Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File (German: Gemeinsame Normdatei, also known as: Universal Authority File) or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and archives. The GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various library networks. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero (CC0) license.
The GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It also comprises an ontology of property names and datatypes, intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the XML based RDF format.
The Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files which have since been discontinued:
- Name Authority File (German: Personennamendatei; PND)
- Corporate Bodies Authority File (German: Gemeinsame Körperschaftsdatei; GKD)
- Subject Headings Authority File (German: Schlagwortnormdatei; SWD)
- Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv (German: Einheitssachtitel-Datei des Deutschen Musikarchivs; DMA-EST)
At the time of its introduction (“GND-Grundbestand” from 5 April 2012), the GND holds 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalized names.
Other authority files are: Virtual International Authority File (VIAF), Library of Congress Authorities (LCNAF), Web NDL Authorities by the National Diet Library (Japan), and LIBRIS by the National Library of Sweden.
Types of GND high-level entities
There are six main types of GND entities:
|Typ||German (official)||English (translation)|
|p||Person (individualisiert)||person (individualized)|
|n||Name (nicht individualisiert)||name (not individualized)|
|g||Geografikum||geographical place name|
- Linked Data Service of the German National Library
- GND Ontology - Namespace Document, version 2012-06-30.
- Entitätencodierung: Vergaberichtlinien (short lists: old and new version)
- Information pages about the GND from the German National Library
- Search via OGND (Bibliotheksservice-Zentrum Baden-Württemberg)
- Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012
- From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann (German National Library) to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012