Institute and Faculty of Actuaries

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Institute and Faculty of Actuaries

The Institute and Faculty of Actuaries is the professional body which represents the actuaries in the United Kingdom.

History[edit]

The Institute and Faculty of Actuaries came into being on 1 August 2010 as a result of the merger of the Institute of Actuaries and the Faculty of Actuaries in Scotland after voting members of both bodies voted to merge their respective organisations in a ballot held on 25 May 2010.[1]

Structure and governance[edit]

The Queen in Council granted an amendment effective 1 August 2010 to the Charter of the Institute of Actuaries in terms that converted it to the Charter for the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries. The assets, liabilities and membership rights of the Faculty of Actuaries in Scotland were transferred on this same day to the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries and the Charter of the Faculty of Actuaries in Scotland was surrendered. Essential elements of the merger arrangements, such as the Scottish constituency and its representation on the Council of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, are incorporated into the new governance documents.

Authority for the governance, control and strategic direction of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries sits with the Council which will in turn delegate to various boards, committees and staff.[2]

President[edit]

The President of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries is Philip Scott. He succeeded Jane Curtis - the first woman to be President of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries and its predecessor bodies, the Institute of Actuaries and the Faculty of Actuaries - on June 25, 2012.[3]

Research and member support[edit]

Actuaries work in a number of different practice areas: enterprise risk management, finance and investment, general insurance, health and care, life insurance and pensions.

Each of these areas is supported by an executive committee which oversees the development of knowledge and research within its own area, provides members with CPD opportunities and takes forward a programme of practice-specific research. The committees also foster a sense of community among actuaries practising in their particular field of expertise.[4]

  • Enterprise risk management - helping companies understand and manage risk in line with their business objectives
  • Finance and investment - for actuaries working in banking, corporate finance and investment
  • General insurance - rating products, advising on reserves and capital requirements, and similar general insurance activity
  • Health and care - a growing area in both the private and public sectors as health provision models evolve to meet changing needs
  • Life insurance - a traditional area for actuaries, with the roles evolving as life insurance itself evolves
  • Pensions - actuaries play a key role in advising companies on all manner of pension schemes and structures.

Education and regulation[edit]

The Institute and Faculty of Actuaries sets examinations, continuing professional development, professional codes and disciplinary standards. The Financial Reporting Council (FRC) assumed responsibility for oversight of the actuarial profession and the independent setting of actuarial technical standards with effect from May 2006.[5]

Fully qualified actuaries are Fellows and may bear the designations FIA or FFA while Associates bear the designations AIA or AFA.

Practising certificates are issued to certain actuaries for their statutory role in the financial management of life offices and most pension schemes. The Institute and Faculty of Actuaries continues the former Institute’s role as a designated professional body, under the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, which enables it to license firms that are managed or controlled by actuaries, allowing them to carry on certain limited regulated activities.

An actuarial qualification from the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries consists of a combination of the completion of various examinations and courses. The examinations are split into four sections: core technical, core applications, specialist technical, and specialist applications. In addition to examinations and courses, it is required that the candidate both complete at least three years work as an actuary and to qualify as a Fellow.[6]

Examinations[edit]

An actuarial qualification from the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries consists of a combination of the completion of various examinations and courses. The examinations are split into four sections: Core Technical (CT), Core Applications (CA), Specialist Technical (ST), and Specialist Applications (SA). Study material for the examinations is usually obtained through the official bookshop of the Institute of Actuaries [7] or through the Actuarial Education Company (ActEd),[8] a subsidiary of BPP Actuarial Education Ltd.

In addition to examinations and courses, it is required that the candidate complete at least three years work as an actuary to qualify as a “Fellow of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries” (FIA) [9]

Core Examinations[edit]

The Core Technical section consists of 8 written exams and a “Business Awareness Module,” CT9. These are usually sat first by a candidate and include the underlying mathematics involved in actuarial work as well as an introduction to financial and economic issues. These are also the most common exams for which candidates may get exemptions.

