Insurgency in Ogaden
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The insurgency in Ogaden, waged by the separatist Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) in Ethiopia's Somali region, began in 1995 and ended in 2008. Originally an accepted political party which contributed three Presidents of the Somali Region after the ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front expelled them from power, the ONLF began a guerrilla war to promote their goals. For many years, the remoteness of the Somali Region led to the conflict being ignored by the international media, until several high-profile attacks in 2007: the attack on the Chinese oil site at Abole and attacks in Jigjiga and Dhagahbur.
On 13 April 2003, ONLF initiated the Operation Mandad, aiming the expulsion of government troops from the districts of Korahey and Dolo. Two days later a battle took place in the towns of Alen and Garas Qalo, security forces suffered 60 fatalities and lost 2 army trucks, 41 rebels were also killed in the fighting. Authorities responded by imposing curfews on the towns of Kebri Dehar, Warder, and Shilabo, 36 suspected militants were also arrested.
On 19 October 2005, rebels attacked an army encampment in the area of Kudunbur, 11 soldiers were killed and 13 wounded.
On 15 November 2005, Ethiopian troops allegedly committed a massacre of 30 civilians and prisoners after the later demanded better treatment from their captors.
On 13 March 2006, an ONLF delegation conducted a briefing with officials representing the Danish foreign ministry, human rights abuses were discussed during the meeting.
On 23 July 2006, a communique issued by ONLF announced the shootdown of an Ethiopian airforce, transport helicopter. The incident reportedly took place in the vicinity of the town Gabo Gabo, Qorahay zone, 20 soldiers were killed in the aftermath.
In response to the April 2007 ONLF attack, Ethiopian security forces initiated a large scale counter insurgency campaign against the ONLF. Between June 2007-May 2008 approximately 1,000 people were killed as the opposing faction engaged in combat and committed human rights abuses.
On 22 January 2008, a government official announced the death of former top guerrilla commander Mohamed Sirad Dolal, following an operation in the Denan woreda of the Gode zone. By the time of his death Sirad had left ONLF and operated as a commander of Al-Itihad Al-Islami.
On 3 August 2009, an Ethiopian court convicted Bashir Ahmed Makhtal, an Ethiopian born Canadian citizen to life in prison, on charges of belonging to ONLF. Makhtal denied all allegations, stating that the reason behind his prosecution is his relation to one of ONLF's founding members.
On 11 January 2011, Ethiopian authorities freed 402 previously imprisoned ONLF members as part of a peace deal, previously signed with one of ONLF's factions.
On 4 July 2011, government troops killed 15 and detained 6 rebels, 2 Swedish journalists accompanying the militants were also wounded during the engagement.
Between 16–17 March 2012, according to a Human Rights Watch report, Ethiopian special police forces executed 10 civilians and looted dozens of shops in the village of Raqda, the attack came as a retaliation for the recent death of several policemen.
- Ethiopian Civil War
- Red Terror (Ethiopia)
- Ogaden War
- War in Somalia (2006–2009)
- 2007–2008 Ethiopian crackdown in Ogaden
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- Ogaden Crackdown Carries High Cost, Inter Press Service News Agency, July 5, 2007
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