Integrated NATO Air Defense System

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NATO Integrated Air Defense System or NATINADS was the NATO response to the Soviet development of long range bombers in the 1970s. The need to maintain a credible deterrence when early warning and intercept times were massively reduced led to the development of an improved air defence (AD) system.

Development was approved by the NATO Military Committee in December 1955. The system was to be based on four air defense regions (ADRs) coordinated by SACEUR (Supreme Allied Commander Europe). Starting from 1956 early warning coverage was extended across Western Europe using 18 radar stations. This part of the system was completed by 1962. Linked to existing national radar sites the coordinated system was called the NATO Air Defence Ground Environment (NADGE).

From 1960 NATO countries agreed to place all their air defence forces under the command of SACEUR in the event of war. These forces included command & control (C2) systems, radar installations, and Surface-to-Air (SAM) missile units as well as interceptor aircraft.

By 1972 NADGE was converted into NATINADS consisting of 84 radar sites and associated Control Reporting Centers (CRC) and in the 1980s the Airborne Early Warning / Ground Environment Integration Segment (AEGIS) upgraded the NATINADS with the possibility to integrate the AWACS radarpicture and all of its information into its visual displays. (NOTE: This AEGIS is not to be confused with the U.S.Navy AEGIS, a shipboard fire control radar and weapons system.) AEGIS processed the information through Hughes H5118ME computers, which replaced the H3118M computers installed at NADGE sites in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

NATINADS ability to handle data increased with faster clock rates. The H5118M computer had a staggering 1 megabyte of memory and could handle 1.2 million instructions per second while the former model had a memory of only 256 kilobytes and a clock speed of 150000 instructions per seconds.[1]

NATINADS/AEGIS were complemented, in W-Germany by the German Air Defence Ground Environment (GEADGE), an updated radar network adding the southern part of W-Germany to the European system and Coastal Radar Integration System (CRIS), adding data links from Danish coastal radars.

In order to counter the hardware obsolescence, during the mid-90's NATO started the AEGIS Site Emulator (ASE) program allowing the NATINADS/AEGIS sites to replace the proprietary hardware (the 5118ME computer and the various operator consoles IDM-2, HMD-22, IDM-80) with Commercial-Off-the-Shelf servers and workstations.

In the first years 2000, the initial ASE capability was expanded with the possibility to run, thanks to the new hardware power, multiple site emulators on the same hardware, so the system was renamed into Multi-AEGIS Site Emulator (MASE). The NATO system designed to replace MASE in the near future is the Air Command and Control System (ACCS).

Because of changing politics, NATO expanding and financial crises most European (NATO) countries are trying to cut defence budgets; as a direct result lots of obsolete and outdated NATINADS facilities are phased out earlier. Currently (2013) still operational NATO radar sites in Europe are these:

Germany

  • Dobern (51°36'47"N 13°34'31"E) Remote Radar Post (RRP-117 radar)
  • Elmenhorst (54°0'2"N 11°6'42"E) Remote Radar Post (RRP-117 radar)
  • Gleina (50°55'59"N 12°23'54"E) Remote Radar Post (RRP-117 radar)
  • Varnkevitz - Rügen (54°40'27"N 13°23'12"E) Remote Radar Post (RRP-117 radar)
  • Döbraberg (50°16'42"N 11°38'44"E) Former GEADGE converted into a Remote Radar Post (RRP-117 radar)
  • Erndtebrück (50°59'35"N 8°14'22"E) Former NADGE/NATINADS CRC converted into Air Ops Center 1
  • Kalkar (51°43'59"N 6°16'9"E) NATO Combined Air Ops Command
  • Messtetten (48°11'3"N 8°56'42"E) Former 4 ATAF SOC/NATINADS CRC converted into GIADS II Airops Command Center
  • Schönewalde/Holzdorf (51°46'13"N 13°10'0"E Former GDR base; Air Ops Center 3
  • Üdem (51°40'01"N 6°22'10"E) Former NADGE NATINADS CRC converted into Air Ops Center 2

