Insulin index

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Insulin Index is a measure used to quantify the typical insulin response to various foods. The index is similar to the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load, but rather than relying on blood glucose levels, the Insulin Index is based upon blood insulin levels. This measure can be more useful than either the Glycemic Index or the Glycemic Load because certain foods (e.g., lean meats and proteins) cause an insulin response despite there being no carbohydrates present, and some foods cause a disproportionate insulin response relative to their carbohydrate load.

Holt et al. have noted that the glucose and insulin scores of most foods are highly correlated,[1] but high-protein foods and bakery products that are rich in fat and refined carbohydrates "elicit insulin responses that were disproportionately higher than their glycemic responses." They also conclude that insulin indices may be useful for dietary management and avoidance of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.

Explanation of Index[edit]

The Insulin Index is not the same as a glycemic index, which is all relative to eating 100% glucose, as this index is relative to eating white bread (glycemic index of ~70 to 75). In the chart below, Glycemic Index and Insulin Index scores show the increase in the blood concentration of each. While a higher satiety score indicates how much less was eaten from a buffet after participants ate the listed food.

The Insulin Index is not based on regular portions (as are some other glycemic indices, see external links), but on eating 1000 kilo joules (239 kilo calories) of that food. So while apples have a higher insulin/glucose index than white pasta, it shouldn't then be considered that they're less healthy; because in a single sitting most people ate a portion of apple smaller than that (~100 Calories per regular size apple) and a normal portion for spaghetti is closer to 500 Calories.

Mean average glucose,[2] insulin[2] and satiety scores[3]
Food Food Type Glycemic Index score Insulin score Satiety score
All-Bran Breakfast Cereal 40 ± 7 32 ± 4 151
Porridge Breakfast Cereal 60 ± 12 40 ± 4 209
Muesli Breakfast Cereal 43 ± 7 46 ± 5 100
Special K Breakfast Cereal 70 ± 9 66 ± 5 116
Honeysmacks Breakfast Cereal 60 ± 7 67 ± 6 132
Sustain Breakfast Cereal 66 ± 6 71 ± 6 112
Cornflakes Breakfast Cereal 76 ± 11 75 ± 8 118
Average: Breakfast Cereal 59 ± 3 57 ± 3 134
White bread(baseline) Carbohydrate-rich 71 ± 0 100 ± 0 100
White Pasta Carbohydrate-rich 46 ± 10 40 ± 5 119
Brown pasta Carbohydrate-rich 68 ± 10 40 ± 5 188
Grain bread[n 1] Carbohydrate-rich 60 ± 12 56 ± 6 154
Brown rice Carbohydrate-rich 104 ± 18 62 ± 11 132
French fries Carbohydrate-rich 71 ± 16 74 ± 12 116
White rice Carbohydrate-rich 110 ± 15 79 ± 12 138
Whole-meal bread[n 2] Carbohydrate-rich 97 ± 17 96 ± 12 157
Potatoes Carbohydrate-rich 141 ± 35 121 ± 11 323
Average: Carbohydrate-rich 88 ± 6 74 ± 8 158.556
Eggs Protein-rich 42 ± 16 31 ± 6 150
Cheese Protein-rich 55 ± 18 45 ± 13 146
Beef Protein-rich 21 ± 8 51 ± 16 176
Lentils Protein-rich 62 ± 22 58 ± 12 133
Fish Protein-rich 28 ± 13 59 ± 18 225
Baked beans Protein-rich 114 ± 18 120 ± 19 168
Average: Protein-rich 54 ± 7 61 ± 7 166.333
Apples Fruit 50 ± 6 59 ± 4 197
Oranges Fruit 39 ± 7 60 ± 3 202
Bananas Fruit 79 ± 10 81 ± 5 118
Grapes Fruit 74 ± 9 82 ± 6 162
Average: Fruit 61 ± 5 71 ± 3 169.75
Peanuts Snack/confectionery 12 ± 4 20 ± 5 84
Popcorn Snack/confectionery 62 ± 16 54 ± 9 154
Potato chips Snack/confectionery 52 ± 9 61 ± 14 91
Ice cream Snack/confectionery 70 ± 19 89 ± 13 96
Yogurt Snack/confectionery 62 ± 15 115 ± 13 88
Mars Bars Snack/confectionery 79 ± 13 122 ± 15 70
Jellybeans Snack/confectionery 118 ± 18 160 ± 16 118[n 3]
Average: Snack/confectionery 65 ± 6 89 ± 7 100.142857
Doughnuts Bakery product 63 ± 12 74 ± 9 68
Croissants Bakery product 74 ± 9 79 ± 14 47
Cake Bakery product 56 ± 14 82 ± 12 65
Crackers Bakery product 118 ± 24 87 ± 12 127
Cookies Bakery product 74 ± 11 92 ± 15 120
Average: Bakery product 77 ± 7 83 ± 5 85.4
Average: Average 67.333 ± 5.667 72.5 ± 5.5 135.696958
Average: ALL 68.8421 ± 12.7105 72.263158 ± 9.5 136.052632
Food Food Type Glycemic Index score Insulin Index score Satiety score
  1. ^ Rye bread containing 47% kibbled rye, Holt et al.
  2. ^ Bread made from whole-meal wheat flour, Holt et al.
  3. ^ the authors of the satiety study[3] stated that the amount of jellybeans consumed tended to make participants nauseated which may have produced an erroneous satiety score.


Glucose (glycemic) and insulin scores were determined by feeding 1000 kilojoules (239 kilocalories) of the food to the participants and recording the area under the glucose/insulin curve for 120 minutes then dividing by the area under the glucose/insulin curve for white bread. The result being that all scores are relative to white bread. The satiety score was determined by comparing how much food was eaten by participants at a buffet after being fed a fixed number of calories of a particular food while blindfolded (to ensure food appearance was not a factor), then dividing that number by the amount eaten by participants after eating white bread. White bread serves as the baseline of 100. In other words, foods scoring higher than 100 are more satisfying than white bread and those under 100 are less satisfying.

± indicate uncertainty in the data. For example 60 ± 12 means that there's a 95% chance the score is between 60-12 (48) and 60+12 (72), 60 being the highest probability assuming a bell curve. In practice this means that if two foods have large uncertainty and have values close together then you don't really know which score is the higher.

External Links[edit]

http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsweek/Glycemic_index_and_glycemic_load_for_100_foods.htm

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cousens, Gabriel (2008). There Is a Cure for Diabetes: The Tree of Life 21-Day+ Program. North Atlantic Books. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-55643-691-8. 
  2. ^ a b Holt, Susanne H.A.; Brand-Miller, Janette Cecile; Petocz, Peter (November 1997). "An insulin index of foods: the insulin demand generated by 1000-kJ portions of common foods" (PDF). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66 (5): 1264–76. PMID 9356547. Lay summaryInsulin Index (2009-10-14). 
  3. ^ a b Holt, Susanne H.A.; Brand-Miller, Janette Cecile; Petocz, Peter; Farmakalidis, E. (September 1995). "A satiety index of common foods". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49 (9): 675–690. PMID 7498104. Lay summaryThe Satiety Index — What Really Satisfies (2005-01-10). 
  • Mäkeläinen H, Anttila H, Sihvonen J, et al. (June 2007). "The effect of β-glucan on the glycemic and insulin index". Eur J Clin Nutr 61 (6): 779–85. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602561. PMID 17151593.