Instant film

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Different stages of instant film.
2 photographs recorded on instant films.

Instant film is a type of photographic film introduced by Polaroid to be used in an instant camera (and, with accessory hardware, with many professional film cameras). The film contains the chemicals needed for developing and fixing the photo, and the instant camera exposes and initiates the developing process after a photograph has been taken.

In earlier Polaroid instant cameras the film is pulled through rollers which breaks open a pod containing a reagent that is spread between the exposed negative and receiving positive sheet. This film sandwich develops for a predetermined time, depending on film type and ambient temperature, after which the positive sheet is peeled away from the negative to reveal the developed photo.

In 1972, Polaroid introduced integral film, which incorporated timing and receiving layers to automatically develop and fix the photo without any intervention from the photographer.

Instant film is available in sizes from 24 mm × 36 mm (similar to 135 film) up to 50.8 cm × 61 cm size, with the most popular film sizes for consumer snapshots being approximately 83mm × 108mm (the image itself is smaller as it is surrounded by a border). Early instant film was distributed on rolls, but later and current films are supplied in packs of 8 or 10 sheets, and single sheet films for use in large format cameras with a compatible back.

Integral film packs may contain a flat "Polapulse" electrical battery, which powers systems in the camera, including exposure and focusing mechanisms, electronic flash, and a film ejection motor. The inclusion of the battery within the film pack ensures that a fresh battery is available with each new pack of film.

Though the quality of integral instant film is not as good as conventional film, peel apart black and white film, and to a lesser extent colour film approached the quality of traditional film types. Instant film was used where it was undesirable to have to wait for a roll of conventional film to be finished and processed, e.g., documenting evidence in law enforcement, in health care and scientific applications, and producing photographs for passports and other identity documents, and simply for snapshots to be seen immediately. Some photographers use instant film for test shots, to see how a subject or setup looks before using conventional film for the final exposure. Instant film is also used by artists to achieve effects that are impossible to accomplish with traditional photography, by manipulating the emulsion during the developing process, or separating the image emulsion from the film base. Instant film has been supplanted for most purposes by digital photography, which allows the result to be viewed immediately on a display screen or printed with dye sublimation, inkjet, or laser home or professional printers.

Instant film is notable for having had a wider range of film speeds available than other negative films of the same era: instant film has been produced with ISO 4 to ISO 20,000. Current instant film formats typically have an ISO between 80 and 3000.

As of 2012 two companies manufacture instant film: Fuji (Peel Apart and Instax integral film) and The Impossible Project for older Polaroid cameras (600, SX-70, Spectra and 8x10).

How it works[edit]

Instant positive film (which produced a print) uses diffusion transfer to move the dyes from the negative to the positive via a reagent. The process varies according to the film type.

Black and white roll/pack film[edit]

A negative sheet is exposed inside the camera, then lined up with a positive sheet and squeezed through a set of rollers which spread a reagent between the two layers, creating a developing film sandwich. The negative develops quickly, after which some of the unexposed silver halide grains (and the latent image it contains) are solubilized by the reagent and transferred by diffusion from the negative to the positive. After a minute, the negative is peeled away to reveal the photo which was transferred to the positive receiving sheet.[1]

Subtractive colour films[edit]

Colour film is much more complex because of the multiple layers of emulsion and dye layers. The negative consists of three emulsion layers sensitive to the primary colours (red, green, and blue) each with a layer of developing dye beneath it of the complementary colour (cyan, magenta, and yellow). Once light exposed the negative, the reagent was spread between the negative and positive and the developing dye layer would migrate to the positive surface where it would form the photo. Emulsion layers which were exposed to their respective colour blocked the complementary dye below it, reproducing the original colour. For example, a photo of a blue sky would expose the blue emulsion, blocking all the yellow dye beneath it and allowing the magenta and cyan dye layers to migrate to the positive to form blue.[1]

Integral film[edit]

This process is similar to subtractive colour instant film with added timing and receiving layers. The film itself integrates all the layers to expose, develop, and fix the photo into a plastic envelope commonly associated with a Polaroid photo.