The Core Applications section consists of a 6 hour written exam and two practical exams which focus on the application of concepts learned and a candidate's ability to communicate actuarial concepts to others.

Specialist Examinations[edit]

The Specialist Technical section is the first stage the candidate has a choice of which exams to take. The candidate chooses two from the various actuarial specialist subjects i.e. Health and Care, Life Insurance, General Insurance, Pensions, Finance or Investments and further technical knowledge on said subjects is attained.

Since the 2010 examinations, the General Insurance Specialist Technical paper ST3 was replaced by two subjects ST7 and ST8.[10]

The Specialist Applications section allows the candidate to choose one area for which they take the SA paper and attain full Fellowship; leading to many referring to this as the “Fellowship paper.” However, as the rules on the ordering of examinations were relaxed, this examination may be taken before taking some earlier examinations resulting in candidates qualifying on other papers.

List of Examinations[edit]

Core Technical Stage[edit]

  • CT1 - Financial Mathematics
  • CT2 - Finance and Financial Reporting
  • CT3 - Probability and Mathematical Statistics
  • CT4 - Models
  • CT5 - Contingencies
  • CT6 - Statistical Methods
  • CT7 - Business Economics
  • CT8 - Financial Economics
  • CT9 - Business Awareness Module

Core Applications Stage[edit]

  • CA1 - Core Applications Concepts
  • CA2 - Modelling
  • CA3 - Communications

Specialist Technical Stage[edit]

  • ST0 - Alternative Specialist Technical (not examined)
  • ST1 - Health and Care Specialist Technical
  • ST2 - Life Insurance Specialist Technical
  • ST3 - General Insurance Specialist Technical (no longer available)
  • ST4 - Pensions and other Benefits Specialist Technical
  • ST5 - Finance and Investment Specialist Technical A
  • ST6 - Finance and Investment Specialist Technical B
  • ST7 - General Insurance - Reserving and Capital Modelling Specialist Technical
  • ST8 - General Insurance - Pricing Specialist Technical
  • ST9 - Enterprise Risk Management Specialist Technical

Specialist Applications Stage[edit]

  • SA0 - Research Dissertation Specialist Applications
  • SA1 - Health and Care
  • SA2 - Life Insurance
  • SA3 - General Insurance
  • SA4 - Pensions and other Benefits
  • SA5 - Finance
  • SA6 - Investment

UK Practice Modules[edit]

For students working in the UK only

  • P0 - Generic UK Practice Half Module
  • P1 - Health and Care
  • P2 - Life Insurance
  • P3 - General Insurance
  • P4 - Pensions
  • P5 - Finance
  • P6 - Investment

University-based examinations[edit]

A student may choose to complete an accredited actuarial science degree at an undergraduate or at a postgraduate level through a number of recognised universities. Successful students may offer proof of having covered the topics whilst at university and students may be granted exemptions from certain professional examinations from the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries.

Depending on the University, a different number of courses may be recognised for exemption. The examinations and the exemption pass level for the examinations is usually externalised by members of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries.

Naturally, the quality of the courses and lecturing at these universities are a determinant as to whether the course is recognised by the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries.

Most universities offering actuarial science courses also require the student in addition to complete various other related topics, including statistics, mathematics, applied mathematics, economics and accounting for recognition of an actuarial degree.

Upon completion of the university degree, students would then complete all remaining examinations through the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries to qualify as an actuary and become a Fellow of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries(FIA or FFA).

