|Paris Institute of Political Studies|
|Institut d'études politiques de Paris|
|Location||Paris, Reims, Dijon, Le Havre, Nancy, Poitiers, Menton, France|
|Former names||École libre des sciences politiques|
|Mascot||The lion and the fox|
The Institut d'études politiques de Paris (French pronunciation: [lɛ̃stity detyd pɔlitik dəpaˈʁi]; Paris Institute of Political Studies), simply referred to as Sciences Po (French pronunciation: [sjɑ̃sˈpo]), is a public research and higher education institution in Paris, France, which specializes in social sciences, politics and international affairs. It has the status of grand établissement, which allows its admissions process to be both rigorous and highly selective. Established in 1872 as the École Libre des Sciences Politiques, Sciences Po has traditionally educated France's political and diplomatic elite, and it is broadly considered to be one of the world's most reputable and prestigious schools of the social sciences. The main Paris campus is located near the Seine River, between Boulevard Saint Germain and Boulevard Raspail. It is housed primarily in 17th- and 18th-century mansions located on the Left Bank, on and around Rue Saint-Guillaume, Rue des Saints Pères and Rue de l'Université (in the 7th arondissement).
Sciences Po maintains faculties in political science as well as economics, history, sociology, law, finance, business, communication, social and urban policy, management and journalism.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Undergraduate program
- 4 Master's degrees
- 5 Instructors
- 6 Global Public Policy Network
- 7 Research
- 8 Library and publishing
- 9 Notable faculty and alumni
- 10 References and notes
- 11 External links
The name Sciences Po refers to three distinct, yet complementary institutions:
- École Libre des Sciences Politiques, which was replaced in 1945 by:
1872–1945: École Libre des Sciences Politiques
Sciences Po was established in February 1872 as the École Libre des Sciences Politiques by a group of French intellectuals, politicians and businessmen led by Émile Boutmy, and including Hippolyte Taine, Ernest Renan, Albert Sorel and Paul Leroy Beaulieu.. Following defeat in the 1870 war, the demise of Napoleon III, and the Paris Commune, these men sought to reform the training of French politicians. Politically and economically, people feared France's international stature was waning due to inadequate teaching of its political and diplomatic corps. ELSP was meant to serve as “the breeding ground where nearly all the major, non-technical state commissioners were trained.”
The school developed a humanistic and pragmatic teaching program: instructors included academics as well as ministers, high civil servants, and businessmen. New disciplines such as International Relations, International Law, Political Economy and Comparative Government were introduced. In August 1894, the British Association for the Advancement of Science spoke out for the need to advance the study of politics along the lines of ELSP. Sidney and Beatrice Webb used the purpose and curriculum of Sciences Po as part of their inspiration for creating the London School of Economics in 1895.
The situation since 1945
As per ordinance 45-2284, issued by Charles de Gaulle on 9 October 1945, two entities were created from ELSP: Fondation nationale des sciences politiques (English: National Foundation of Political Science) or FNSP and Institut d'études politiques de Paris (English: Paris Institute of Political Studies) or IEP Paris. Both entities were tasked by the French government to ensure “the progress and the diffusion, both within and outside France, of political science, economics, and sociology”.
The epithet Sciences Po was applied to both entities, which inherited the reputation previously vested in ELSP. France's Legislature entrusted FNSP with managing IEP Paris, its library, and budget, and an administrative council assured the development of these activities. The curriculum and methodology of the ELSP were also the template for creating an entire system of institutes of political studies (French: Institut d'études politiques) across France, namely in Strasbourg, Lyon, Aix, Bordeaux, Grenoble, Toulouse, and then in Rennes and Lille. They are not to be confounded with Sciences Po's satellite campuses.
FNSP further strengthened its role as a scientific publication center with significant donations from the Rockefeller Foundation. FNSP periodicals such as la Revue française de science politique, le Bulletin analytique de documentation, la Chronologie politique africaine, and the Cahiers de la Fondation as well as its seven research centres and main publishing house, Presses de Sciences Po, contribute to the reputation attained by Sciences Po research.
Sciences Po has undergone myriad reforms under Richard Descoings, Director of Sciences Po (1997–2012). Sciences Po has introduced a compulsory year abroad component to its undergraduate degree, and now offers a multilingual curriculum in French, English, and other languages. New educational sites have been set up in Nancy, Dijon, Poitiers, Menton, Le Havre and Reims. Sciences Po also set the length of its undergraduate program to three years and its graduate program to two years in line with the Bologna Process.