Additive colour film[edit]

Additive film (such as Polavision and Polachrome slide film) used a colour mask of microscopically thin transparent red, green, and blue lines (3000 lines per inch) and a black and white emulsion layer to reproduce colour images in transparency film. The resulting dye developers (unexposed emulsion) would block the colours not needed and project the colour or combination of colours which would form in the resulting image. Since the lines were so close to each other, the human eye easily blended the primary colours together to form the correct colour, much like an LCD display or television. For instance, a photo of a yellow flower would expose the emulsion beneath the red and green masks and not the blue mask. The developing process removed the exposed emulsion (under the red and green masks) and diffused the unexposed dye developer (under the blue mask) to its receiving layer, blocking light from coming through. This resulted in the projected light shining through the red and green masks but not the blue mask, creating the colour yellow. Because of the film density, film speeds were necessarily slow. High precision was required for the production of this film .

Film brands[edit]

Polaroid[edit]

Polaroid produced six types of film. Roll film was distributed in two separate negative and positive rolls and developed inside the camera. It was introduced in 1948 and was manufactured until 1992. Sheet film was introduced in 1958 for 4x5" film holder #500. Each sheet contains a reagent pod, negative and receiving positive, and was loaded separately and developed outside the film holder. In 1973 Polaroid introduced 8x10" Instant film. Pack film was distributed in a film pack which contained both negative and positive sheets and was developed outside the camera. It was introduced in 1963. Integral film is also distributed in a film pack, but each film envelope contains all the chemical layers to expose, develop, and fix the photo. It was introduced in 1972.

Polavision was an instant motion picture film. Polavision was introduced by Polaroid in 1978, with an image format similar to Super 8 mm film, and based on an additive colour process. Polavision required a specific camera and tabletop viewer, and was not a commercial success, but did lead to the development of an instant 35mm colour slide film. Polavision film has been taken off the market. Polachrome was an easy to develop 35mm film, available in colour, monochrome and 'blue' formats (the latter intended for making title cards). Each roll of film came with a cartridge containing developing chemicals which were pressed between the film and a developing strip by a hand-cranked machine called the AutoProcessor. The AutoProcessor was very cheap and did not require a darkroom; the results were somewhat variable, the resolution was not as good as conventional film due to the matrix of tiny red, green and blue filters required to make the monochrome emulsion work in colour, and the sensitivity was low, even for slide film; in tungsten light, Polachrome CS is rated at ISO 40. It was introduced in 1983.

Preservation[edit]

Polaroids have the same storage standards under ISO 18920:2000 as any other photograph.[2] Regular storage conditions should be less than 70 degrees Fahrenheit and between 50% and 30% relative humidity (RH). Cold storage (0 degrees Fahrenheit optimum) is not helpful unless RH can be controlled and cold storage RH is generally drier than required. RH below 30% will create an environment that is too dry and may cause the photograph to curl.

End of production[edit]

In February 2008, Polaroid (under the control of Thomas J. Petters of Petters Group Worldwide) announced it would cease production of all instant film; the company shut down three factories and laid off 450 workers.[3] Sales of chemical film by all makers have dropped by at least 25% per year since 2000, but a new birth of interest around Fujifilm and in particular The Impossible Project's new films is seeing a rise in its popularity amongst creative artists.

Integral film[edit]

A sample shot of Polaroid Type 600, ISO 640, colour film
  • SX-70 cameras (integral film, develops automatically, 3.1 × 3.1 inch)
  • 600 cameras (integral film, develops automatically, 3.1 × 3.1 inch)
  • Spectra / Image / 1200 cameras (integral film, develops automatically, 3.6 × 2.9 inch)
  • Captiva/Vision (integral film, for Captiva and Joycam, 4.4 × 2.5 inch, 11.1 × 6.4 cm)
  • i-Zone (integral film, for i-Zone, Tomy Xiao, 1.5 × 1 inch, 3.6 cm × 2.4 cm)
  • i-Zone200 (integral film, for i-Zone200 only, 1.5 × 1 inch, 3.6 cm × 2.4 cm)
  • Type 330 series AutoFilm (integral film for use Polaroid CB-33 backs, 3¼ × 4¼ inch).[citation needed]

Packfilm[edit]

Type 667
  • Type 100 series packfilm for Land cameras (timed peel-apart development, sometimes called type 660, 10.8 × 8.3 cm; 4.25 × 3.25 inch),
  • Type 550 series packfilm, 4 × 5 inch, for Polaroid 550 film backs. Introduced in 1981
  • Type 80 series packfilm, 8.3 × 8.6 cm, (3¼ × 3⅜ inch) Introduced in 1971 (re-introduced in 2003).[citation needed]