Greece

  • 40°34'55"N 23°6'59"E Chortiatis 1st Area Control Center
  • 38°10'27"N 23°42'55"E Parnitha 2nd Area Control Center
  • 35°3'50"N 26°9'11"E Ziros 3rd (Reserve) Area Control Center
  • 39°38'59"N 22°28'0"E Larissa airbase NATO Air Operations Center
  • 38°10'11"N 20°37'8"E Agios Eleftherios AD radar annex GKFZ troposcatter site in the ACE-High Cemetery net chain of communications.
  • 35°22'45"N 24°59'3"E Fodele remote radarstation
  • 35°34'13"N 27°9'47"E Karpathos Isl remote radarstation
  • 36°51'25"N 27°18'54"E Kos remote radarstation
  • 39°58'57"N 25°4'49"E Limnos W remote radarstation
  • 39°59'12"N 25°23'59"E Limnos E remote radarstation
  • 40°53'44"N 25°32'43"E Maroneia remote radarstation
  • 38°56'9"N 24°33'23"E Skiros radarstation
  • 35°18'24"N 23°36'34"E Sklavopoula radarstation

Italy

  • Poggio Renatico (44°47'32"N 11°29'41"E) Aeronautica Militare Italia. Gruppo Riporto e Controllo Difesa Aerea (GRCDA) - airdefense control & reporting center was a former NADGE and later NATINADS radarsite. Current status: NATO Combined Air Ops.Center 5
  • Poggio Ballone (42°49'37"N 10°52'59"E) 21º Gruppo Radar CRC
  • Licola (40°51'52"N 14°3'9"E) 22º Gruppo Radar CRC
  • Mortara (45°13'54"N 8°48'15"E) 112 Squadriglia Radar Remota
  • Lame di Concordia (45°44'36"N 12°52'31"E) 113ª Squadriglia Radar Remota
  • Capo Mele (43°57'28"N 8°10'9"E) 115ª Squadriglia Radar Remota
  • Jacotenente (41°47'21"N 16°2'57"E) 131ª Squadriglia Radar Remota
  • Crotone (38°59'17"N 17°4'45"E) 132ª Squadriglia Radar Remota

Norway

  • Mågerø (70°59'3"N 25°53'49"E) Control Reporting Center
  • Mt Gråkallen (63°25'12"N 10°15'3"E) remote controlled AD radar
  • Mt Njunis (68°43'54"N 19°32'4"E) remote controlled AD radar
  • Kirkenes airport(69°42'57"N 29°52'10"E) remote controlled AD radar
  • Klettkovfjellet (67°10'23"N 15°1'41"E) remote controlled AD radar
  • Selbu (63°18'41"N 10°56'18"E) remote controlled AD radar
  • Sørreisa (69°8'11"N 18°8'14"E) Control Reporting Center
  • Vågsøy (61°59'53"N 5°3'1"E) remote controlled AD radar
  • Vardø (70°22'0"N 31°7'35"E) remote controlled AD radar

Portugal

  • Foia (37°18'52"N -9°6'14"E) Estação de Radar nº1 located on the summit of Mt Foia
  • Montejunto (39°10'23"N -10°56'58"E) Estação de Radar nº3
  • Pilar (41°17'26"N -9°34'27"E) Estação de Radar nº2 located at Serra de Pilar

Spain

  • Alto de Aitana (38° 38' 56" N -1° 44' 4" E) Escuadrón de Vigilancia Aérea (EVA) 5; early warning sqn 5
  • Artzamendi (43° 16' 58" N -2° 35' 33" E) Former CRC converted into a remote controlled AD radar
  • Constantina (37° 55' 8" N -6° 24' 25" E) EVA 3
  • El Frasno (41° 24' 24" N -2° 30' 14" E) EVA 1
  • El Peni (42° 16' 42" N 3° 14' 14" E) EVA 4
  • Gava (41° 17' 36" N 2° 1' 5" E) Escuadrilla de Circulación Aérea Operativa (ECAO) 4 (Airops Center)
  • Haria (29° 7' 9" N -14° 28' 46" E) EVA 22
  • Inoges (41° 22' 17" N -2° 30' 11" E) Former CRC and USAF troposcatter communications site converted to a remote controlled AD radar
  • Monte Iroite (42° 43' 24" N -9° 4' 42" E) EVA 10
  • Pico de las Nieves (27° 57' 47" N -16° 25' 42" E) EVA 21
  • Picón del Fraile (43° 10' 49" N -4° 1' 0" E) EVA 12
  • Puig Mayor (39° 47' 59" N 2° 47' 58" E) EVA 7
  • Sierra Espuña (37° 51' 44" N -2° 25' 30" E) EVA 13
  • Torrejón (40° 28' 0" N -4° 13' 59" E) Escuadrilla de Circulación Aérea Operativa (ECAO) 1 (Airops Center)
  • Villanubla (41° 42' 0" N -5° 9' 0" E) EVA 14
  • Villatobas (39° 53' 17" N -4° 41' 53" E) EVA 2

