Intelligent design movement

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The intelligent design movement is a neo-creationist religious campaign for broad social, academic and political change to promote and support the idea of "intelligent design," which asserts that "certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not a possibly undirected process such as natural selection."[1][2] Its chief activities are a campaign to promote public awareness of this concept, the lobbying of policymakers to include its teaching in high school science classes, and legal action, either to defend such teaching or to remove barriers otherwise preventing it.[3][4] The movement arose out of the previous Christian fundamentalist and evangelistic creation science movement in the United States,[5] and is driven by a small group of proponents.[6][7] The overall goal of the intelligent design movement is to "overthrow materialism" and atheism. Its proponents believe that society has suffered "devastating cultural consequences" from adopting materialism and that science is the cause of the decay into materialism because it seeks only natural explanations, and is therefore atheistic. They believe that the theory of evolution implies that humans have no spiritual nature, no moral purpose, and no intrinsic meaning. They seek to "defeat [the] materialist world view" represented by the theory of evolution in favor of "a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions".[3]

To achieve their goal of defeating a materialistic world view, advocates of intelligent design take a two-pronged approach. Alongside the promotion of intelligent design, proponents also seek to "Teach the Controversy"; discredit evolution by emphasizing perceived flaws in the theory of evolution, or disagreements within the scientific community and encourage teachers and students to explore non-scientific alternatives to evolution, or to critically analyze evolution and the controversy surrounding the teaching of evolution. But the world's largest general scientific society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, has stated that "There is no significant controversy within the scientific community about the validity of evolution." and that "Evolution is one of the most robust and widely accepted principles of modern science."[8] The ruling in the Dover trial, Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, where the claims of intelligent design proponents were considered by a United States federal court, stated that "evolution, including common descent and natural selection, is 'overwhelmingly accepted' by the scientific community."[9][10]

The Discovery Institute[11] is a conservative Christian think tank that drives the intelligent design movement.[12] The Institute's Center for Science and Culture (CSC) counts most of the leading intelligent design advocates among its membership, most notably its program advisor Phillip E. Johnson. Johnson is the architect of the movement's key strategies, the "wedge strategy" and the Teach the Controversy campaign. The Discovery Institute and leading proponents represent intelligent design as a revolutionary scientific theory.[13][14][15][16] The overwhelming majority of the scientific community,[10] as represented by the American Association for the Advancement of Science,[17] the National Academy of Sciences[18] and nearly all scientific professional organizations, firmly rejects these claims, and insist that intelligent design is not valid science, its proponents having failed to conduct an actual scientific research program.[10] This has led the movement's critics to state that intelligent design is merely a public relations campaign and a political campaign.[19]

According to critics of the intelligent design movement, the movement's purpose is political rather than scientific or educational. They claim the movement's "activities betray an aggressive, systematic agenda for promoting not only intelligent design creationism, but the religious worldview that undergirds it."[20] Intelligent design is an attempt to recast religious dogma in an effort to reintroduce the teaching of biblical creationism to public school science classrooms; the intelligent design movement is an effort to reshape American society into a theocracy, primarily through education. As evidence, critics cite the Discovery Institute's political activities, its "Wedge strategy" and statements made by leading intelligent design proponents. The scientific community's position, as represented by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Center for Science Education, is that intelligent design is not science, but creationist pseudoscience. Richard Dawkins, a biologist and professor at Oxford University, compares the intelligent design movement's demand to "teach the controversy" with the demand to teach flat earthism; acceptable in terms of history, but not in terms of science. "If you give the idea that there are two schools of thought within science, one that says the earth is round and one that says the earth is flat, you are misleading children."[21]

Philosophy[edit]

At the 1999 "Reclaiming America for Christ Conference"[22] called by Reverend D. James Kennedy of Coral Ridge Ministries, Johnson gave a speech called How the Evolution Debate Can Be Won.[23] In it he sums up the theological and epistemological underpinnings of intelligent design and its strategy for winning the battle:

"To talk of a purposeful or guided evolution is not to talk about evolution at all. That is slow creation. When you understand it that way, you realize that the Darwinian theory of evolution contradicts not just the Book of Genesis, but every word in the Bible from beginning to end. It contradicts the idea that we are here because a creator brought about our existence for a purpose. That is the first thing I realized, and it carries tremendous meaning." —Phillip Johnson

"I have built an intellectual movement in the universities and churches that we call The Wedge, which is devoted to scholarship and writing that furthers this program of questioning the materialistic basis of science. One very famous book that's come out of The Wedge is biochemist Michael Behe's book, Darwin's Black Box, which has had an enormous impact on the scientific world." —Phillip Johnson

"Now the way that I see the logic of our movement going is like this. The first thing you understand is that the Darwinian theory isn't true. It's falsified by all of the evidence and the logic is terrible. When you realize that, the next question that occurs to you is, well, where might you get the truth? When I preach from the Bible, as I often do at churches and on Sundays, I don't start with Genesis. I start with John 1:1. In the beginning was the word. In the beginning was intelligence, purpose, and wisdom. The Bible had that right. And the materialist scientists are deluding themselves." —Phillip Johnson

History of the movement[edit]

The intelligent design movement grew out of a creationist tradition which argues against evolutionary theory from a religious standpoint, usually that of evangelical or fundamentalistic Christianity. Although intelligent design advocates often claim that they are arguing only for the existence of a designer who may or may not be God, all the movement's leading advocates believe that this designer is God. They frequently accompany their arguments with a discussion of religious issues, especially when addressing religious audiences, but elsewhere downplay the religious aspects of their agenda.

Origins[edit]

The modern use of the words "intelligent design", as a term intended to describe a field of inquiry, began after the Supreme Court of the United States, in the case of Edwards v. Aguillard (1987), ruled that creationism is unconstitutional in public school science curricula. A Discovery Institute report says that Charles Thaxton, editor of Of Pandas and People, had picked the phrase up from a NASA scientist, and thought "That's just what I need, it's a good engineering term".[24] In drafts of the book over one hundred uses of the root word "creation", such as "creationism" and "creation science", were changed, almost without exception, to "intelligent design",[25] while "creationists" was changed to "design proponents" or, in one instance, "cdesign proponentsists". [sic][26] In 1989 Of Pandas and People was published by the Foundation for Thought and Ethics,[27] with the definition:

Intelligent design means that various forms of life began abruptly through an intelligent agency, with their distinctive features already intact. Fish with fins and scales, birds with feathers, beaks, wings, etc.[28]

Pandas was followed in 1991 by Darwin on Trial, a neo-creationist polemic by University of California, Berkeley law professor emeritus Phillip E. Johnson, that is regarded as a central text of the movement.[29] Darwin on Trial mentioned Pandas as "'creationist' only in the sense that it juxtaposes a paradigm of 'intelligent design' with the dominant paradigm of (naturalistic) evolution", but his use of the term as a focus for his wedge strategy promoting "theistic realism" came later.[page needed] The book was reviewed by evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould for Scientific American in July 1992, concluding that the book contains "...no weighing of evidence, no careful reading of literature on all sides, no full citation of sources (the book does not even contain a bibliography) and occasional use of scientific literature only to score rhetorical points."[30] This "devastating" review led to the formation in 1992 or 1993 of an 'Ad Hoc Origins Committee' of Johnson's supporters, which wrote a letter, circulated to thousands of university professors, defending the book. Among the 39 signatories were nine who later became members of the Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture.[31]

During the early 1990s Johnson worked to develop a 'big tent' movement to unify a wide range of creationist viewpoints in opposition to evolution. In 1992, the first formal meeting devoted to intelligent design was held in Southern Methodist University. It included a debate between Johnson and Michael Ruse (a key witness in McLean v. Arkansas) and papers by William A. Dembski, Michael Behe and Stephen C. Meyer. In 1993 Johnson organized a follow-up meeting, including Dembski, Behe, Meyer, Dean H. Kenyon (co-author of Pandas) and Walter Bradley (co-author with Thaxton and Kenyon of The Mystery of Life's Origin), as well as two young Earth creationist graduate students, Paul A. Nelson and Jonathan Wells.[32]

Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture[edit]

