Institute of technology
Institute of technology is a designation employed for a wide range of learning institutions awarding different types of degrees and operating often at variable levels of the educational system. It may be an institution of higher education and advanced engineering and scientific research or professional vocational education, specializing in science, engineering, and technology or different sorts of technical subjects. It may also refer to a secondary education school focused in vocational training. The term institute of technology is often abbreviated IT and is not to be confused with information technology.
The English term polytechnic appeared in the early 19th century, from the French École Polytechnique, engineering school founded in 1794 in Paris. The French term comes from the Greek πολύ (polú or polý) meaning "many" and τεχνικός (tekhnikós) meaning "arts".
While the terms institute of technology and polytechnic are synonymous, the preference concerning which one is the preferred term varies from country to country.
Institutes of technology versus polytechnics
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The institutes of technology and polytechnics have been in existence since at least the 18th century, but became popular after World War II with the expansion of applied science education, associated with the new needs created by industrialization. The world's first institution of technology, the Berg-Schola (today its legal successor is the University of Miskolc) was founded by the Court Chamber of Vienna in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary in 1735 in order to train specialists of precious metal and copper mining according to the requirements of the industrial revolution in Hungary. The oldest German Institute of Technology is the University of Braunschweig (founded in 1745 as "Collegium Carolinum"). Another exception is the École Polytechnique, which has educated French élites since its foundation in 1794. In some cases, polytechnics or institutes of technology are engineering schools or technical colleges. However this early "Technology schools" were not parts of the Higher Education in the beginnings. The so-called BME University of Hungary (Founded as: "Institutum Geometrico-Hydrotechnicum" in 1782) is considered the oldest institution of technology in the world, which has university rank and structure. Sometimes, also institutes of technology are engineering and science research intense universities when they meet conditions necessary to be formally considered a university: autonomy to offer master's and doctoral degrees and independence as research institutions.
In several countries, like Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Turkey, institutes of technology and polytechnics are institutions of higher education, and have been accredited to award academic degrees and doctorates. Famous examples are the Istanbul Technical University, ETH Zurich, İYTE, Delft University of Technology and RWTH Aachen, all considered universities.
In countries like Iran, Finland, Malaysia, Portugal, Singapore or the United Kingdom, there is often a significant and confused distinction between polytechnics and universities. In the UK Polytechnics offered university equivalent degrees from bachelor's, master's and PhD that were validated and governed at the national level by the independent UK Council for National Academic Awards. In 1992 UK Polytechnics were designated as universities which meant they could award their own degrees. The CNAA was disbanded. The UK's first polytechnic, the Royal Polytechnic Institution (now the University of Westminster) was founded in 1838 in Regent Street, London. In Ireland the term institute of technology is more favored synonym of a regional technical college though the latter is the legally correct term; however, Dublin Institute of Technology is a university in all but name as it can confer degrees in accordance with law, Cork Institute of Technology and another of other Institutes of Technology have delegated authority from HETAC to make awards to and including Master's degree level—Level 9 of the National Framework for Qualifications (NFQ)—for all areas of study and Doctorate level in a number of others.
In a number of countries, although being today generally considered similar institutions of higher learning across many countries, polytechnics and institutes of technology used to have a quite different statute among each other, its teaching competences and organizational history. In many cases polytechnic were a former designation for a vocational institution, before it has been granted the exclusive right to award academic degrees and can be truly called an institute of technology. A number of polytechnics providing higher education is simply a result of a formal upgrading from their original and historical role as intermediate technical education schools. In some situations, former polytechnics or other non-university institutions have emerged solely through an administrative change of statutes, which often included a name change with the introduction of new designations like institute of technology, polytechnic university, university of applied sciences, or university of technology for marketing purposes. Such emergence of so many upgraded polytechnics, former vocational education and technical schools converted into more university-like institutions has caused concern where the lack of specialized intermediate technical professionals lead to industrial skill shortages in some fields, being also associated to an increase of the graduate unemployment rate. This is mostly the case in those countries, where the education system is not controlled by the state and everybody can grant degrees. Evidence have also shown a decline in the general quality of teaching and graduate's preparation for the workplace, due to the fast-paced conversion of that technical institutions to more advanced higher level institutions. Mentz, Kotze and Van der Merwe (2008) argues that all the tools are in place to promote the debate on the place of technology in higher education in general and in Universities of Technology specifically. The aspects of this debate can follow the following lines: • To what degree is technology defined as a concept? • What is the scope of technology discourse? • What is the place and relation of science with technology? • How useful is the Mitcham framework in thinking about technology in South Africa? • Can a measure of cooperation as opposed to competition be achieved amongst higher education institutions? • Who ultimately is responsible for vocational training and what is the role of technology in this?
In the so-called Latin American docta the main higher institution advocates to the study of technology is the National Technological University which has brand ramifications through all the country geographic space in the way of Regional Faculties. The Buenos Aires Institute of Technology (ITBA) is other important recognized institute of technology with renowned and prestige in the country.
During the 1970s to early 1990s, the term was used to describe state owned and funded technical schools that offered both vocational and higher education. They were part of the College of Advanced Education system. In the 1990s most of these merged with existing universities, or formed new ones of their own. These new universities often took the title University of Technology, for marketing rather than legal purposes. AVCC report The most prominent such university in each state founded the Australian Technology Network a few years later.