Sciences Po also implemented reforms in its admissions process. Previously, Sciences Po recruited its students almost exclusively from elite schools (mostly state-funded) in France, but in March 2001, the school's governing council widened its admissions policy. From September 2002, Sciences Po began accepting a small batch of students from certain schools located in economically depressed suburbs of Paris on the basis of their school record and a 45-minute interview, rather than the name-blind examination all other students must pass to be admitted. The reform is intended to broaden the socio-economic characteristics of Sciences Po student-body, and gained national and international media attention for being the first affirmative action experience in France. Despite the initial controversy it brought up it is now broadly accepted by the French and considered a relative success. Moreover, Sciences Po introduced an alternative recruitment method -the so-called procédure internationale- for foreign students or students with an international background, as they are not well prepared for the French written examination. Sciences Po also accepts a large contingent of graduate students from abroad without written exams. With the addition of many masters degree programs almost exclusively taught in English, Sciences Po has widely globalized its student body and curriculum.
In 2014, the QS World University Rankings ranked Sciences Po the 13th best university in the world in Politics and International Relations and Affairs and 36th in Sociology. It was also ranked 1st French university in both faculty areas and 3rd in History. In 2013, the QS World University Rankings ranked Sciences Po the 16th best university in the world in Politics and International Relations & Affairs and 30th in Sociology. In the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2013/2014, Sciences Po ranked 98th in the world for Social Sciences. In the 2013 Times Higher Education Alma Mater Index of Global Executives, a ranking of a university's number of degrees awarded to chief executives of the world’s biggest companies, Sciences Po is ranked 81st.
There are different admission procedures at Sciences Po (figures of 2010):
- Undergraduate programs: acceptance rate 10%
- For holders of the French baccalauréat:
- Admission based on the "concours" examination at Bac+0 level: 280 successful candidates.
- Admission based on the student file and an interview for students from disenfranchised neighbourhoods.
- Admission based on the student file for summa cum laude baccalauréat holders.
- For holders of foreign secondary school diplomas:
- Admission based on the student file and an interview.
- For holders of the French baccalauréat:
- Graduate programs (except double degrees and post-experience programs): acceptance rate 15%
- Examination for the students who have validated 180 ECTS
- Admission by the International cycle of political studies(CIEP)
- Admission for the persons who have worked during five years.
Since 2002, the number of applicants has steadily increased. In 2002, there were 200 applicants for the international program. By contrast there were 800 applicants in 2008: an increase of 300% in 5 years. For the examination, the number of applicants has doubled in five years. There was an increase of 500% of the number of applicants with a Summa cum laude mention.
Sciences Po is located in the heart of Paris, in the 6th and 7th districts (arrondissements):
- 27 rue Saint-Guillaume houses the head office since 1879. It is also home to the Amphitheatres Émile Boutmy and Jacques Chapsal.
- 9, rue de la Chaise: administrative offices.
- 56, rue des Saints-Pères: language classes, language lab, audiovisual service and a cartography workshop.
- 117, boulevard Saint-Germain: Master of Public Affairs, office of the School of Journalism
- 174, boulevard Saint-Germain: MBA offices and classrooms
- 199, boulevard Saint-Germain: offices of Graduate Program staff.
- 224, boulevard Saint-Germain: classrooms
- 56, rue Jacob: Research Center for History (Centre d'histoire de Sciences Po) and International Relations (Centre d'études et de recherches internationales)
- 13, rue de l'Université / The René Rémond building: classrooms and amphitheatre
- 8, rue Jean-Sébastien-Bach: Urban Studies Graduate Program
- rue d'Assas and rue de la Cassette at the Institut Catholique
Student union and clubs
- The entire political spectrum is represented in the Student Union: UNEF (left), InterZaid-Fac Verte, Nouvelle Donne, UNI (right) and Sud Etudiant (far left). Delegates are elected each January by the students.
- There are five permanent associations at Sciences Po:
- Bureau des élèves (BDE) is the studentbody organization.
- Association sportive (AS) offers participation in individual and team sports and organizes sportive or recreative events.
- Bureau des arts (BDA) offers courses in theater, painting, writing scenario etc.