On 6 December 1993 an article by Meyer was published in the Wall Street Journal, drawing national attention to the controversy over Kenyon's teaching of creationism. This article also gained the attention of Discovery Institute co-founder Bruce Chapman. On discovering that Meyer was developing the idea of starting a scientific research center in conversations with conservative political scientist John G. West, Chapman invited them to create a unit within the Discovery Institute called the Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture (later renamed the Center for Science and Culture). This center was dedicated to overthrowing "scientific materialism" and "fomenting nothing less than a scientific and cultural revolution".[33] A 1995 conference, on "The Death of Materialism and the Renewal of Culture" served as a blueprint for the center.[34] By 1996 they had nearly a million dollars in grants, the largest being from Howard Ahmanson, Jr., with smaller but still large contributions coming from the Stewardship Foundation established by C. Davis Weyerhaeuser and the Maclellan Foundation, and appointed their first class of research fellows.[33]

The Wedge strategy[edit]

The Wedge strategy was formulated by Johnson to combat the "evil" of methodological naturalism.[35] It first came to the general public's attention when a Discovery Institute internal memo now known as the "Wedge Document" (believed to have been written in 1998) was leaked to the public in 1999. However it is believed to have been update of an earlier document to be implemented between 1996 and 2001.[36]

The document begins with "the proposition that human beings are created in the image of God is one of the bedrock principles on which Western civilization was built." and then goes on to outline the movement's goal to exploit perceived discrepancies within evolutionary theory in order to discredit evolution and scientific materialism in general. Much of the strategy is directed toward the broader public, as opposed to the professional scientific community. The stated "governing goals" of the CSC's wedge strategy are:

1. To defeat scientific materialism and its destructive moral, cultural and political legacies
2. To replace materialistic explanations with the theistic understanding that nature and human beings are created by God.

Critics of intelligent design movement argue that the wedge document and strategy demonstrate that the intelligent design movement is motivated purely by religion and political ideology and that the Discovery Institute as a matter of policy obfuscates its agenda. The Discovery Institute's official response was to characterize the criticism and concern as "irrelevant," "paranoid," and "near-panic" while portraying the wedge document as a "fund-raising document."[37]

Johnson in his 1997 book Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds confirmed some of the concerns voiced by the movement's gainsayers:

"If we understand our own times, we will know that we should affirm the reality of God by challenging the domination of materialism and naturalism in the world of the mind. With the assistance of many friends I have developed a strategy for doing this,...We call our strategy the "wedge." —Phillip Johnson[38]

Kansas evolution hearings[edit]

The Kansas evolution hearings were a series of hearings held in Topeka, Kansas, United States May 5 to May 12, 2005 by the Kansas State Board of Education and its State Board Science Hearing Committee to change how evolution and the origin of life would be taught in the state's public high school science classes. The hearings were arranged by the conservative Christian Board of Education with the intent of introducing intelligent design into science classes via the Teach the Controversy method.[39][40]

The hearings raised the issues of creation and evolution in public education and were attended by all the major participants in the intelligent design movement but were ultimately boycotted by the scientific community over concern of lending credibility to the claim, made by proponents of intelligent design, that evolution is purportedly the subject of wide dispute within the scientific and science education communities.

The Discovery Institute, hub of the intelligent design movement, played a central role in starting the hearings by promoting its Critical Analysis of Evolution lesson plan[41] which the Kansas State Board of Education eventually adopted over objections of the State Board Science Hearing Committee, and campaigning on behalf of conservative Republican candidates for the Board.[42]

Local science advocacy group Kansas Citizens for Science organized a boycott of the hearings by mainstream scientists, who accused it of being a kangaroo court and argued that their participation would lend an undeserved air of legitimacy to the hearings.[43] Board member Kathy Martin declared at the beginning of the hearings "Evolution has been proven false. ID (Intelligent Design) is science-based and strong in facts." At their conclusion she proclaimed that evolution is "an unproven, often disproven" theory.