Since the mid-1990s, the term has been applied to some technically minded technical and further education (TAFE) institutes, such as the Western Institute of Technology in Melbourne. These primarily offer vocational education, although some are beginning to offer higher education. This usage of the term is most prevalent in NSW and the ACT. The new terminology is apt given that this category of institution are becoming very much like the institutes of the 1970s–1990s period.
In Tasmania in 2009 the old college system and TAFE Tasmania have started a 3 year restructure to become the Tasmanian Polytechnic www.polytechnic.tas.edu.au, Tasmanian Skills Institute www.skillsinstitute.tas.edu.au and Tasmanian Academy www.academy.tas.edu.au
In the higher education sector, there are seven designated Universities of Technology in Australia (though, note, not all use the phrase "university of technology", such as the Universities of Canberra and South Australia, which used to be Colleges of Advanced Education before transitioning into fully-fledged universities with the ability - most important of all - to confer doctorates):
- Curtin University, Western Australia
- Queensland University of Technology, Queensland
- Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Victoria
- Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria
- University of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory
- University of South Australia, South Australia
- University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales
- Graz University of Technology (11.000 students, founded 1811, Hochschule since 1865, doctoral degrees since 1901, University since 1975)
- Vienna University of Technology (15.000 students, founded 1815, Hochschule since 1872, doctoral degrees since 1901, University since 1975)
- University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna focused on agriculture (8600 students, founded as Hochschule in 1872, doctoral degrees since 1906, University since 1975)
- University of Leoben specialized in mining, metallurgy, and materials (2.700 students, founded 1840, Hochschule since 1904, doctoral degrees since 1906, University since 1975)
These institutions focus only on research.
- Austrian Institute of Technology (founded 1956)
- Institute of Science and Technology Austria (founded 2007)
Technical faculties at universities
- Johannes Kepler University of Linz (Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences founded 1965, University since 1975)
- University of Innsbruck (Faculty of civil engineering founded 1969)
- University of Klagenfurt (Faculty of Technical Sciences founded 2007)
Fachhochschule is a German type of tertiary education institution and adopted later in Austria and Switzerland. They do not focus exclusively on technology, but may also offer courses in social science, medicine, business and design. They grant bachelor's degrees and master's degrees, and focus more on teaching than research and more on specific professions than on science.
In 2010, there were 20 Fachhochschulen in Austria
- Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET)
- Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (CUET). Formerly known as Bangladesh Institute of Technology, Chittagong.
- Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET). Formerly known as Bangladesh Institute of Technology, Khulna
- Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology (RUET). Formerly known as Bangladesh Institute of Technology, Rajshahi.
- Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology (DUET). Formerly Known as Bangladesh Institute of Technology, Dhaka
- Brest State Technical University (Brest, Belarus)
- Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Minsk, Belarus)
- Belarusian National Technical University (BNTU) (Minsk, Belarus)
Belgium and the Netherlands
Hogeschool institutions in the Flemish Community of Belgium (such as the Erasmus Hogeschool Brussel) are currently undergoing a process of academization. They form associations with a university and integrate research into the curriculum, which will allow them to deliver academic master's degrees.
In the Netherlands, four former institutes of technology have become universities over the past decades. These are the current three Technical Universities (at Delft, Eindhoven and Enschede), plus the former agricultural institute in Wageningen. A list of all hogescholen in the Netherlands, including some which might be called polytechnics, can be found here.
- Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica Website
- Instituto Militar de Engenharia Website
- Federal Technological University of Paraná Website
- Technical University of Sofia Website
- Technical University of Varna Website
- Technical University of Gabrovo Website
- University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy
In Canada, there are Affiliate Schools, Colleges, Institutes of Technology/Polytechnic Institutes, and Universities that offer instruction in a variety of programs that can lead to: applied degrees, apprenticeship and trade programs, certificates, diplomas, and degrees. Affiliate Schools are polytechnic divisions belonging to a national university and offer select technical and engineering programs. Colleges, Institutes of Technology/Polytechnic Institutes, and Universities tend to be independent institutions.
Credentials are typically conferred at the undergraduate level, however university-affiliated schools like the École de technologie supérieure and the École Polytechnique de Montréal (both of which are located in Quebec), also offer graduate and postgraduate programs, in accordance with provincial higher education guidelines. Canadian higher education institutions, at all levels, undertake directed and applied research with financing allocated through public funding, private equity, or industry sources.
Some of Canada's most esteemed colleges and polytechnic institutions also partake in collaborative institute-industry projects, leading to technology commercialization, made possible through the scope of Polytechnics Canada; a national alliance of ten leading research-intensive colleges and institutes of technology.
- École Polytechnique de Montréal (polytechnic school affiliated with the Université de Montréal in Montreal, Quebec)
- ETS or École de technologie supérieure (technical school part of the Université du Québec system in Montreal, Quebec)
- Algonquin College (college in Ottawa, Ontario)
- Conestoga College (college in Kitchener, Ontario)
- George Brown College (college in Toronto, Ontario)
- Humber College (college in Toronto, Ontario)
- Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology (college in Toronto, Ontario)
- Red River College of Applied Arts, Science and Technology (college in Winnipeg, Canada offering degrees)
Institutes of Technology/Polytechnic Institutes
- BCIT or British Columbia Institute of Technology (polytechnic institute in Burnaby, British Columbia)
- NAIT or Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (polytechnic institute in Edmonton, Alberta)
- SAIT Polytechnic or Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (polytechnic institute in Calgary, Alberta)
- Sheridan Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning (polytechnic institute in Oakville, Ontario)
- SIAST or Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (polytechnic institute in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan)
- Kwantlen Polytechnic University (polytechnic university in Surrey, British Columbia)
- Ryerson University (university in Toronto, Ontario) - While not a polytechnic anymore, Ryerson was one of the originators of applied education in Ontario, and Canada. It dropped the term polytechnic in 1993 when it was able to grant master degrees, using the term University instead, and changed the name of some degree designations to bring it inline with other "traditional" universities.