- Junior Consulting
- Sciences Po Environnement
There are more than 70 clubs and organizations, such as Paris International Model United Nations, Sciences Po Finance (Finance society) or RSP.fm (Radio Sciences Po).
In 2000, Sciences Po set the length of its undergraduate program to three years and the length of its graduate program to two years in line with the Bologna Process. The first three years of study are referred to as the collège universitaire, which focuses on the full range of the social sciences, particularly public policy, International Relations, economics and political economy, management studies, finance, geography, constitutional and administrative law, philosophy, and sociology. Students generally spend their third year of the collège universitaire abroad, at one of Sciences Po's nearly 300 partner schools around the world. Students are, however, also given the option of spending the year interning for an institution related to their field of study. In addition to academics, Sciences Po's curriculum incorporates more practice-oriented skills like teamwork, effective oral communication and presentation skills, and nurturing leadership potential. Sciences Po's student-body is active, with more than seventy student clubs, councils, and organizations.
As of 2010, almost half of the student body was foreign. In recent years, Sciences Po has adopted a multi-lingual education policy: students are expected to be proficient in at least two foreign languages. More than one-third of classes are provided in languages others than French, including English, Spanish, German, and Italian. Currently, however, fluency in French is required for admission to most Sciences Po degrees.
While all of Sciences Po's graduate programs are taught in Paris, the school has six additional undergraduate campuses in France. Each of the six campuses has its own distinct cultural identity and academic focus. They are designed to widen the academic concentration of the wider Sciences Po community, and allow students enrolled in the three-year Sciences Po undergraduate program, the collège universitaire, to specialize in a given region. Upon completing their undergraduate studies by spending a year abroad, all students usually move to Paris for their graduate studies (Master).
As the satellite campuses are part of Sciences Po Paris, their official designations always include the word "Paris" in order to distinguish them from the so-called "IEP de province". For instance, Sciences Po Paris' Dijon campus is officially named Sciences Po Paris in Dijon:
These are six regional campuses:
- French-German Undergraduate Program / Nancy (created in 2000):
The French-German Undergraduate Program is located in Nancy, which is at the centre of the Lorraine region of France, and maintains close ties to the German-speaking world given its proximity to the German border. Strasbourg and the European Parliament are also located nearby. This premier cycle focuses on the history of Franco-German relations, and its relevance for the future integration of the European continent. The main languages of instruction on campus are English, German, and French, and the student body is primarily made up of students from France and German-speaking countries.
- European Undergraduate Program / Dijon (created 2001):
The European Undergraduate Program is located in Dijon, where students of more than twenty nationalities study for the bachelor degree with a specific focus on the European Union and on the East Central European studies. This premier cycle initiates students into the challenges of the widened European Union, and Central European politics and history. Courses are taught in English and French, but students may also study at least one Central-European language (either Czech, Hungarian, Polish), Italian (with an initiation of Romanian) or Russian.
- Euro-Latin American Undergraduate Program / Poitiers (created 2001):
The Ibero-American Undergraduate Program is located in Poitiers, a small city in western France. This premier cycle specializes in the politics and history of Iberia and Latin America. Courses are taught in French, Spanish, Portuguese, and English. The majority of students come from Spain, Portugal, and Latin America.
- Middle Eastern and Mediterranean Undergraduate Program / Menton (created 2005):
The Middle Eastern and Mediterranean Undergraduate Program is located in Menton, a town on the French Riviera minutes from Monaco and the Italian border. This premier cycle gathers students from North Africa, the Middle East, the Persian Gulf, Israel, and all European nations. In particular, it focuses on the study of relationships between the northern and southern sides of the Mediterranean, as well as the analysis of the links between Europe and the Middle East. Courses are taught in French, English, and Arabic.
- Euro-Asian Undergraduate Program / Le Havre (created 2007):
The Euro-Asian Undergraduate Program is located in Le Havre, a city in Haute Normandy in northern France. The biggest port city of France, Le Havre is a UNESCO world heritage city. French/European students can learn Chinese, Japanese, Hindi, and Korean, in addition to English; while Asian students have to study French and one of the Asian languages, other than their mother-tongue. All courses during first year are in English, flavored with French in the background, to put the students at ease; but gradually moves towards French as the medium of instruction at the end second semester. It is therefore important to be able to speak, write, read and effectively communicate in French, else it can become quite challenging, especially when learning an Asian language is mandatory for all.