"ID has theological implications. ID is not strictly Christian, but it is theistic," asserted Martin.[44] The scientific community rejects teaching intelligent design as science; a leading example being the United States National Academy of Sciences, which issued a policy statement saying "Creationism, intelligent design, and other claims of supernatural intervention in the origin of life or of species are not science because they are not testable by the methods of science."[45]

On February 13, 2007, the Board voted 6 to 4 to reject the amended science standards enacted in 2005.[46]

Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District[edit]

In the movement's sole major case, Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, it was represented by the Thomas More Law Center,[47] which had been seeking a test-case on the issue for at least five years.[48][49] However conflicting agendas resulted in the withdrawal of a number of Discovery Institute (DI) Fellows as expert witnesses, at the request of DI director Bruce Chapman,[50] and mutual recriminations with the DI after the case was lost.[51] The Alliance Defense Fund briefly represented the Foundation for Thought and Ethics (FTE) in its unsuccessful motion to intervene in this case,[52] and prepared amicus curiae briefs on behalf of the DI and FTE in it.[53] It has also made amicus curiae submissions[54] and offered to pay for litigation,[55] in other (actual and potential) creationism-related cases. On a far smaller scale, Larry Caldwell and his wife operate under the name Quality Science Education for All, and have made a number of lawsuits in furtherance of the movement's anti-evolution agenda. In 2005 they brought at least three separate lawsuits to further the intelligent design movement's agenda. One was later abandoned, two were dismissed.[56][57][58]

Reception by the scientific community[edit]

Intelligent design advocates realize that their arguments have little chance of acceptance within the mainstream scientific community, so they direct them toward politicians, philosophers and the general public.[59][60][61] What prima facie "scientific" material they have produced has been attacked by critics as containing factual misrepresentation and misleading, rhetorical and equivocal terminology. A number of documentaries that promote their assertion that intelligent design as an increasingly well-supported line of scientific inquiry have been made for the Discovery Institute.[62][63] The bulk of the material produced by the intelligent design movement, however, is not intended to be scientific but rather to promote its social and political aims.[64][65][66] Polls indicate that intelligent design's main appeal to citizens comes from its link to religious concepts.

An August 2005 poll from The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life showed 64% of Americans favoring the teaching of creationism along with evolution in science classrooms, though only 38% favored teaching it instead of evolution, with the results varying deeply by education level and religiosity. The poll showed the educated were far less attached to intelligent design than the less educated. Evangelicals and fundamentalists showed high rates of affiliation with intelligent design while other religious persons and the secular were much lower.[67]

Scientists responding to a poll overwhelmingly said intelligent design is about religion, not science. A 2002 sampling of 460 Ohio science professors had 91% say it's primarily religion, 93% say there is not "any scientifically valid evidence or an alternative scientific theory that challenges the fundamental principle of the theory of evolution," and 97% say that they did not use intelligent design concepts in their own research.[68]

In October and November 2001 the Discovery Institute advertised A Scientific Dissent From Darwinism listing what they claimed were "100 scientific dissenters" who had signed a statement that "We are skeptical of claims for the ability of random mutation and natural selection to account for the complexity of life. Careful examination of the evidence for Darwinian theory should be encouraged."[69] Shortly afterwards the NCSE described the wording as misleading, noting that a minority of the signatories were biologists and some of the others were engineers, mathematicians and philosophers, and that some signatories did not fully support the Discovery Institute's claims. The list was further criticized in a February 2006 New York Times article[70] which pointed out that only 25% of the signatories by then were biologists and that signatories' "doubts about evolution grew out of their religious beliefs." In 2003 as a humorous parody of such listings the NCSE produced the pro-evolution Project Steve list of signatories, all with variations of the name Steve and most of whom are trained biologists. As of July 31, 2006, the Discovery Institute lists "over 600 scientists", while Project Steve reported 749 signatories; as of September 30, 2009, 1,112 Steves have signed the statement.[71]

Structure[edit]

The 'big tent' strategy[edit]

The movement's strategy as set forth by Johnson states the replacement of "materialist science" with "theistic science" as its primary goal; and, more generally, for intelligent design to become "the dominant perspective in science" and to "permeate our religious, cultural, moral and political life." This agenda is now being actively pursued by the Center for Science and Culture (CSC), which plays the leading role in the promotion of intelligent design. Its fellows include most of the leading intelligent design advocates: William A. Dembski, Michael Behe, Jonathan Wells and Stephen C. Meyer.