- UOIT or University of Ontario Institute of Technology (university in Oshawa, Ontario)
In Croatia there are many polytechnic institutes and collages that offer a polytechnic education. The law about polytechnic education in Croatia was passed in 1997.
- Polytechnic of Rijeka (VELERI) - One of the largest polytechnic institutions in Croatia with departments in: Rijeka, Poreč, Pazin, Pula, Otočac, Gospić and Ogulin.
- Polytechnic of Zagreb
- University of Applied Health Studies
- Social polytechnic of Zagreb
- Polytechnic of Varaždin
- Polytechnic of Karlovac
- Polytechnic of Šibenik
- Polytechnic of Požega
- Polytechnic of Čakovec
- Polytechnic of Slavonski Brod
- Polytechnic of Velika Gorica
- Polytechnic „Nikola Tesla“ in Gospić
- Polytechnic „Marko Marulić“ in Knin
- Polytechnic „Lavoslav Ružička“ in Vukovar
- Polytechnic Vern
- Czech Technical University in Prague (ČVUT), College founded in 1707, University since 1806, 23.000 students, it belongs to the oldest technical universities in the world. www.cvut.cz/en
- Collegium Nobilium in Olomouc, 1725 - 1847
- Technical University of Ostrava (VŠB TUO), founded in 1849, 22.000 students. en.vsb.cz
- Brno University of Technology (VUT), founded in 1899, 24.000 students. www.vutbr.cz
- Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (ČZU), founded in 1904, focused on agriculture, 18.000 students. www.czu.cz
- Mendel University Brno (MENDELU), founded in 1919, focused on agriculture, 9.000 students. www.mendelu.cz
- Technical University of Liberec (TUL), founded in 1953, 8.000 students. www.tul.cz
- Tomáš Baťa University in Zlín (UTB), founded in 2000, 10,000 students. www.utb.cz
- Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague (VŠCHT), founded in 1952, 3,000 students. www.vscht.cz
- Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (AV ČR), dates back to 1784, 14,000 research staff altogether. www.avcr.cz
Technical faculties at Universities
- University of West Bohemia (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering; University founded in 1991)
- University of Pardubice (Faculty of Chemical Technology since 1950, Jan Perner Faculty of Transportation since 1991, Institute of Electrical Engineering and Informatics since 2002)
- Jan Evangelista Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem (Faculty of Production Technology and Management, University founded in 1991)
Mekelle Institute of Technology (MIT) is located at Ainalem, 5 kilometers outside of Mek'ele, the capital of the Tigray Region of Ethiopia.
Its mission is to provide high quality education, training and research in the areas of science and technology to produce qualified professionals that can apply their knowledge and skills in the country's development.
MIT raises funds from non-governmental organizations and individuals who support the mission and objectives of the Institute. Tigray Development Association, its supporters, and REST have provided the initial funds for the launching of the Institute. As a result of the unstinting efforts made by the Provisional Governing Board to obtain technical and financial assistance, the Institute has so far secured financial and material support as well as pledges of sponsorship for 50 students, covering their tuition fees, room and board up to graduation. The MIT has also been able to create linkages with some universities and colleges in the United States of America, which have provided manpower and material support to MIT. The institute is governed by a provisional governing board.
MIT graduated its first batch of 142 students on 7 July 2007. Currently the campus is teaching around 300 students attending in Engineering faculty.
Universities of Technology
Universities of Technology are categorised as universities, are allowed to grant B.Sc. (Tech.), M.Sc. (Tech.), Lic.Sc. (Tech.), Ph.D. and D.Sc.(Tech.) degrees and roughly correspond to Instituts de technologie of French-speaking areas and Technische Universität of Germany in prestige. In addition to universities of technology, some universities, e.g. University of Oulu and Åbo Akademi University, are allowed to grant the B.Sc. (tech.), M.Sc. (tech.) and D.Sc. (Tech.) degrees.
Universities of Technology are academically similar to other (non-polytechnic) universities. Prior to Bologna process, M.Sc. (Tech.) required 180 credits, whereas M.Sc. from a normal university required 160 credits. The credits between Universities of Technology and normal universities are comparable.
Some Finnish Universities of Technology are:
- Aalto University, formed from Helsinki University of Technology and other universities
- Tampere University of Technology
- Lappeenranta University of Technology
Polytechnic schools are distinct from academic universities in Finland. Ammattikorkeakoulu is the common term in Finland, as is the Swedish alternative "yrkeshögskola" – their focus is on studies leading to a degree (for instance insinööri, engineer; in international use, Bachelor of Engineering) in kind different from but in level comparable to an academic Bachelor's degree awarded by a university. After January 1, 2006, some Finnish ammattikorkeakoulus switched the English term "polytechnic" to the term "university of applied sciences" in the English translations of their legal names. The ammattikorkeakoulu has many similarities to the hogeschool in Belgium and in the Netherlands and to the Fachhochschule in the German language areas.
