Instructions per second

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Instructions per second (IPS) is a measure of a computer's processor speed. Many reported IPS values have represented "peak" execution rates on artificial instruction sequences with few branches, whereas realistic workloads typically lead to significantly lower IPS values. The performance of the memory hierarchy also greatly affects processor performance, an issue barely considered in MIPS calculations. Because of these problems, synthetic benchmarks such as SPECint are now generally used to estimate computer performance in commonly used applications, and raw IPS has fallen into disuse.

The term is commonly used in association with a numeric value such as thousand instructions per second (kIPS), million instructions per second (MIPS), Giga instructions per second (GIPS), or million operations per second (MOPS).

Thousand instructions per second[edit]

Before standard benchmarks were available, average speed rating of computers was based on calculations for a mix of instructions with the results given in kilo Instructions Per Second (kIPS). The most famous was the Gibson Mix, produced by Jack Clark Gibson of IBM for scientific applications. Other ratings were also produced for commercial applications. Computer Speeds From Instruction Mixes pre-1960 to 1971 has results for around 175 computers, providing scientific and commercial ratings. For IBM, the earliest Gibson Mix calculations shown are the 1954 IBM 650 at 0.06 kIPS and 1956 IBM 705 at 0.5 kIPS. The results are mainly for IBM and others known as the BUNCH — Burroughs, UNIVAC, NCR, CDC, and Honeywell.

A thousand instructions per second (kIPS) is rarely used, as most current microprocessors can execute at least a billion instructions per second. The thousand means 1024, not 1000.[dubious ]

kIPS is also a common joke name for 16 bit microprocessor designs developed in undergraduate computer engineering courses that use the text Computer Organization and Design by Patterson and Hennessy (ISBN 1-55860-428-6), which explains computer architecture concepts in terms of the MIPS architecture. Such architectures tend to be scaled down versions of the MIPS R2000 architecture.

Millions of instructions per second[edit]

The speed of a given CPU depends on many factors, such as the type of instructions being executed, the execution order and the presence of branch instructions (problematic in CPU pipelines). CPU instruction rates are different from clock frequencies, usually reported in Hz, as each instruction may require several clock cycles to complete or the processor may be capable of executing multiple independent instructions at once. Additionally, the number of cycles required for instructions to complete is dependent upon the instruction being executed. MIPS can be useful when comparing performance between processors made from a similar architecture (e.g. Microchip branded microcontrollers). However, MIPS are difficult to compare between CPU architectures.[1]

For this reason, MIPS has become not a measure of instruction execution speed, but task performance speed compared to a reference. In the late 1970s, minicomputer performance was compared using VAX MIPS, where computers were measured on a task and their performance rated against the VAX 11/780 that was marketed as a 1 MIPS machine. (The measure was also known as the VAX Unit of Performance or VUP. Though orthographically incorrect, the s in VUPs is sometimes written in upper case.) This was chosen because the 11/780 was roughly equivalent in performance to an IBM System/370 model 158-3, which was commonly accepted in the computing industry as running at 1 MIPS.

Many minicomputer performance claims were based on the Fortran version of the Whetstone benchmark, giving Millions of Whetstone Instructions Per Second (MWIPS). The VAX 11/780 with FPA (1977) runs at 1.02 MWIPS.

Effective MIPS speeds are highly dependent on the programming language used. The Whetstone Report has a table showing MWIPS speeds of PCs via early interpreters and compilers up to modern languages. The first PC compiler was for BASIC (1982) when a 4.8 MHz 8088/87 CPU obtained 0.01 MWIPS. Results on a 2.4 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo (1 CPU 2007) vary from 9.7 MWIPS using BASIC Interpreter, 59 MWIPS via BASIC Compiler, 347 MWIPS using 1987 Fortran, 1,534 MWIPS through HTML/Java to 2,403 MWIPS using a modern C/C++ compiler.