Rollfilm[edit]

  • Type 20 series roll film, for "The Swinger" (2½" × 3¼"). Introduced 1965, discontinued 1979.
  • Type 30 series roll film, for "Highlander" (80, 80A, 80B) and J33 Electric Eye (2½" × 3¼"). Introduced 1954, discontinued 1979.
  • Type 40 series roll film (3¼" × 4¼") 8 exposures per roll (for monochrome types, 6 exposures for type 48 Polacolor), for most Polaroid cameras made before 1963. Introduced 1948, discontinued 1976 (Polacolor) and 1992 (monochrome).

Sheet film[edit]

  • Type 50 series sheetfilm for 4x5 inch large format (time peel-apart development, all professional grade)
  • Type 800 series sheetfilm for 8x10 inch cameras, processors, Daylabs and other purposes.[citation needed]

Polavision[edit]

Polavision 608 film was used in the polavision 8mm cameras. After the tape was shot it would be put into a TV size machine also known as the viewer. The viewer had 2 purposes. 1. to develop the movie in about 1 minute 2. It was a viewer allowing the creator of the film to watch it in about 1 minute. Polavision was basically an early version of a digital camcorder minus the digital part of course.

PolaChrome[edit]

PolaBlue, PolaChrome CS, PolaChrome HCP, PolaGraph HC, and PolaPan CT were 35mm instant slide films.[citation needed]

20x24[edit]

20x24 P3 PolaColor, 20x24 P7 PolaColor, and 20x24 PolaPan.[citation needed]

40x80[edit]

  • 40x80 PolaColor ER, ISO 80, colour

Misc film[edit]

  • Polaroid IJT-100 transparency film, Type 1001 radiography film, and Type 3000X radiography film.[citation needed]

Fujifilm[edit]

In Japan, Fujifilm introduced their own line of instant photographic products in 1981 starting with the Fotorama line of cameras. The name Fotorama came from photograph and panorama, as the film was a wide format compared to the square Polaroid SX-70/600 films. These Integral films developed similar to Kodak's with the back layer first. This presented a major problem for Fujifilm because of the ongoing litigation between Kodak and Polaroid. Polaroid also has a separate suit with Fujifilm and their instant film patents in Japan. When Kodak lost, Fujifilm was able to work with Polaroid to allow their cameras and films to remain in the market,[4] provided that they have a technology sharing agreement. Polaroid was interested in branching out to magnetic media in the boom of the video tape era and had acquired a company called MagMedia Ltd. Fujifilm has a long history in magnetic media dating to the mid-1950s. This led to Polaroid having access to Fujifilm's extensive electronic, video tape and floppy disc magnetic products. This allowed Fujifilm access to Polaroid's film technology.

By the mid-1980s Fujifilm introduced the higher ISO System 800 series, followed by the ACE series in the mid-1990s. Instant ACE is nearly identical to System 800, the only difference is the design of the plastic cartridge in the ACE do not contain the spring mechanism, the spring is in the camera. Most of these products were available only in the Japanese market, that is until the Instax series. In 1999 the Instax series of cameras was released. Fujifilm originally wanted to release the Instax series worldwide including North America and Europe simultaneously,[5] but decided to work with Polaroid on the mio camera based on the Instax mini 10 for the US market; while Canada did get the Instax Wide 100. Another product was Fujifilm's Digital Instax Pivi film for their battery powered portable printer which was made available for those who wanted to print from their mobile phone via infrared, USB and Bluetooth.

Fujifilm makes pack film for their passport camera systems, and had been available outside Japan since the mid-1980s. No legal issues arose with Fuji's peel apart instant films as Polaroid's patents had expired. Very popular in Australia as a cheaper alternative to Polaroid, it was generally not too well known elsewhere due to the dominance of Polaroid in most countries. In 2000, Fuji decided to change the way they manufacture pack film, by making the entire pack out of plastic instead of a metal and plastic combination. Fujifilm announced at PMA 2003 that pack film would be made available to the North American market.