Some recognized Finnish polytechnics are:
- Tampere University of Applied Sciences
- Turku University of Applied Sciences
- Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences
a complete list may be found in List of polytechnics in Finland
French language areas
Instituts de technologie (grandes écoles)
Collegiate universities grouping several engineering schools or multi-site clusters of French grandes écoles provide sciences and technology curricula as autonomous higher education engineering institutes. They include :
- Centrale Graduate School
- Grenoble Institute of Technology
- Institut national des sciences appliquées.
- Paris Institute of Technology
They provide science and technology master degrees and doctoral degrees.
Universités technologiques / instituts universitaires de technologie / polytechs
France education system also includes three universities of technology:
- Université de technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard
- University of Technology of Compiègne
- University of Technology of Troyes
In addition, France's education system includes many institutes of technology, embedded within most French universities. They are referred-to as institut universitaire de technologie (IUT). Instituts universitaires de technologie provide undergraduate technology curricula. 'Polytech institutes', embedded as a part of eleven French universities provide both undergraduate and graduate engineering curricula.
In the French speaking part of Switzerland exists also the term haute école specialisée for a type of institution called Fachhochschule in the German speaking part of the country. (see below).
Higher education systems, that are influenced by the French education system set at the end of the 18th century, use a terminology derived by reference to the French École polytechnique. Such terms include Écoles Polytechniques (Algeria, Belgium, Canada, France, Switzerland, Tunisia), Escola Politécnica (Brasil, Spain), Polytechnicum (Eastern Europe).
In French language, higher education refers to écoles polytechniques, providing science and engineering curricula:
- École polytechnique or X (near Paris)
- École polytechnique de Bruxelles
- École polytechnique de Montréal
- École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne
- National Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine
- National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse
Fachhochschule / Hochschule
Fachhochschulen and Hochschulen were first founded in the early 1970s. They do not focus exclusively on technology, but may also offer courses in social science, medicine, business and design. They grant bachelor's degrees and master's degrees, and focus more on teaching than research and more on specific professions than on science.
Technische Universität (abbreviation: TU) are the common terms for universities of technology or technical university. These institutions can grant habilitation and doctoral degrees and focus on research.
The nine largest and most renowned Technische Universitäten in Germany have formed TU9 German Institutes of Technology as community of interests. Technische Universitäten normally have faculties or departements of natural sciences and often of economics but can also have units of cultural and social sciences and arts. RWTH Aachen, TU Dresden and TU München also have a faculty of medicine associated with university hospitals (Klinikum Aachen, University Hospital Dresden, Rechts der Isar Hospital).
There are 17 universities of technology in Germany with about 290,000 students enrolled. The four states of Bremen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt and Schleswig-Holstein are not operating a Technische Universität. Saxony and Lower Saxony have the highest counts of TUs, while in Saxony three out of four universities are universities of technology.
Niedersächsische Technische Hochschule is a joint-venture of TU Clausthal, TU Braunschweig and University of Hanover. Some universities in Germany can also be seen as institutes of technology due to comprising a wide spread of technical sciences and having a history as a technical university. Examples are
- University of Duisburg-Essen
- Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg
- University of Rostock with a tradition in ship building and engineering
In Greece, there are 2 "Polytechnics" part of the public higher education in Greece and they confer a 5-year Diplom Uni (300E.C.T.S – I.S.C.E.D. 5A), the National Technical University of Athens and the Technical University of Crete. Also, there are Greek Higher Technological Educational Institutes (Ανώτατα Τεχνολογικά Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα – Α.T.E.I). After the N.1404/1983 Higher Education Reform Act (Ν.1404/1983 - 2916/2001 - Ν. 3549/2007 - N. 3685/2008 - N. 4009/2011) the Technological Educational Institute constitute, a parallel and equivalent with universities part of the public higher education in Greece. They confer 4-year bachelor's degree (Diplom FH) (240E.C.T.S – I.S.C.E.D. 5A).
The first polytechnic in Hong Kong is The Hong Kong Polytechnic, established in 1972 through upgrading the Hong Kong Technical College (Government Trade School before 1947). The second polytechnic, the City Polytechnic of Hong Kong, was founded in 1984. These polytechnics awards diplomas, higher diplomas, as well as academic degrees. Like the United Kingdom, the two polytechnics were granted university status in 1994, and renamed The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the City University of Hong Kong respectively. The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, a university with a focus in applied science, engineering and business, was founded in 1991.
- Today University of Miskolc, established in 1949 as Technical University of Heavy Industry in Miskolc).
- Budapest University of Technology and Economics, one of the oldest universities of technology of the world is located in Budapest (est. 1782).
- University of Óbuda
There are 16 autonomous Indian Institutes of Technology in addition to 30 National Institutes of Technology which are Government Institutions. In addition to these there are many other Universities which offer higher technical courses. The Authority over technical education in India is the AICTE.
