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Insulin lispro (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company as "Humalog") is a fast acting insulin analog. It was first approved for use in the United States in 1996, making it the first insulin analog to enter the market.
Engineered through recombinant DNA technology, the penultimate lysine and proline residues on the C-terminal end of the B-chain are reversed. This modification does not alter receptor binding, but blocks the formation of insulin dimers and hexamers. This allowed larger amounts of active monomeric insulin to be immediately available for postprandial injections.
Insulin lispro has one primary advantage over regular insulin for postprandial glucose control. It has a shortened delay of onset, allowing slightly more flexibility than regular insulin, which requires a longer waiting period before starting a meal after injection. Both preparations should be coupled with a longer acting insulin for good glycemic control.
Insulin lispro is an FDA approved drug used to treat people living with Type 1 diabetes or Type 2 diabetes. Insulin lispro has non-FDA labeled uses for diabetic nephropathy prevention, diabetic neuropathy prevention, and cardiovascular disease prevention.
Common side effects include skin irritation at the site of injection, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, and lipodystrophy. Other serious side effects include severe hypoglycemia, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions.
- "Drugs@FDA:FDA Approved Products: Humalog". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Insulin Lispro: A Fast-Acting Insulin Analog". Retrieved 2007-06-08.
- Product Information: HUMALOG(R) pen injection, insulin lispro (rDNA origin) pen injection. Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, 2007