For the most early 8-bit and 16-bit microprocessors, performance was measured in thousand instructions per second (1 kIPS = 0.001 MIPS). The first general purpose microprocessor, the Intel i8080, ran at 0.64 MIPS. The Intel i8086 microprocessor, the first 16-bit microprocessor in the line of processors made by Intel a variant of which was used in IBM PCs, ran at 0.8 MIPS.[citation needed] Early 32-bit PCs (386) ran at about 3 MIPS.

zMIPS refers to the MIPS measure used internally by IBM to rate its mainframe servers (zSeries, IBM System z9, and IBM System z10).

Weighted million operations per second (WMOPS) is a similar measurement, used for audio codecs.

Timeline of instructions per second[edit]

Processor Dhrystone MIPS / MIPS D IPS / clock cycles per second D IPS / clock cycles per second / Cores per die Year Source
UNIVAC I 0.002 MIPS at 2.25 MHz 0.0008 0.0008 1951

[2]

Intel 4004 0.092 MIPS at 740 kHz
(Not Dhrystone)
0.1 0.1 1971 [3]
IBM System/370 model 158-3 1 MIPS at 8.69 MHz 0.1 0.1 1972
Intel 8080 0.330 MIPS at 2 MHz
(Not Dhrystone)
0.165 0.165 1974
MOS Technology 6502 0.500 MIPS at 1 MHz
(Not Dhrystone)
0.5 0.5 1975
VAX-11/780 0.500 MIPS at 5 MHz
1 Dhrystone MIPS
0.2 0.2 1977
Motorola 68000 0.700 MIPS at 8 MHz
(Not Dhrystone)
0.1 0.1 1979 [4]
Intel 286 2.66 MIPS at 12.5 MHz 0.2 0.2 1982 [5]
Motorola 68020 10 MIPS at 33 MHz 0.303 0.303 1984 [6]
Intel 386DX 9.9 MIPS at 33 MHz 0.3 0.3 1985
ARM2 4 MIPS at 8 MHz 0.5 0.5 1986
Motorola 68030 18 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.36 0.36 1987 [7]
Motorola 68040 44 MIPS at 40 MHz 1.1 1.1 1990 [8]
DEC Alpha 21064 EV4 300 MIPS at 150 MHz 2.7 2.7 1992 [9]
Intel 486DX2 54 MIPS at 66 MHz 0.8 0.8 1992
Motorola 68060 110 MIPS at 75 MHz 1.33 1.33 1994
Intel Pentium 188 MIPS at 100 MHz 1.88 1.88 1994 [10]
Microchip PIC16F 5 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.25 0.25 1995 [11]
Atmel megaAVR 16 MIPS at 16 MHz 1 1 1996 [12]
ARM 7500FE 35.9 MIPS at 40 MHz 0.9 0.9 1996
Intel Pentium Pro 541 MIPS at 200 MHz 2.7 2.7 1996 [13]
PowerPC 750 525 MIPS at 233 MHz 2.3 2.3 1997
Zilog eZ80 80 MIPS at 50 MHz 1.6 1.6 1999 [14]
Intel Pentium III 2,054 MIPS at 600 MHz 3.4 3.4 1999 [10]
Freescale MPC8272 760 MIPS at 400 MHz 1.9 1.9 2000 [15] Integrated Communications Processors
AMD Athlon 3,561 MIPS at 1.2 GHz 3.0 3.0 2000
ARM11 515 MIPS at 412 MHz 1.25 1.25 2002 [16]
Silicon Recognition ZISC 78 8,600 MIPS at 33 MHz 260.60 260.60 2000 [17]
AMD Athlon XP 2500+ 7,527 MIPS at 1.83 GHz 4.1 4.1 2003 [10]
Pentium 4 Extreme Edition 9,726 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 3.0 3.0 2003
MIPS32 4KEc 356 MIPS at 233 MHz 1.5 1.5 2004 [18]
Microchip PIC10F 1 MIPS at 4 MHz 0.25 0.25 2004 [19][20]
ARM Cortex-M3 125 MIPS at 100 MHz 1.25 1.25 2004 [21]
Nios II 190 MIPS at 165 MHz 1.13 1.13 2004 [22]
ARM Cortex-A8 2,000 MIPS at 1.0 GHz 2.0 2.0 2005 [23]