With the discontinuation of Polaroid instant film in 2008, Fuji started to export more of their instant film product to overseas markets. They started with having more variety of pack film available. In November 2008 the Instax Wide format was available in the US with the Instax 200 camera.[6] Instax mini series of cameras and films became available in the US during the second half of 2009, with the mini 7s,[7] also an updated Instax 210 replaced the Instax 200. Fujifilm's FP-100b45 was announced in Sept of 2009 for the US market.[8] The FP-3000b45 arrived in the North American market in Jan 2011, after Fujifilm Japan stopped manufacturing FP-100b, but was discontinued in 2012.[9] In late 2012 Fujifilm discontinued FP-3000B, leaving FP-100C as its only 100 series packfilm still in production.

Current Fujifilm instant films include:

Packfilm[edit]

  • 3¼ × 4¼" (85 × 108 mm). Compatible with Polaroid Type 100 packfilm (also known as "Type 660")
  • 4x5" (102 × 131 mm). For use in the Fujifilm PA-45 holder. Compatible with Polaroid Type 550 series 4x5 packfilm versions of Type 50 sheetfilm.[10]

Integral film[edit]

  • Instax Wide series ISO 800 films
  • Instax Mini series ISO 800 films
  • ACE series ISO 800 films. Compatible with Fujifilm's Fotorama ACE series of instant cameras. (discontinued June 2010)
  • 800 series ISO 800 films. Compatible with Fujifilm's Fotorama 800 series instant cameras. (discontinued June 2010)
  • F Series ISO 160. Compatible with Fotorama F series instant cameras. Discontinued in the mid-1990s
  • misc film Discontinued, FI-160 ISO 160 (89x114mm) for use with MS-45 4x5 instant back.[citation needed]

Kodak[edit]

A pack of Kodak PR-10 Satinluxe instant film, still sealed in original box.

Kodak manufactured Polaroid's instant film from 1963 to 1969, when Polaroid decided to manufacture its own. Kodak's original plan was to create packfilm type instant products. There were many prototypes and test runs of the film with many private demonstrations to their board. Plans changed when Polaroid in 1972 released the integral type film with the introduction of the SX-70 system. Kodak decided to scrap the plans for packfilm release and focus on an integral type process. A few years later Kodak introduced its own instant film products in 1976, which was different from Polaroid's in several ways:[11]

Kodak instant film was exposed from the back without a mirror, the opposite of Polaroid's film which was exposed from the front with a mirror to reverse the image. Kodak used a matte finish on the front, made possible by exposing the film through the back. The negative and empty pod could be removed by peeling it off of the back of the print. Unlike Polaroid's integral film packs, Kodak's did not contain a battery, and used conventional batteries.

Polaroid filed suit against Eastman Kodak in April 1976 for the infringement of ten patents held by Edwin Land and others on his development team relating to instant photography. In September 1985, the United States District Court of Massachusetts ruled that seven patents were valid and infringed, two were invalid but infringed, and one was valid but not infringed by Kodak. Kodak appealed but was denied and an injunction prohibiting production of their instant film and cameras was put into effect. Kodak's appeal to the Supreme Court was denied a few months later, and in January 1986, Kodak announced it would no longer be producing their instant line of products. In 1991, Polaroid was awarded $925 million in damages from Kodak.

Alternative Kodak instant film[edit]

While Kodak instant films have been discontinued, Fuji's instant film available in Japan since the 1980s is very similar to Kodak's. The pictures are the same size, the cartridge is almost the same, with some easy plastic modifications; the Fuji Fotorama series film can be made to fit. It was closest to the Kodak with the ISO at 160, many of the camera's brightness controls can be adjusted to work with the different ISO; However, the FI-10 series was discontinued in the 1990s. The faster ISO 800 instant films will work as well but would require the use of a filter either on the film cartridge or lens.

The Impossible Project[edit]

Shot on Impossible Project PX600 Silver Shade UV+ film

A group called the Impossible Project have acquired Polaroid's old equipment and factory in Enschede, in the Netherlands.[12] On their website[13] they state:

We aim to re-start production of analog instant film for vintage Polaroid cameras in 2010.

and

"The Impossible mission is not to re-build Polaroid Integral film but (with the help of strategic partners) to develop a new product with new characteristics, consisting of new optimised components, produced with a streamlined modern setup. An innovative and fresh analog material, sold under a new brand name that perfectly will match the global re-positioning of Integral Films."