Intelligent design has been described by its proponents as a "big tent" belief, one in which all theists united by a having some kind of creationist belief (but of differing opinions as regards details) can support. If successfully promoted, it would reinstate creationism in the teaching of science, after which debates regarding details could resume. In his 2002 article Big Tent: Traditional Creationism and the Intelligent Design Community,[72] Discovery Institute fellow Paul A. Nelson credits Johnson for the "big tent" approach and for reviving creationist debate since the Edwards v. Aguillard decision. According to Nelson, "The promise of the big tent of ID is to provide a setting where Christians and others may disagree amicably and fruitfully about how best to understand the natural world as well as scripture."

In his presentation to the 1999 Reclaiming America for Christ Conference, How the Evolution Debate can be Won, Johnson affirmed this "big tent" role for "The Wedge" (without using the term intelligent design):

To talk of a purposeful or guided evolution is not to talk about evolution at all. That is "slow creation." When you understand it that way, you realize that the Darwinian theory of evolution contradicts not just the book of Genesis, but every word in the Bible from beginning to end. It contradicts the idea that we are here because a Creator brought about our existence for a purpose. That is the first thing I realized, and it carries tremendous meaning. [...]

So did God create us? Or did we create God? That's an issue that unites people across the theistic world. Even religious, God-believing Jewish people will say, "That's an issue we really have a stake in, so let's debate that question first. Let us settle that question first. There are plenty of other important questions on which we may not agree, and we'll have a wonderful time discussing those questions after we've settled the first one. We will approach those questions in a better spirit because we have worked together for this important common end." [...]

[The Wedge is] inherently an ecumenical movement. Michael Behe is a Roman Catholic. The next book that is coming out from Cambridge University Press by one of my close associates is by an evangelical convert to Greek Orthodoxy. We have a lot of Protestants, too. The point is that we have this broad-based intellectual movement that is enabling us to get a foothold in the scientific and academic journals and in the journals of the various religious faiths.

— Phillip Johnson, The Evolution Debate Can Be Won[23]

The Discovery Institute consistently denies allegations that its intelligent design agenda has religious foundations, and downplays the religious source of much of its funding. In an interview of Stephen C. Meyer when ABC News asked about the Discovery Institute's many evangelical Christian donors the institute's public relations representative stopped the interview saying "I don't think we want to go down that path."[73]

Obfuscation of religious motivation[edit]

Phillip E. Johnson, largely regarded as the leader of the movement, positions himself as a "theistic realist" against "methodological naturalism" and intelligent design as the method through which God created life.[74] Johnson explicitly calls for intelligent design proponents to obfuscate their religious motivations so as to avoid having intelligent design recognized "as just another way of packaging the Christian evangelical message."[75] Hence intelligent design arguments are carefully formulated in secular terms and intentionally avoid positing the identity of the designer. Johnson has stated that cultivating ambiguity by employing secular language in arguments which are carefully crafted to avoid overtones of theistic creationism is a necessary first step for ultimately introducing the Christian concept of God as the designer. Johnson emphasizes "the first thing that has to be done is to get the Bible out of the discussion" and that "after we have separated materialist prejudice from scientific fact" only then can "biblical issues" be discussed.[76] In the foreword to Creation, Evolution, & Modern Science (2000) Johnson writes "The intelligent design movement starts with the recognition that 'In the beginning was the Word.' and 'In the beginning God created.' Establishing that point isn't enough, but it is absolutely essential to the rest of the gospel message."

Organizations[edit]

The Center for Science and Culture[edit]

The Center for Science and Culture (CSC), formerly known as the Center for Renewal of Science and Culture (CRSC), is a division of the Discovery Institute. The Center consists of a tightly knit core of people who have worked together for almost a decade to advance intelligent design as both a concept and a movement as necessary adjuncts of its wedge strategy policy. This cadre includes Phillip E. Johnson, Michael Behe, William A. Dembski and Stephen C. Meyer. They are united by a religious vision which, although it varies among the members in its particulars and is seldom acknowledged outside of the Christian press, is predicated on the shared conviction that America is in need of "renewal" which can be accomplished only by unseating "Godless" materialism and instituting religion as its cultural foundation.