The Indian Institutes of Technology
- Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
- Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi
- Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
- Indian Institute of Technology Madras
- Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
- Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
- Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
- Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
- Indian Institute of Technology Ropar
- Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneshwar
- Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad
- Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
- Indian Institute of Technology Patna
- Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur
- Indian Institute of Technology Mandi
- Indian Institute of Technology Indore
The National Institutes of Technology
- National Institute of Technology, Agartala
- Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad
- Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal
- National Institute of Technology, Calicut
- National Institute of Technology, Durgapur
- National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur
- Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur
- Dr. B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology
- National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur
- National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra
- Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur
- National Institute of Technology, Patna
- National Institute of Technology, Raipur
- National Institute of Technology, Rourkela
- National Institute of Technology, Silchar
- National Institute of Technology, Srinagar
- National Institute of Technology, Surat
- S V National Institute of Technology, Surat
- National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli
- National Institute of Technology, Warangal
- National Institute of Technology, Goa
- National Institute of Technology, Puducherry
- National Institute of Technology Delhi
- National Institute of Technology Uttarakhand
- National Institute of Technology Mizoram
- National Institute of Technology Meghalaya
- National Institute of Technology Manipur
- National Institute of Technology Nagaland
- National Institute of Technology Arunachal Pradesh
- National Institute of Technology Sikkim
- Tehran Polytechnic or Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran.
- Sharif University of Technology, Tehran.
- Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan.
- Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran.
- K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran.
- Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz.
- Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan.
- Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood.
- Faculty of Engineering (دانشکده فنی) of Tehran University, Tehran.
- Faculty of Technology and Engineering of Shiraz University, Shiraz.
- Faculty of Technology and Engineering of Mashhad University, Mashhad.
- Faculty of Technology and Engineering of Tabriz University, Tabriz.
- Faculty of Technology and Engineering of Arak University, Arak.
Ireland has an "Institute of Technology" system, formerly referred to as Regional Technical College (RTCs) system. The terms "IT" and "IT's" are now widely used to describe an Institute(s) of Technology. These institutions offer sub-degree, degree and post-graduate level studies. Unlike the Irish university system an Institute of Technology also offers sub-degree programmes such as 2 year Higher Certificate programme in various academic fields of study. Some institutions have "delegated authority" that allows them to make awards in their own name, after authorisation by the Higher Education & Training Awards Council.
Dublin Institute of Technology developed separately from the Regional Technical College system, and after several decades of association with the University of Dublin, Trinity College it acquired the authority to confer its own degrees.
The IOTI, is the representative body for the various Institutes of Technology in Ireland.
- Technion – Israel Institute of Technology in 2010 ranked 38 in the world.
In Italy the term Politecnico refers to a technical university awarding degrees in engineering. Historically there are were only two Politecnici, one in each of the two largest industrial cities of the north:
More recently, a third Politecnico was added in the south:
- Politecnico di Bari, established 1990.
However, many other universities have a faculty of engineering.
In 2003, the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research and the Ministry of Economy and Finance jointly established the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italian Institute of Technology), headquartered in Genoa with 10 laboratories around Italy, which however focuses on research and does not offer undergraduate degrees.
- University of Technology, Jamaica, in Kingston, Jamaica.
In Japan, an institute of technology (工業大学 kōgyō daigaku ) is a type of university that specializes in the sciences. Examples include the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Osaka Institute of Technology, Nagoya Institute of Technology and Shibaura Institute of Technology. See also the Imperial College of Engineering, which was the forerunner of the University of Tokyo's engineering faculty.
- Princess Sumaya University for Technology in Amman.
- Jordan University of Science and Technology in Irbid.
- New York Institute of Technology, Jordan campus.
- Balqa Applied University in Salt.
Polytechnics in Malaysia has been operated for almost 44 years. The institutions provide courses for Bachelor Degree & Bachelor of Science (BSc) (offer at Premier Polytechnics for September 2013 intake & 2014 intake), Advanced Diploma, Diploma and Special Skills Certificate. It was established by the Ministry of Education with the help of UNESCO in 1969. The amount of RM24.5 million is used to fund the pioneer of Politeknik Ungku Omar located in Ipoh, Perak from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). At present, Malaysia have developed 32 polytechnic at all over states in engineering, agriculture, commerce, hospitality and design courses with 60,840 students in 2009 to 87,440 students in 2012.