- Euro-American Undergraduate Program / Reims (created 2009):
The Euro-American Undergraduate Program in Reims, housed in a former Jesuit College, opened its doors in September 2010 and focuses on transatlantic relations. 45 minutes from Paris by train, Reims is famous for being the coronation site of the Kings of France and for its impressive Gallo-Roman heritage. Its rich past, its architecture ans its ancient Champagne producing tradition put this city of the Champagne-Ardennes region at the very heart of European and French history.
Third year abroad
Richard Descoings has decided in the reforms he engaged at Sciences Po that every student should spend his or her third year abroad. Thanks to 350 university partners, students at Sciences Po have multiple possibilities. Students can also do an internship in a company, a cultural association, an embassy, etc.
Upon completion of the third year of undergraduate studies, students return to Paris for a two-year graduate program of their choosing leading to a Master's degree. Students from the school's undergraduate programs make up about half of the graduate programs' student population, the remainder having completed undergraduate studies elsewhere in France or abroad. Most programs are taught in more than one language though English-only programs are also available. Students can choose from a wide array of programs designed either by Sciences Po alone or in conjunction with other universities.
Single Master's degrees
The school's traditional "single" Master's degrees are suited for those seeking to develop professional skills in a specific area without losing the benefits of a generalist education. The curriculum generally comprises a set of generalist courses known as the "tronc commun," specific courses related to the chosen field of study, and an internship semester.
- European Affairs
- Urban Planning and Regional Studies
- Law School
- Economics and Business (taught exclusively in English)
- Finance and Strategy
- Journalism School
- Human Resource Management
- Master of Public Policy (MPP), School of Public Affairs
- International Affairs
- School of Communication
Students leaning towards an academic career can apply for admission into research-based programs with an additional focus on scientific methods. The requirement to gain work experience during the internship semester is replaced with a requirement to write a Master's thesis. The school has offered Master recherche programs in such fields as economic governance, theory of organisations, political theory, sociology, and history. However, as of early 2009, the school is overhauling all of its research-based programs.
Dual Master's degrees
Alternatively, students can apply for admission into one of the school's double degree programs designed in conjunction with partner universities in France and abroad. Students are awarded two degrees upon studying one year at each university. As the writing of a Master's thesis is often part of the graduation requirements at partner universities, dual programs can also be suited for those interested in an academic career.
- With universities in France:
- With universities in the European Union:
- University College of London (UCL):
- Dual Degree in European Social and Political Studies (four-year undergraduate program)
- London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE):
- Dual degree in European Affairs.
- Dual degree in International Affairs.
- Dual degree in Public and Economic Policy, Public Policy and Management, International Development, European Public and Economic Policy.
- Dual degree in Urban Policy.
- Freie Universität Berlin: Dual degree in European and International Affairs.
- Humboldt Universität / Freie Universität Berlin and Potsdam Universität: Dual degree in International Relations.
- Bocconi University (Milan): Dual degree in Management of International and Public Affairs
- Warsaw School of Economics (SGH).
- University of Bath / Freie Universität Berlin / Humboldt Universität / University of Washington / University of Siena / Carlos III (Madrid) and Charles University (Prague): Joint Master of Arts (Euromasters) and Trans-Atlantic Studies Masters.
- University College of London (UCL):
- With universities in the European Union:
- With universities in the United States:
- Georgetown Law School: Dual Degree in International Affairs and Law.
- With universities in the United States:
- With universities in other regions:
- University of St. Gallen (HSG): Dual degree in International Affairs and Governance.
- MGIMO University (Moscow).
- Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (Mexico City): Dual degree in International Relations.
- Fudan University (Shanghai, China): Dual degrees: Communication; Europe and Asia in global affairs.
- Peking University (China): Dual Degree: Sustainable development in international relations.
- Keio University (Japan): Dual Degree: Economics.
- With universities in other regions:
Instruction is provided by a staff of around 1,400 teachers, a majority of whom are practitioners in their respective fields. Most recently, instructors included or still include former French Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin, current WTO president Pascal Lamy, current French President Francois Hollande, former French Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin, former French foreign minister Hubert Védrine, Nobel Prize Laureate economist Joseph Stiglitz, former Lebanese Minister of Culture Ghassan Salame and former Economics minister as well as former Managing Director of IMF Dominique Strauss-Kahn. These instructors are anchored by around 800 tenured professors.