In his keynote address at the "Research and Progress in intelligent design" (RAPID) conference held in 2002 at Biola University, William A. Dembski described intelligent design's "dual role as a constructive scientific project and as a means for cultural renaissance." In a similar vein, the movement's hub, the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture had until 2002 been the "Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture". Explaining the name change, a spokesperson for the CSC insisted that the old name was simply too long. However, the change followed accusations that the center's real interest was not science but reforming culture along lines favored by conservative Christians.

Critics of the movement cite the Wedge Document as confirmation of this criticism and assert that the movement's leaders, particularly Phillip E. Johnson, view the subject as a culture war: "Darwinian evolution is not primarily important as a scientific theory but as a culturally dominant creation story ... When there is radical disagreement in a commonwealth about the creation story, the stage is set for intense conflict, the kind ... known as 'culture war.' "

Recently the Center for Science and Culture's has moderated its previous overtly theistic mission statements[77] to appeal to a broader, a more secular audience. It hopes to accomplish this by using less overtly theistic messages and language.[78] Despite this, the Center for Science and Culture still states as a goal a redefinition of science, and the philosophy on which it is based, particularly the exclusion of what it calls the "unscientific principle of materialism", and in particular the acceptance of what it calls "the scientific theory of intelligent design".

According to Reason magazine, promotional materials from the Discovery Institute acknowledge that the Ahmanson family donated $1.5 million to the Center for Science and Culture, then known as the Center for Renewal of Science and Culture, for a research and publicity program to "unseat not just Darwinism but also Darwinism's cultural legacy". Mr. Ahmanson funds many causes important to the Christian religious right, including Christian Reconstructionism, whose goal is to place the U.S. "under the control of biblical law."[79] Until 1995, Ahmanson sat on the board of the Christian reconstructionist Chalcedon Foundation.[80]

Other organizations[edit]

  • The Access Research Network (ARN) has become a comprehensive clearinghouse for ID resources, including news releases, publications, multimedia products and an elementary school science curriculum. Its stated mission is "providing accessible information on science, technology and society issues from an intelligent design perspective."[81] Its directors are Dennis Wagner and CSC Fellows Mark Hartwig, Stephen C. Meyer and Paul Nelson.[82] Its 'Friends of ARN' is also dominated by CSC Fellows.[81]
  • The Intelligent Design and Evolution Awareness Center (IDEA Center) is a Christian[83] nonprofit organization formed originally as a student club promoting intelligent design at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). There are about 25 active chapters of the organization in the United States, Kenya, Canada, Ukraine, and The Philippines. There have been 35 active chapters formed and several others are currently pending. Six out of the listed 32 chapters in the USA are located at high schools [84] In December 2008, biologist Allen MacNeill stated, on the basis of analysis of the webpages of the national organization and local chapters, that it appeared that the organization is moribund.[85]
  • The Intelligent Design Network (IDnet) is a nonprofit organization formed in Kansas to promote intelligent design. It is based in Shawnee Mission, Kansas. The Intelligent Design Network was founded by John Calvert, a corporate finance lawyer with a bachelor's degree in geology and nutritionist William S. Harris. Together, Calvert and Harris have published the article "Intelligent Design: The Scientific Alternative to Evolution" in the National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly.[86] Calvert also has written a play about intelligent design in a high school biology class with Daniel Schwabauer.[87]
  • The Foundation for Thought and Ethics (FTE) is a Christian non-profit organization[88] based in Richardson, Texas that publishes textbooks and articles promoting intelligent design, abstinence, and Christian nationism. In addition, the foundation's officers and editors are some of the leading proponents[according to whom?] of intelligent design. The FTE has close associations with the Discovery Institute, hub of the intelligent design movement and other religious Christian groups.