The following is a list of the polytechnics in Malaysia in order of establishment:-
|Official Name in Malay||Acronym||Foundation||Type||Location||Link|
|Politeknik Ungku Omar||PUO||1969||Premier Polytechnic (University Status)||Ipoh, Perak|||
|Politeknik Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah||POLISAS||1976||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuantan, Pahang|||
|Politeknik Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah||POLIMAS||1984||Conventional Polytechnic||Jitra, Kedah|||
|Politeknik Kota Bharu||PKB||1985||Conventional Polytechnic||Ketereh, Kelantan|||
|Politeknik Kuching Sarawak||PKS||1987||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuching, Sarawak|||
|Politeknik Port Dickson||PPD||1990||Conventional Polytechnic||Si Rusa, Negeri Sembilan|||
|Politeknik Kota Kinabalu||PKK||1996||Conventional Polytechnic||Kota Kinabalu, Sabah|||
|Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah||PSA||1997||Premier Polytechnic (University Status)||Shah Alam, Selangor|||
|Politeknik Ibrahim Sultan||PIS||1998||Premier Polytechnic (University Status)||Pasir Gudang, Johor|||
|Politeknik Seberang Perai||PSP||1998||Conventional Polytechnic||Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang|||
|Politeknik Melaka||PMK||1999||Conventional Polytechnic||Melaka|||
|Politeknik Kuala Terengganu||PKKT||1999||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu|||
|Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin||PSMZA||2001||Conventional Polytechnic||Dungun, Terengganu|||
|Politeknik Merlimau||PMM||2002||Conventional Polytechnic||Merlimau, Melaka|||
|Politeknik Sultan Azlan Shah||PSAS||2002||Conventional Polytechnic||Behrang, Perak|||
|Politeknik Tuanku Sultanah Bahiyah||PTSB||2002||Conventional Polytechnic||Kulim, Kedah|||
|Politeknik Sultan Idris Shah||PSIS||2003||Conventional Polytechnic||Sungai Air Tawar, Selangor|||
|Politeknik Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin||PTSS||2003||Conventional Polytechnic||Arau, Perlis|||
|Politeknik Muadzam Shah||PMS||2003||Conventional Polytechnic||Muadzam Shah, Pahang|||
|Politeknik Mukah Sarawak||PMU||2004||Conventional Polytechnic||Mukah, Sarawak|||
|Politeknik Balik Pulau||PBU||2007||Conventional Polytechnic||Balik Pulau, Pulau Pinang|||
|Politeknik Jeli||PJK||2007||Conventional Polytechnic||Jeli, Kelantan|||
|Politeknik Nilai||PNS||2007||Conventional Polytechnic||Negeri Sembilan|||
|Politeknik Banting||PBS||2007||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuala Langat, Selangor|||
|Politeknik Mersing||PMJ||2008||Conventional Polytechnic||Mersing, Johor|||
|Politeknik Hulu Terengganu||PHT||2008||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuala Berang, Terengganu|||
|Politeknik Sandakan||PSS||2009||Conventional Polytechnic||Sandakan, Sabah|||
|Politeknik METrO Kuala Lumpur||PMKL||2011||METrO Polytechnic||Kuala Lumpur|||
|Politeknik METrO Kuantan||PMKU||2011||METrO Polytechnic||Kuantan, Pahang|||
|Politeknik METrO Johor Bahru||PMJB||2011||METrO Polytechnic||Johor Bahru, Johor|||
|Politeknik METrO Betong||PMBS||2012||METrO Polytechnic||Kuching, Sarawak||TBD|
|Politeknik METrO Tasek Gelugor||PMTG||2012||METrO Polytechnic||George Town, Pulau Pinang||TBD|
|Politeknik Pagoh||TBD||2013||Conventional Polytechnic||Muar, Johor||TBD|
The only technical university in Mauritius is the University of Technology, Mauritius with its main campus situated in La Tour Koenig, Pointe aux Sables. It has a specialized mission with a technology focus. It applies traditional and beyond traditional approaches to teaching, training, research and consultancy. The university has been founded with the aim to play a key role in the economic and social development of Mauritius through the development of programmes of direct relevance to the country’s needs, for example in areas like technology, sustainable development science, and public sector policy and management.
New Zealand polytechnics are established under the Education Act 1989 as amended, and are considered state-owned tertiary institutions along with universities, colleges of education, and wānanga; there is today often much crossover in courses and qualifications offered between all these types of Tertiary Education Institutions. Some have officially taken the title 'institute of technology' which is a term recognized in government strategies equal to that of the term 'polytechnic'. One has opted for the name 'Universal College of Learning' (UCOL), and another 'Unitec New Zealand'. These are legal names but not recognized terms like 'polytechnic' or 'institute of technology'. Many if not all now grant at least bachelor-level degrees.
Since the 1990s, there has been consolidation in New Zealand's state-owned tertiary education system. In the polytechnic sector: Wellington Polytechnic amalgamated with Massey University. The Central Institute of Technology explored a merger with the Waikato Institute of Technology, which was abandoned, but later, after financial concerns, controversially amalgamated with Hutt Valley Polytechnic, which in turn became Wellington Institute of Technology. Some smaller polytechnics in the North Island, such as Waiarapa Polytechnic, amalgamated with UCOL. (The only other amalgamations have been in the colleges of education.)
The Auckland University of Technology is the only polytechnic to have been elevated to university status; while Unitec has had repeated attempts blocked by government policy and consequent decisions; Unitec has not been able to convince the courts to overturn these decisions.
The Polytechnic institutes in Pakistan, offer a diploma spanning three years in different branches. Students are admitted to the diploma program based on their results in the 10th grade standardized exams. The main purpose of Polytechnic Institutes is to train people in various trades.
These institutes are located throughout Pakistan and have been in service since early 1950s.
After successfully completing a diploma at a polytechnic, students can gain lateral entry to engineering degree (under graduate) courses called BE, which are conducted by engineering colleges affiliated to universities.
- Cebu Institute of Technology – University, a premier engineering school located in Cebu City, Philippines in the Visayas region. The University is known to have high selectivity in admissions as well as excellence in engineering research and education.
- Cebu Technological University
- Far Eastern University - East Asia College, an engineering school operating under the Far Eastern University system.
- Mapúa Institute of Technology, an engineering school in the Philippines. Being an internationally accredited engineering school, The institute consistently tops various board exams for engineering students in the Philippines.
- Polytechnic University of the Philippines, a state university in the Philippines that is also referred to as the National Comprehensive University of the Philippines.
- Rizal Technological University, the only university that offers degree courses in astronomy.