Qualifications[edit]

Certified Actuarial Analyst[edit]

This new qualification[11] will be obtained after passing 6 modules. Module 0 tests basic mathematics (with a its syllabus based on the Foundational ActEd Course written by ActEd (The Actuarial Education Company)[12]), Modules 1-4 tests parts of the CTs and Module 5 tests audit trails (CA2).[13]

Certificate in Financial Mathematics[edit]

Any candidate worldwide can take the CT1 Financial Mathematics exam without being a member of the Actuarial Profession and if they pass, will receive the Certificate in Financial Mathematics.[14]

Diploma in Actuarial Techniques[edit]

The Diploma in Actuarial Techniques is sent to students on completion of all Core Technical stage subjects: CT1, CT2, CT3, CT4, CT5, CT6, CT7, CT8 and CT9.[15]

Certificate in Finance and Investment[edit]

The Certificate in Finance and Investment is sent to all students who complete or are exempted from CT1, CT2, CT4, CT7, CT8, CT9 and CA1.[16]

Associate of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries[edit]

On completion of all of the Core Technical and Core Applications exams, then students can become Associate members of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries and gain the right to describe themselves as an actuary and to use the letters AIA or AFA provided that they have one year of work experience as an actuary.[17]

Fellow of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries[edit]

On completion of all of the Associate exams, two of the Specialist technical subjects and one of the Specialist applications subjects, students can become Fellows of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries and to use the letters FIA or FFA provided that they have three years of work experience as an actuary.[18]

Alternative routes to Fellowship are:

  • By vote of the membership
  • By mutual recognition of qualifications
  • Honorary Fellow

Chartered Enterprise Risk Actuary (CERA)[edit]

Associates and Fellows gain a further qualification, CERA, if they pass the ST9 Enterprise Risk Management exam.[19]

Examination fees[edit]

Two-tier charging structure[edit]

The Institute and Faculty of Actuaries operates a two-tier charging structure for its examination fees: full rate and special overseas rate. The special overseas rate is at a discount to the full rate. Members based in the United Kingdom are subject to the full rate.

To qualify for a special overseas rate, the student member must be based in one of the countries on the reduced rate list. This list currently includes countries such as China, Cuba, Iran, India and Zimbabwe.[20]

Student members from this list of countries can also purchase educational materials from Acted at a discount.[21]

Examination Fees[edit]

Rates as at 2013 [22] are as follows:-

Full rate[edit]

CT stage: £195 per subject. ST stage: £275 per subject. CA1: £545. SA stage: £275 per subject.

Reduced rate[edit]

CT stage: £80 per subject. ST stage: £110 per subject. CA1: £220. SA stage: £110 per subject.

Compliance with Equality Act 2010[edit]

Complaints were submitted to the Equality and Human Rights Commission querying the two-tier charging structure's compliance with Equality Act 2010, which outlaws discrimination on the basis of nationality. However the Equality Commission have not taken action against the Actuarial Profession on this matter.

Public Policy Submissions[edit]

UK Government's Shortage Occupation List[edit]

Shortage Occupation List background and purpose[edit]

When occupations are placed on this list, UK employers have less restrictions for recruiting candidates directly from overseas; specifically from outside the EU. They would no longer need to complete a residency test, which involves demonstrating that a search for suitable candidates within the UK in the first instance has been unsuccessful.

Actuaries added to the shortage occupation list[edit]

In November 2011, Actuaries were added to the UK Government's shortage occupation list.[23] The Actuarial Profession had argued for Actuaries' inclusion on this list.

Removal from shortage occupation list[edit]

Actuaries were removed from the shortage occupation list in April 2013 following a consultation by the UK Government's Migration Advisory Committee in January 2013.[24] On this occasion, the Actuarial Profession made no submission either way; neither for nor against a shortage of Actuaries.

Statistics on shortage occupation list migrants[edit]

Despite the Actuarial Profession advising a shortage of Actuaries, freedom of information requests to the UK Border Agency have revealed that only 19 people emigrated to the UK to work as an Actuary via the shortage occupation list from 1 November 2011 to 12 March 2013.

The countries of origin for these migrants were as follows: Australia (6), China (1), India (4), Malaysia (1), South Africa (5) and United States (2).

The salaries of these migrants ranged from £42,500 (Actuary) to £186,261 (Chief Actuary). The average salary was £82,042.

Despite Solvency II Directive work being cited as a reason for a shortage of Actuaries, only one migrant had the description "Solvency II" in their job title.

References[edit]

External links[edit]