Global Public Policy Network
'Sciences Po is a member of the Global Public Policy Network along with the London School of Economics, the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University, the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin, and the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore. This collaboration has existed since the early 1990s, but was formalized in September 2005 with the official launch of the Global Public Policy Network in Beijing, China. The partnership fosters academic collaboration among students, faculty, and research centers of leading public policy schools in several world capital cities. The network is further intended to facilitate collaboration on public policy research, student and faculty exchanges, and international conferences and fora with policymakers from the USA, Germany, UK, France, Japan, São Paulo and Singapore. This alliance has produced five degree programs with LSE, including masters degrees in International Relations, Negotiation, International Political Economy, Public Affairs, the Practice of International Affairs, and Urban Policy, two degree programs with Columbia, specifically a Master in International Affairs, dual Master of Public Policy and Master of Public Administration with the Hertie School of Governance, and a Master in Public Affairs, and one degree program with LKS, a Master in Public Policy.
The Doctoral School is currently directed by Jean-Marie Donegani and includes 175 faculty members and 600 doctoral students. It was created in 1988 and welcomes students for their Master and PhD studies.
The Research Master’s program entails two years of interdisciplinary instruction in four basic social sciences: political science, history, sociology and economics. This interdisciplinary approach is designed to reinforce and round out graduate-level training. The Research Master’s program prepares students for doctoral studies and subsequent careers in research and higher education. But it also opens out into a wider range of career options (work in consulting, expertise, public opinion polling, publishing etc.) thanks to the links between the Sciences Po Master’s degree and Research Master’s programs in the form of joint courses and degrees.
The Research Master’s program offers:
- an outstanding academic framework
- close administrative support all the way through to entry into professional life
- openness and close links to outside academic and professional domains at national and international levels.
Students in the Research Master’s program can choose from among six concentrations: History and Theory of Politics, International Relations, Politics and Society in Europe, Comparative Politics, Sociology of Action, Economic Governance.
- History and Theory of Politics, with two specialities:
- Political philosophy
- Comparative Politics with four specialities:
- Latin America
- Muslim world
- Russia and CIS
- International relations with three specialities:
- Political science of international relations
- History of the international relations
- Economy of the international relations
- Economic Governance
- Politics and Society in Europe proposes four specialities:
- Sociological analysis of change
- Public policy
- Political sociology
- Sociology of Action
Sciences Po is accredited to confer PhD degrees in law, economics, history, political science and sociology.
The Sciences Po PhD Program counts roughly 600 doctoral candidates, a third of whom hail from abroad. About 40 defend their dissertations each year. The program has a long-standing tradition of multi-disciplinary scholarship.
The PhD Program covers 15 fields of study, which follow up on those offered in the Master’s program: Latin America, Sociological Analysis of Change, Asia, Economics of International Relations, United States, Europe, International Finance, Law, Economic Governance, History, Muslim World, Political Thought, Russia/CIS, Political Science of International Relations, Sociology of Action, Political Sociology and Public Policy.
In addition to academic training, the PhD Program provides a number of student services, including financial aid for PhD studies as well as for research abroad, support and promotion for publications, and job placement guidance and assistance.
Sciences Po awards a French postdoctoral degree called Habilitation qualifying the holder to supervise doctoral research in economics, history, law, political science and sociology.
Habilitation is the crowning degree for university studies in France: it attests to the holder’s high level of scholarship, the originality of their approach, the ability to master a research strategy in a sufficiently broad field of inquiry and to supervise young scholars. It qualifies the holder, moreover, to join the corps of university professors.
FNSP manages the research faculty and facilities of Sciences Po, and is one of the largest social sciences research bodies in Europe. FNSP manages research centres, a doctoral school, a library and a publishing house. The FNSP manages eight research centres (five jointly with CNRS). The foundation of Sciences Po predates by a few decades the creation of political science, as such the Institute focuses on all the social sciences that study the political field.