UK

  • RAF Benbecula (57°28'24.40"N 7°22'26.27"W) a remote radarstation providing long-range radar coverage of the North Atlantic approaches to Scotland. The data is fed into the Integrated Command and Control System within the UK.
  • RAF Boulmer (55°25'13.89"N 1°36'6.69"W) HQ of the UK Air Surveillance and Control System (ASACS) Force. Using ground based military and civilian radars, the Control and Reporting Centre (C RAF Boulmer is responsible for compiling the Recognised Air Picture (RAP) within the UK airspace and its approaches. The CRC monitors the RAP 24/7 365 days a year detecting and identifying all aircraft within it and providing tactical control of assigned Quick Reaction Alert intercepting aircraft.
  • RAF Buchan (57°27'27.90"N 1°48'45.81"W) Control Reporting Centre (CRC) Buchan is a remote radar station, but also capable of coordinating all air defence aspects in its Area of Responsibility within the UK Air Policing Area. Th base can routinely work closely with similar NATO units abroad, NATO navies and Airborne Warning and Control aircraft.
  • RAF Fylingdales 54°21'37.77"N 0°40'5.55"W) Ballistic missile warning and space surveillance station. Providing warning of ballistic missile events. Supporting the U.S. developing Missile Defense System. Contributing to the Allied Space Surveillance Network and enabling support UK forces worldwide through SatCom Warning Service.
  • RAF High Wycombe (51°40'52.44"N 0°48'21.06"W) HQ Air Command and underground Operations Center.
  • RAF Kirton (53°28'3.80"N 0°34'53.47"W) No.1 Air Control Centre (1ACC) relocated from RAF Boulmer.
  • RAF Menwith Hill (54° 0'32.29"N 1°41'24.69"W) is an integral part of the British and US worldwide defence communications and intelligence gathering (Echelon) networks. Its primary mission is to provide intelligence support for UK, US and allied interests.
  • RAF Neatishead (52°42'51.56"N 1°28'13.75"E) is a remote radarstation provide radar, ground-to-air radio and data links coverage as part of the UK Air Surveillance And Control System (ASACS), in support of national and NATO air defences.
  • RAF Portreath (50°16'13.92"N 5°16'25.74"W) is a remote radarstation providing long-range radar coverage of the Atlantic approaches. The data is fed into the Integrated Command and Control System within the UK.
  • RAF Saxa Vord (60°47'51.98"N 0°49'17.86"W) is a remote radarstation providing long-range radar coverage of its approaches. The data is fed into the Integrated Command and Control System within the UK.
  • RAF Staxton Wold (54°11'13.98"N 0°26'6.89"W) is a remote radarstation providing long-range radar coverage of its approaches. The data is fed into the Integrated Command and Control System within the UK. Staxton Wold is one of the 16 radar sites forming the WW2 Chain Home System, becoming y operational in 1939. It is the only one of the original WW2 sites still operating, thus laying claim to be the worlds oldest radar site!

Other (non-NATO) operational radar sites in Europe

Austrian radar (GOLDHAUBE)

  • Buschberg / Steinmandl (48° 34' 37"N 16° 23' 44"E) AustroControl operates a general air traffic control radar at the Buschberg summit; actually this is a combined civil / mil facility. An airforce remote search radar is located very near at the Steinmandl summit at lat/long position 48°34'42"N 16°24'37"E
  • Kolomannsberg (47° 52' 38"N 13° 16' 32"E) AD radarstation

Swiss Air Force radar (FLORAKO)

  • La Dole (46°25'32"N 6°6'0"E) Skyguide aircontrol radarsite
  • Lägern (47°28'54"N 8°23'41"E) Skyguide aircontrol radarsite
  • Mount Pilatus[2] (46° 58' 43"N 8° 15'6"E) C3 facility & AD radarstation inside Mt Pilatus
  • Scopi(46° 34' 14"N 8° 49'46"E) C3 facility & AD radarstation inside Mt Scopi
  • Weisshorn (46° 6' 6"N 7° 42'46"E) C3 facility & AD radarstation inside Mt Weisshorn
  • Weissfluh (46°50'6"N 9°47'39"E) C3 facility & AD radarstation inside Mt Weissfluh

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