VIA C7 1,799 MIPS at 1.3 GHz 1.4 1.4 2005 [24]
AMD Athlon FX-57 12,000 Dhrystone MIPS at 2.8 GHz 4.3 4.3 2005
AMD Athlon 64 3800+ X2 (Dual core) 14,564 Dhrystone MIPS at 2.0 GHz 7.3 3.6 2005 [25]
Tegra 3 NVIDIA (Quad core Cortex-A9) 13,800 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 9.2 2.5 2011
Xbox360 IBM "Xenon" (Triple core) 19,200 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 6.0 2.0 2005
PS3 Cell BE (PPE only) 10,240 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 3.2 3.2 2006
AMD Athlon FX-60 (Dual core) 18,938 Dhrystone MIPS at 2.6 GHz 7.3 3.6 2006 [25]
Intel Core 2 Extreme X6800 (Dual core) 27,079 Dhrystone MIPS at 2.93 GHz 9.2 4.6 2006 [25]
Intel Core 2 Extreme QX6700 (Quad core) 49,161 Dhrystone MIPS at 2.66 GHz 18.4 4.6 2006 [26]
MIPS32 24K 604 MIPS at 400 MHz 1.51 1.51 2006 [27]
ARM Cortex-R4 450 MIPS at 270 MHz 1.66 1.66 2006 [28]
MIPS64 20Kc 1,370 MIPS at 600 MHz 2.3 2.3 2007 [29]
P.A. Semi PA6T-1682M 8,800 MIPS at 1.8 GHz 4.4 4.4 2007 [30]
Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9770 (Quad core) 59,455 Dhrystone MIPS at 3.2 GHz 18.6 4.6 2008 [31]
Intel Core i7 920 (Quad core) 82,300 Dhrystone MIPS at 2.66 (Turbo 2.93) GHz 30.9 7.7 2008 [32]
Intel Atom N270 (Single core) 3,846 MIPS at 1.6 GHz 2.4 2.4 2008 [33]
Qualcomm Scorpion (Cortex A8-like) 2,100 MIPS at 1 GHz 2.1 2.1 2008 [16]
ARM Cortex-M0 45 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.9 0.9 2009 [34]
ARM Cortex-A9 (Dual core) 7,500 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 5.0 2.5 2009 [35]
AMD Phenom II X4 940 Black Edition 42,820 Dhrystone MIPS at 3.0 GHz 14.3 3.5 2009 [36]
AMD Phenom II X6 1100T 78,440 Dhrystone MIPS at 3.3 GHz 23.7 3.9 2010 [32]
Samsung Exynos 5250 (Cortex-A15-like Dual core) 14,000 MIPS at 2.0 GHz 7.0 3.5 2011 [37]
Intel Core i7 Extreme Edition 980X (Hex core) 147,600 Dhrystone MIPS at 3.33 GHz 44.7 7.46 2010 [38]
Intel Core i7 2600K 128,300 Dhrystone MIPS at 3.4 GHz 37.7 9.43 2011 [39]
Intel Core i7 875K 92,100 Dhrystone MIPS at 2.93 GHz 31.4 7.85 2011 [40]
AMD E-350 (Dual core) 10,000 Dhrystone MIPS at 1.6 GHz 6.25 3.125 2011 [41]
AMD FX-8150 (Eight core) 90,749-108,890 Dhrystone MIPS at 3.6 GHz 30.2 3.78 2011 [42][43]
ARM Cortex A5 1,256 MIPS at 800 MHz 1.57 1.57 2011 [23]
ARM Cortex A7 2,850 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 1.9 1.9 2011 [16]
Qualcomm Krait (Cortex A15-like, Dual core) 9,900 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 6.6 3.3 2011 [16]
Intel Core i7 Extreme Edition 3960X (Hex core) 177,730 Dhrystone MIPS at 3.33 GHz 53.3 8.89 2011 [44]
Intel Core i7 3630QM 113,093 Dhrystone MIPS at 3.2 GHz 35.3 8.83 2012 [45]
AMD FX-8350 97,125 Dhrystone MIPS/23407 MIPS at 4.2 GHz 23.1 2.9 2012 [43][46]
Intel Core i7 3770k 106,924 Dhrystone MIPS at 3.9 GHz 27.4 6.9 2012 [43]
Intel Core i7 4770k 124,850-127,273 Dhrystone MIPS/7-zip MIPS 23101 at 3.9GHz 32.0 8.0 2013 [43][46][47]