- CHSP (Centre d’histoire de Sciences Po)
- Sciences Po Law School
- MaxPo (The Max Planck Sciences Po Center on Coping with Instability in Market Societies)
- OSC (Observatoire sociologique du changement)
- CSO (Centre de Sociologie des organisations)
- The Department of Economics
- OFCE (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
- International Relations
- CERI (Centre d’études et de recherches internationales)
- CEE (Centre d’études européennes de Sciences Po)
- Political Science in France and Europe
- CEVIPOF (Centre d’étude de la vie politique française)
- CDSP (Centre de données sociopolitiques de Sciences Po)
- EUREDOCS: European Research & Higher Education Doctoral Studies network:
Euredocs is a network run by Sciences Po made up of doctoral students and recent PhD recipients (who have defended their dissertations within the past three years). The network addresses the Europeanization of higher education and research, including such issues as the structure of academic curricula, evaluation/accreditation procedures, changes in national education policies and university governance, academic career patterns, the production of knowledge, the impact of internationalization/globalization etc.
- GARNET Network of Excellence: “Global Governance, Regionalisation and Regulation: The Role of the EU”
Funded under the European Commission’s 6th Framework Programme, the GARNET network gathers 42 leading research centres and universities in Europe and operates with a budget of 5,4 millions euros over 5 years (2005–2010). Sciences Po is represented in the network by CERI who runs a specific “dissemination of excellence” programme. A number of GARNET activities address doctoral students and finance their participation:
- PhD School Network develops interdisciplinary seminar programmes focusing on key theoretical and methodological issues on global governance and the role of the EU. These one-week seminars bring together professors and PhD students from all over Europe and the world;
- Research programmes are particularly welcoming participation of doctoral students, namely 18 Jointly Executed Research Projects, the “Capacity Building in Professional Training on Issues of Global Governance and Regulation” program and GARNET Annual Conferences;
- Mobility programme offers up to 1,500 Euros/ month allowance to doctoral students at the later stages of their dissertation wishing to participate in the research activities of GARNET partner institutions for short or long period.
- Connex Network of Excellence on Efficient and Democratic Governance in a Multi-level Europe:
CONNEX is a network set up under the 6th Framework Programme for European Research and Technological Development (2002–2006) to analyze various facets of democratic governance in Europe.
Library and publishing
Library (Bibliothèque de Sciences Po)
Founded in 1871, the nucleus of the school’s research is Bibliothèque de Sciences Po, which "houses" 650,000 books about social sciences and 4,500 journals and annual publications, although only approximately one fifteenth of these is available to students at any given time. The Bibliothèque is also the hub of the Documentary Service which maintains 18,000 press dossiers on a wide range of sub-topics, and which each years abstracts and indexes some 10,000 articles from 1,200 periodicals each year. In 1982, the National Ministry of Education made the Bibliothèque the Centre for Acquisition and Dissemination of Scientific and Technical Information in the field of political science, and since 1994, it has been the antenna associated with Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Bibliothèque de Sciences Po is also the main French partner in the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, which is based at the London School of Economics.
Publishing house / Presses de Sciences Po
Presses de Sciences-Po is the publishing house of Sciences Po. It publishes academic works related to the social sciences, and is the leading French publisher in the fields of public policy, international relations, political history, French government, and economics. It publishes 6 French academic journals in the social sciences, and has 900 titles in its catalogue, with 30 new titles added annually.
Notable faculty and alumni
Politics and government
Sciences Po alumni and former staff include twenty-eight heads of state or government, specifically three of the last four French presidents (François Hollande, Jacques Chirac and François Mitterrand; the fourth one, Nicolas Sarkozy, also attended Sciences Po but failed to graduate, dropping out after flunking his English classes), thirteen past or present French prime ministers, twelve past or present foreign heads of state or government, a former United Nations Secretary-General, the former head of the International Monetary Fund, the former head of the European Central Bank and the former head of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Former Portuguese Prime Minister, José Socrates, is currently a doctoral student of this institution
While nearly every French politician or diplomat has attended Sciences Po since its inception, the school is also well known for educating top business managers, including CEOs of France's forty largest companies (Frédéric Oudéa of banking group Societe Generale, Michel Bon of Carrefour, Jean-Cyril Spinetta of Air France, Serge Weinberg of PPR, Gérard Mestrallet of Suez, Philippe Camus of Alcatel-Lucent), private bankers such as David René de Rothschild, the CEO of Lazard Italy, the CFO of Morgan Stanley Europe, the Director of Credit Suisse World and the Chairman of Credit Suisse Europe as well as the current head of the European Federation of Businesses, Industries and Employers and the current head of the French Businesses and Employers Union and many others.