- Technological University of the Philippines
- Technological Institute of the Philippines
- Mindanao State University - Iligan Institute of Technology, the premier state university in the southern Philippines, and the science and technology flagship campus of the Mindanao State University System (the second biggest university system in the Philippines next to the University of the Philippines).
- Bicol University-center in teaching excellence,offers IT Courses and a well known university.
Politechnika (translated as a "technical university" or "university of technology") is a main kind of technical university name in Poland. There are some biggest Polytechnic in Poland:
- Politechnika Śląska
- Politechnika Wrocławska
- Politechnika Warszawska
- Politechnika Poznańska
- Politechnika Krakowska
- Politechnika Gdańska
- Politechnika Łódzka
Other polytechnical universities:
- Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza
- Uniwersytet Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy w Bydgoszczy
- Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny
The designation "Institute of Technology" is not applied at all, being meaningless in Portugal. However, there are higher education educational institutions in Portugal since the 1980s, which are called polytechnics. After 1998 they were upgraded to institutions which are allowed to confer bachelor's degrees (the Portuguese licenciatura). Before then, they only awarded short-cycle degrees which were known as bacharelatos and did not provide further education. After the Bologna Process in 2007, they have been allowed to offer 2nd cycle (master's) degrees to its students. The polytechnical higher education system provides a more practical training and is profession-oriented, while the university higher education system has a strong theoretical basis and is highly research-oriented.
- Bauman Moscow State Technical University
- Saint Petersburg Polytechnical University
- Novosibirsk State Technical University
- Tomsk Polytechnic University
Singapore retains a system similar but not the same as in the United Kingdom from 1970–1992, distinguishing between polytechnics and universities, but also including a third component, the Institute of Technical Education (ITE). Unlike the British Polytechnic (United Kingdom) system Singapore Polytechnics do not offer bachelors, masters or PhD degrees. Under this system, most Singaporean students sit for their O-Level examinations after a four or five years of education in secondary school, and apply for a place at either ITE, a polytechnic or a pre-university centre (a junior college or the Millennia Institute, a centralized institute). Polytechnic graduates may be granted transfer credits when they apply to local and overseas universities, depending on the overall performance in their grades, as well as the university's policies on transfer credits. A few secondary schools are now offering six-year program which leads directly to university entrance.
Polytechnics offer three-year diploma courses in fields such as information technology, engineering subjects and other vocational fields, like psychology and nursing. There are 5 polytechnics in Singapore. They are namely:
- Singapore Polytechnic
- Ngee Ann Polytechnic
- Temasek Polytechnic
- Nanyang Polytechnic
- Republic Polytechnic
ITE offers shorter programmes up to 2 year certificates in a wide variety of fields, ranging from beauty therapy to nursing, electronics, business and information technology. There are currently three colleges within ITE. One of them is a recently opened large campus while the other two are each composed of five smaller campuses which will be replaced in the coming years by a large campus for each college. The three colleges are:
Nanyang Technological University (public research university) offers up PhD degree level engineering education. Another comprehensive university known as National University of Singapore (public research university) also provides up to PhD level engineering education.
Another new public university known as Singapore University of Technology and Design would be opened in 2011.
- Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava
The world's first institution of technology or technical university with tertiary technical education is the Banská Akadémia in Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia, founded in 1735, Academy since December 13, 1762 established by queen Maria Theresa in order to train specialists of silver and gold mining and metallurgy in neighbourhood. Teaching started in 1764. Later the departement of Mathematics, Mechanics and Hydraulics and departement of Forestry were settled. University buildings are still at their place today and are used for teaching. University has launched the first book of electrotechnics in the world.
- Technical University of Košice
- University of Žilina
- Technical University in Zvolen
- Trenčín University in Trenčín
- Dubnica Technology Institute
South Africa has completed a process of transforming its "higher education landscape". Historically a division in South Africa between Universities and Technikons (polytechnics) as well between institutions servicing particular racial and language groupings. In 1993 Technikons were afforded the power to award certain technology degrees.
Beginning in 2004 former Technikons have either been merged with traditional Universities to form Comprehensive Universities or have become Universities of Technology, however the Universities of Technology have not to date acquired all of the traditional rights and privileges of a University (such as the ability to confer a wide range of degrees).
- Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH Zurich)
- École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)
Most of Thailand's institutes of technology were developed from technical colleges, in the past could not grant bachelor's degrees; today, however, they are university level institutions, some of which can grant degrees to the doctoral level. Examples are Pathumwan Institute of Technology (developed from Pathumwan Technical School), King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (Nondhaburi Telecommunications Training Centre), and King Mongkut's Institute of Technology North Bangkok (Thai-German Technical School).
There are two former institutes of technology, which already changed their name to "University of Technology": Rajamangala University of Technology (formerly Institute of Technology and Vocational Education) and King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (Thonburi Technology Institute).
Institutes of technology with different origins are Asian Institute of Technology, which developed from SEATO Graduate School of Engineering, and Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, an engineering school of Thammasat University. Suranaree University of Technology is the only government-owned technological university in Thailand that was established (1989) as such; while Mahanakorn University of Technology is the most well known private technological institute.
