 and 1945, Hohensalza was used as a resettlement camp for Poles and an internment camp for Soviet, French, and English POWs.

Inowrocław returned to Poland and its original name following the arrival of the Soviet Red Army on January 21, 1945. The last German air raid occurred on April 4, 1945, when a single aircraft dropped four fragmentation bombs and fired on travelers waiting at the Inowrocław train platform. Between 1950 and 1998, the town was part of Bydgoszcz Voivodeship, but the 1999 reforms left it part of Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship.

Population[edit]

  • 1970 - 54,900
  • 1980 - 66,100
  • 1990 - 77,700
  • 2000 - 79,400
  • 2004 - 77,647

Landmarks and monuments[edit]

  • The Romanesque church of the St Virgin Mary, dating back to the end of the 12th century or beginning of the 13th century, built from granite stones and brick. In 1834 it was destroyed by fire, and partially reconstructed in the 1950s. Since 13 July 2008 the St Virgin Mary's church is also the Minor Basilica (in Polish: Bazylika Mniejsza Imienia Najświętszej Maryi Panny)
  • The Gothic church of St. Nicholas, first built in the middle of the 13th century, the present church was built after damage in the 15th century, and rebuilt in the 17th century
  • The Neo-Romanesque church of the Annunciation to the Virgin Mary, built between 1898 and 1900, consecrated in 1902, the largest church in the city, with an imposing 77-metre high tower. The north side of the transept collapsed in a construction disaster in 1909 and was not rebuilt until 1929.
  • The garrison church of St. Barbara and St. Maurice
  • The house of Czabańscy family from ca. 1800
  • The Inowrocław Synagogue
  • Houses, hotel "Bast" and spa buildings from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries

Sports[edit]

Notable residents[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 52°48′N 18°16′E / 52.800°N 18.267°E / 52.800; 18.267