Graduates of Sciences Po are usually referred to as Sciences Po. "alumni" is the Sciences Po's alumni magazine (formerly "Rue Saint Guillaume"). The vast majority of teachers and professors working in Sciences Po are alumni.
Some French students further their studies at École nationale d'administration (ENA), which is often viewed as the compulsory educational step before serving in diplomacy.
References and notes
- “Sciences Po 1945–1979” Centre d’histoire de Sciences Po
- QS Top Universities. "QS WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKING BY SUBJECT 2014 - POLITICS & INTERNATIONAL STUDIES". QS Top Universities. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- QS Top Universities. "QS WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS BY SUBJECT 2013 - POLITICS & INTERNATIONAL STUDIES". QS Top Universities. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- THE World University Rankings for 2013-2014. http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2013-14/subject-ranking/subject/social-sciences/institution/sciences-po. Missing or empty
- "Associations , Sciences Po". Sciencespo.fr. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "Partner Universities , Sciences-Po International". International.sciences-po.fr. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- http://www.cmjornal.xl.pt/detalhe/noticias/ultima-hora/jose-socrates-mais-1-ano-em-paris José Sócrates: 1 more year in Paris (Portuguese)
- ^ "LSE: A History of the London School of Economics and Political Science, 1895–1995", Oxford University Press, 1 June 1995.
- ^ "Consolidation de L'autonomie de Sciences Po" Sénat, 1996.
- ^ "Le statut juridique de Sciences Po: la dualité FNSP et IEP de Paris" Centre d’histoire de Sciences Po
- ^ “Sciences Po Paris Overview: Introducing Sciences Po” Sciences Po Website, 2001.
- ^ “Sciences Po Paris Overview: Introducing Sciences Po” Sciences Po Website, 2001.
- ^ “Sciences Po Paris Overview: Introducing Sciences Po” Sciences Po Website, 2001.
- ^ "La Bibliothèque de Sciences Po", Sciences Po Website, 2007
- ^ "IBSS Boosts Coverage of French Social Science Journals", IBSS, 2005.
- ^ "Presses de Sciences Po", Sciences Po Website, 21 October 2004.
- ^ "Columbia University, LSE and Sciences Po launch Global Public Policy Network", PRNewsWire, 19 September 2005.
- ^ "Sciences Po’s Joint Degrees", Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs, 21 October 2004.
- ^ "Sciences Po ― an elite institution's introspection on its power, position and worth in French society" NYU Department of Journalism, 9 September 2003.
- Richard Descoings, Sciences Po. De la Courneuve à Shanghai, préface de René Rémond, Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 2007 (ISBN 2-7246-0990-5)
- Jacques Chapsal, « L'Institut d'études politiques de l'Université de Paris », Annales de l'Université de Paris, n° 1, 1950
- « Centenaire de l'Institut d'études politiques de Paris (1872–1972) », brochure de l'Institut d'études politiques de Paris, 1972
- , A Sciences-Po, les voyages forment la jeunesse, Monde Diplomatique, Février 2006
- Pierre Favre, Cent dix années de cours à l'École libre des sciences politiques et à l'Institut d'études politiques de Paris (1871–1982), thèse de doctorat, 2 volumes, 1986
- Gérard Vincent, Sciences Po. Histoire d'une réussite, Orban, Paris, 1987
- Marie-Estelle Leroty, L'Enseignement de l'histoire à l'École libre des sciences politiques et à l'Institut d'études politiques de l'Université de Paris de 1943 à 1968, mémoire de diplôme d'études approfondies dirigé par Jean-François Sirinelli, Institut d'études politiques de Paris, 2000
- Anne Muxel (direction), Les Étudiants de Sciences Po, Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 2004, ISBN 2-7246-0937-9: Résultats d'une grande enquête menée en janvier 2002 auprès des élèves par le Cevipof
- Comité national d'évaluation des établissements publics à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel, PDF, Septembre 2005
- Cyril Delhay, Promotion ZEP. Des quartiers à Sciences Po, Paris: Hachette, 2006, ISBN 2-01-235949-3
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- Sciences Po (FNSP and IEP Paris) official English-version website
- Sciences Po USA Alumni Association
- Sciences Po: A Brief History
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- Sixtieth Anniversary of Sciences Po's Refoundation
- Histoire@Politique (journal published by the IEP-Paris)
- In France, a Bastion of Privilege No More New York Times, September 2011