In Turkey and the Ottoman Empire, the oldest technical university is Istanbul Technical University. Its graduates contributed to a wide variety of activities in scientific research and development. In 1950s, 2 technical universities were opened in Ankara and Trabzon. In recent years, Yildiz University is reorganized as Yildiz Technical University and 2 institutes of technology were founded in Kocaeli and Izmir. In 2010, another technical university named Bursa Technical University was founded in Bursa. Moreover, a sixth technical university is about to be opened in Konya named Konya Technical University.
|Istanbul Technical University (ITU)||Istanbul||1773||21000||Ranked 108th in THES QS University ranking in the field of technology|
|Yıldız Technical University (YTU)||Istanbul||1911||21000|
|Karadeniz Technical University (KTU)||Trabzon||1955||First technical university in Turkey outside Istanbul|
|Middle East Technical University (ODTU)||Ankara||1956||23000|
|Gebze Institute of Technology (GYTE)||Kocaeli||1992|
|İzmir Institute of Technology (IYTE)||Izmir||1992|
|Bursa Technical University (BTU)||Bursa||2010|
Entrance of mechanical engineering department, Karadeniz Technical University, located in Trabzon
Polytechnics were tertiary education teaching institutions in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Polytechnics offered university equivalent degrees (bachelor's, master's, PhD) validated at the national level by the UK Council for National Academic Awards CNAA. They particularly excelled in engineering and applied science degree courses similar to technological universities in the USA and continental Europe. The comparable institutions in Scotland were collectively referred to as Central Institutions. Britain's first Polytechnic, the Royal Polytechnic Institution later known as the Polytechnic of Central London (now the University of Westminster) was established in 1838 at Regent Street in London and its goal was to educate and popularize engineering and scientific knowledge and inventions in Victorian Britain "at little expense."
In 1956, some colleges of technology received the designation College of Advanced Technology. They became universities in the 1960s. The designation "Institute of Technology" was occasionally used by polytechnics (Bolton), Central Institutions (Dundee, Robert Gordon's), and postgraduate universities, (Cranfield and Wessex), most of which later adopted the designation University, and there were two "Institutes of Science and Technology": UMIST and UWIST, part of the University of Wales. Loughborough University was called Loughborough University of Technology from 1966 to 1996, the only institution in the UK to have had such a designation.
Polytechnic Institutes are technological universities, many dating back to the mid-19th century. A handful of American universities include the phrases "Institute of Technology", "Polytechnic Institute", "Polytechnic University", or similar phrasing in their names; these are generally research-intensive universities with a focus on engineering, science and technology. Conversely, schools dubbed "technical colleges" or "technical institutes" generally provide post-secondary training in technical and mechanical fields, focusing on training vocational skills primarily at a community college level—parallel and sometimes equivalent to the first two years at a bachelor's degree-granting institution.
Institutes of technology in Venezuela were developed in the 1950s as an option for post-secondary education in technical and scientific courses, after the polytechnic French concepts. At that time, technical education was considered essential for the development of a sound middle class economy.
Nowadays, most of the Institutos de Tecnología are privately run businesses, with varying degrees of quality.
Most of these institutes award diplomas after three or three and a half years of education. The Institute of technology implementation(IUT from Instituto universitario de tecnologia on Spanish) began with the creation of the first IUT at Caracas, capital city of Venezuela, called IUT. Dr. Federico Rivero Palacio adopted the French "Institut Universitaire de Technologie"s system, using French personnel and study system based on three-year periods, with research and engineering facilities at the same level as the main national universities to obtain French equivalent degrees. This IUT is the first and only one in Venezuela having French equivalent degrees accepted, implementing this system and observing the high-level degrees some other IUT's were created in Venezuela, regardless of this the term IUT was not used appropriately resulting in some institutions with mediocre quality and no equivalent degree in France. Later, some private institutions sprang up using IUT in their names, but they are not regulated by the original French system and award lower quality degrees.
After the communists took control of Hanoi in 1954, with support from Soviet Union, many new universities were built:
- Hanoi University of Technology the first technical university in Vietnam (founded in 1956)
- Le Quy Don Technical University,
- Water Resources University (Vietnam)
- Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology
- Da Nang University of Technology
- Vietnam Maritime University
- List of institutions using the term "institute of technology" or "polytechnic"
- University of Science and Technology
- Etymology of polytechnic, on the Online Etymology Dictionary
- Berg-Schola, a School of Mining and Metallurgy
- Report of the Delegated Authority Evaluation Group on the Cork Institute of Technology
- Heita, Desie (14 January 2005). "Status of Polytechnic still pending". Namibia Economist.
- Name change on the cards for APU, 2006 Anglia Ruskin University, United Kingdom. Retrieved June 2006.
- "Producing New Workers: quality, equality and employability in higher education – Quality in Higher Education, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2001", Louise Morley, University of London Institute of Education. Retrieved June 2006.
- First destination graduate employment as key performance indicator: outcomes assessment perspectives, Prof. Johan Bruwer, unit for institutional planning and research, Cape Technikon, South Africa, November 1998. Retrieved June 2006.
- Mentz, J., Kotzé, P., Van der Merwe, A. (2008). Searching for the Technology in University of Technology. South African Computer Journal, Vol 42, December 2008, pp. 29–37.
- http://www.ioti.ie/ Institutes of Technology Ireland
- http://www.straitstimes.com/BreakingNews/Singapore/Story/STIStory_500237.html 'The Straits Times : Degrees for poly grads '
- Mentz, J., Kotzé, P., Van der Merwe, A. (2008). Searching for the Technology in University of Technology. South African Computer Journal, Vol 42, December 2008, pp. 29–37, looks at the role of Universities of Technologies after these mergers.