On March 22, 2010, it was announced they were successful in manufacturing instant film compatible with Polaroid SX-70/600 instant cameras. Two new products were announced — PX100 and PX600. Their PX100 Silver Shade instant film is a manipulable, monochromatic replacement of old Polaroid brand instant film compatible with SX-70 cameras while the PX600 Silver Shade instant film is compatible with 600 cameras.[citation needed]

PLR IP Holdings, LLC[edit]

Summit Global Group; using the Polaroid brand reintroduces instant photography cameras and films starting with the Polaroid PIC 300, based on the Fujifilm's Instax mini 7 series camera.

  • 300, ISO 800, colour (rebranded FujiFilm Instax Mini)

Toxicity[edit]

The liquid chemicals for the developing process contained in the more common instant photo sheets are caustic and can cause chemical burns. For such liquid the manufacture recommendation can be to avoid contact with skin and when contact with skin is made wash immediately with much water.[14][15] Some instant films have used less common reagents and have had differing suggested responses.

Future[edit]

Polaroid[edit]

As of 2012, Polaroid is currently producing three instant cameras, The Z340, the Z2300, and the Polaroid 300, which is identical to the Fuji Instax Mini. Only the 300 is truly instant, the others are basically digital cameras with attached printers.

Fujifilm[edit]

Fujifilm still continues to produce and sell instant film. As of January 2014, Fujifilm is continuing to manufacture Instax Wide, Instax mini integral films and FP-100c pack film.

The Impossible Project[edit]

Main article: Impossible Project

TIP acquired 8x10 production equipment in 2009, with plans to produce 8x10 instant film.[16] In March 2010, black and white film started being sold;[17] in August 2010, colour film was offered for sale.[18]

New55project[edit]

A group called New55project [19] Announced in January 2010:

With the news that there are no plans to produce any more Polaroid Type 55 P/N film a small group of Massachusetts tinkerers are starting to make their own instant negative films and processes. The goal of the project is to produce a new, very high quality instant 4X5 and 8X10 negative material to fill a gap caused by the discontinuation of Polaroid Type 55 instant P/N film.

This group is in the product development phase and has demonstrated a practical 4x5 P/N material that is exposed and processed in a Polaroid 545 holder. The final product, if offered for sale to the public, will provide users with a positive print and a high quality 4x5 negative that can be scanned, contact printed, or enlarged.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jim's Polaroid Collection: How film works
  2. ^ Albright, G. & Fischer, M. Care of Photographs. Retrieved February 18, 2008, from Northeast Document Conservation Center Web site: http://www.nedcc.org/resources/leaflets/5Photographs/03CareOfPhotos.php
  3. ^ Associated Press February 8, 2008
  4. ^ Los Angeles Times July 25th 1986
  5. ^ Fuji may enter us instant film market
  6. ^ Fujifilm brings Instax 200 instant film camera and film to U.S. market
  7. ^ Fujifilm brings stylish INSTAX mini 7S instant camera to US
  8. ^ Fujifilm brings FP-100B 4X5 black and white instant film to US market
  9. ^ http://translate.google.com/translate?sl=auto&tl=en&js=n&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&layout=2&eotf=1&u=http%3A%2F%2Ffujifilm.jp%2Finformation%2Farticlead_0132.html
  10. ^ http://translate.google.com/translate?sl=auto&tl=en&js=n&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&layout=2&eotf=1&u=http%3A%2F%2Ffujifilm.jp%2Finformation%2Farticlead_0132.htmll
  11. ^ The Land List - Non-Polaroid Instant Cameras
  12. ^ http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/01/22/polaroid-fans-new-film-old-cameras/?hp
  13. ^ http://www.the-impossible-project.com/ The Impossible Project Website – Company claiming to have bought Polaroid factory
  14. ^ Product information bulletin - FUJI INSTANT COLOR FILM New FP-100C / FP-100C SILK
  15. ^ Data sheet - FUJIFILM INSTANT COLOR FILM instax mini
  16. ^ THE LEGENDARY LARGE FORMAT FILM
  17. ^ http://articles.nydailynews.com/2010-03-23/news/27059842_1_instant-film-polaroid-brand-sx-70
  18. ^ http://craftcollective.wordpress.com/2010/08/11/px70-how-dumb-do-you-think-we-are/
  19. ^ http://new55project.blogspot.com/

External links[edit]