Integrated ticketing allows a person to make a journey that involves transfers within or between different transport modes with a single ticket that is valid for the complete journey, modes being buses, trains, subways, ferries, etc. The purpose of integrated ticketing is to encourage people to use public transport by simplifying switching between transport modes and by increasing the efficiency of the services.
In most cases, integrated ticketing is made possible by electronic ticketing technologies such as magnetic stripe cards or smart cards. Some smart card systems are also used for paying for goods and other services such as the Octopus card. Some public transport systems also use paper cash tickets that allow transfers within a specified area, and in some cases (such as the Transperth FamilyRider), allow unlimited travel during specified times.
Countries such as Switzerland have national integrated ticket systems, which not only extend across transport modes but can encompass entry into museums or leisure destinations. The UK, Australia and Sweden use such systems on public transport in major cities or metropolitan areas.
Deploying integrated ticketing requires a high-level of coordination and co-operation between all public transport providers and the suppliers. Political, technological and project management issues have resulted in long delays in some cases. In Sydney the project has had to be restarted. In Dublin, the system has also suffered serious delays from the project start date in 2002 but it is now nearing its launch date. In Stockholm, the task of replacing the existing magnetic stripe cards system with smart cards is finally nearing completion after the project was started in 2002.
The table shows some examples of integrated ticketing around the world.
|Area||Transport Authority||System Name||Ticket Type||Operational Since||Transport Types||Comment|
|Switzerland||Swiss Federal Railways||Swiss Pass||Magnetic stripe card||1989||Buses, trains, ships and tramways|
|Greater London||TfL||Oyster card||Smart card||July 2003||Bus, tube, trams, DLR, London Overground and some National Rail services|
|Northern Ireland||Translink||Smartlink||Smart card||October 2009||Bus In Belfast, Bus In Derry/Londonderry, Regional & Intercity Bus, Railways services|
|Melbourne||Metlink||Metcard||Magnetic stripe card||May 1998||Buses, trains and trams||Will be superseded by the myki smart card system.|
|South East Queensland||TransLink||go card||Smart card||January 2008||Buses, trains and ferries|
|Auckland||Auckland Transport||AT HOP card||Smart card||27 October 2012||Trains and ferries. Buses from April 2013|
|Snapper HOP card||Smart card||2011||Buses (NZ Bus-operated services only)||To be phased out from April 2013.|
|Greater Dublin Area||National Transport Authority||Leap card||Smart card||December 12, 2011 ||Buses, trains, LUAS and the future Metro||Will also include commercial bus operators wishing to join the scheme.|
|Greater Stockholm||SL ||Unknown||Magnetic stripe card||Unknown||Buses, Metro, rail, tram, ferries||Will be replaced by the SL Access smart card system.|
|Perth||Transperth ||SmartRider||Smart card||January 2007||Buses, trains and ferries||Replaced the MultiRider magnetic stripe card system. Paper tickets are also available. SmartRider is also available for use in Geraldton.|
|Paris||RATP/SNCF||Navigo pass, Mobilis/Jeunes one-day tickets||Smart card / magnetic ticket||2006||Subway, commuter rail (RER and Transilien), tramway, bus|
|Singapore||SMRT Corporation/SBS Transit||EZ-Link card||Smart card||2001||MRT (subway), bus, parking||CEPAS-compliant EZ-Link cards have replaced original EZ-Link cards in 2009.|
- "Integrated Ticketing". Dublin Bus. 2008-02-07. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- "Octopus Products". Octopus Cards Limited. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- Example of combined ticket for entry into thermal spas, Valais, Switzerland.http://www.carpostal.ch/en/pag-startseite/pag-kundenservice/pag-postauto-in-ihrer-naehe/pag-wallis/pag-sparangebote-wallis.htm
- "Tcard: here we go again". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- "Integrated ticket chaos". The Sunday Business Post Online. 2007-11-18. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- "SL sjösatte försenat biljettsystem" (in Swedish). SvD. 2008-09-01. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- "Swiss Travel System". Switzerland Travel Centre. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- Furlaud, Alice (1991-09-29). "TRAVEL ADVISORY; City Rides Added To Swiss Pass". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- "What is Oyster?". Transport for London. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- "Metcard: FAQs". Metlink. Retrieved 2009-05-07.[dead link]
- "go card". TransLink. Retrieved 2009-05-08.[dead link]
- Phipps, Julia (2008-01-29). "TransLink GoCard finally launched". couriermail.com.au. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- "Auckland Integrated Fares System (AIFS) Programme". Auckland Regional Transport Authority. Retrieved 2009-05-07.[dead link]
- "Great Leap forward as commuter card unveiled". Independent.ie. 2011-06-11. Retrieved 2011-08-13.
- "Integrated ticketing card launched". Irishtimes.ie. 2011-12-12. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
- "Dublin Metro North and Metro West, Republic of Ireland". http://www.railway-technology.com. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
- "Travelling with SL". Storstockholms Lokaltrafik. Retrieved 2009-05-07.[dead link]
- "General Fare Information". Transperth. Retrieved 2009-10-23.