Historic data[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ted MacNeil. "Don't be Misled by MIPS". IBM magazine. 
  2. ^ US Steel News. 15-20. Industrial Relations Department of The United States Steel Corporation of Delaware. 1950-1955. p. 29. 
  3. ^ MCS4 > IntelP4004
  4. ^ MC68000 Product Summary Page
  5. ^ Intel 80286 Microprocessor Chip (c1982)]
  6. ^ MC68020 Product Summary Page
  7. ^ MC68030 Product Summary Page
  8. ^ MC68040 Product Summary Page
  9. ^ Digital's 21064 Microprocessor, Digital Equipment Corporation (c1992) accessdate=2009-08-29
  10. ^ a b c Tomshardware Cpu chart 2004
  11. ^ PIC16F84A
  12. ^ Atmel Corporation - Atmel AVR 8- and 32-bit - megaAVR
  13. ^ SiSoftware Zone
  14. ^ "Zilog Sees New Lease of Life for Z80 in Internet Appliances". Computergram International. 1999. 
  15. ^ Freescale Semiconductor - MPC8272 PowerQUICC II Processor Family
  16. ^ a b c d Anandtech ARM Cortex A7 architecture comparison
  17. ^ http://www.datasheetarchive.com/ZISC78-datasheet.html
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ PIC10F200
  20. ^ Microchip Technology Debuts Industry’s First 6-Pin Microcontrollers: The World’s Smallest Microcontroller
  21. ^ ARM Cortex-M3
  22. ^ Nios II Performance Benchmarks
  23. ^ a b ARM Cortex-A Series Comparison
  24. ^ mini-itx.com - epia px 10000 review
  25. ^ a b c CPU Charts 2007 - Tom's Hardware
  26. ^ Synthetics, Continued - Tom's Hardware : Intel's Core 2 Quadro Kentsfield: Four Cores on a Rampage
  27. ^ MIPS32 24K
  28. ^ Cortex-R4 Processor
  29. ^ Design Reuse - needs free registration
  30. ^ Merritt, Rick (5 February 2007). "Startup takes PowerPC to 25 W". EE Times. UBM Tech. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  31. ^ Synthetic - Sandra CPU - Tom's Hardware : Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9770: Paper Tiger?
  32. ^ a b Tom's Hardware Cpu Charts 2010
  33. ^ OC Workbench
  34. ^ Cortex-M0 Processor
  35. ^ EEE Journal
  36. ^ XtremeSystems Member Synthetic - Sandra CPU
  37. ^ Samsung Exynos 5250 Announcement
  38. ^ Overclock3D - Sandra CPU
  39. ^ Tom's Hardware - Benchmark Results: Synthetics
  40. ^ Tom's Hardware - Desktop CPU Charts 2011: Sandra 2010 Pro ALU
  41. ^ Tom's Hardware
  42. ^ HardOCP Bulldozer Desktop Performance - Synthetic Benchmarks
  43. ^ a b c d http://www.cpu-world.com/benchmarks/browse/910_80,965_61,993_80,1035_96/?c_test=6&PROCESS=Show+Selected
  44. ^ HardOCP - Synthetic Benchmarks
  45. ^ - Notebookcheck
  46. ^ a b http://versus.com/en/amd-fx-8350-black-edition-vs-intel-core-i7-4770k
  47. ^ http://www.notebookcheck.net/Intel-Core-i7-Desktop-4770K-Notebook-Processor.93553.0.html