Activism[edit]

The intelligent design movement primarily campaigns on two fronts: a public relations campaign meant to influence the popular media and sway public opinion; and an aggressive lobbying campaign to cultivate support for the teaching of intelligent design amongst policymakers and the wider educational community. Both these activities are largely funded and directed by the Discovery Institute, from national to grassroots levels. The movement's first goal is to establish an acceptance of intelligent design at the expense of evolution in public school science; its long-term goal is no less than the "renewal" of American culture through the shaping of public policy to reflect conservative Christian values. As the Discovery Institute states, intelligent design is central to this agenda: "Design theory promises to reverse the stifling dominance of the materialist worldview, and to replace it with a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions."

The Discovery Institute has also relied on several polls to indicate the acceptance of intelligent design. A 2005 Harris poll identified ten percent of adults in the United States as taking what they called the intelligent design position, that "human beings are so complex that they required a powerful force or intelligent being to help create them". (64% agreed with the creationist view that "human beings were created directly by God" and 22% believed that "human beings evolved from earlier species". However, 49% accepted plant and animal evolution, while 45% did not.)[89] Although some polls commissioned by the Discovery Institute show more support, these polls have been criticized as suffering from considerable flaws, such as having a low response rate (248 out of 16,000), being conducted on behalf of an organization with an expressed interest in the outcome of the poll, and containing leading questions.[90]

Critics of intelligent design and its movement contend that intelligent design is a specific form of creationism, neo-creationism, a viewpoint rejected by intelligent design advocates. It was bolstered by the 2005 ruling in United States federal court that a public school district requirement for science classes to teach that intelligent design is an alternative to evolution was a violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. In Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District (2005), United States District Judge John E. Jones III also ruled that intelligent design is not science and is essentially religious in nature.

In pursuing the goal of establishing intelligent design at the expense of evolution in public school science, intelligent design groups have threatened and isolated high school science teachers, school board members and parents who opposed their efforts.[91][92][93] Responding to the well-organized curricular challenges of intelligent design proponents to local school boards have been disruptive and divisive in the communities where they've taken place. The campaigns run by intelligent design groups place teachers in the difficult position of arguing against their employers while the legal challenges to local school districts are costly and divert scarce funds away from education into court battles. Although these court battles have almost invariably resulted in the defeat of intelligent design proponents, they are draining and divisive to local schools. For example, as a result of Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District trial, the Dover Area School District was forced to pay $1,000,011 in legal fees and damages for pursuing a policy of teaching the controversy - presenting intelligent design as an allegedly scientific alternative to evolution. [94]

Leading members of the intelligent design movement are also associated with denialism, both Phillip Johnson and Jonathan Wells have signed an AIDS denialism petition.[95][96][97][98]

Campaigns[edit]

The Discovery Institute, through its Center for Science and Culture, has formulated a number of campaigns to promote intelligent design, while discrediting evolutionary biology, which the Institute terms "Darwinism."[99]

Prominent Institute campaigns have been to 'Teach the Controversy' and, more recently, to allow Critical Analysis of Evolution. Other prominent campaigns have claimed that intelligent design advocates (most notably Richard Sternberg) have been discriminated against, and thus that Academic Freedom bills are needed to protect academics' and teachers' ability to criticise evolution, and that there is a link from evolution to ideologies such as Nazism and eugenics. These three claims are all publicised in the pro-ID movie Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed. Other campaigns have included petitions, most notably A Scientific Dissent From Darwinism.

The response of the scientific community has been to reiterate that the theory of evolution is overwhelmingly accepted as a matter of scientific consensus[100] whereas intelligent design has been rejected by the overwhelming majority of the scientific community (see list of scientific societies explicitly rejecting intelligent design).

Politics and public education[edit]

The main battlefield for this culture war has been U.S. regional and state school boards. Courts have also become involved as those campaigns to include intelligent design or weaken the teaching of evolution in public school science curricula are challenged on First Amendment grounds.[101] In Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District the plaintiffs successfully argued that intelligent design is a form of creationism, and that the school board policy thus violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

Intelligent design is an integral part of a political campaign by cultural conservatives, largely from evangelical religious convictions, that seek to redefine science to suit their own ideological agenda.[102] Though numerically a minority of Americans,.[67] the politics of intelligent design is based less on numbers than on intensive mobilization of ideologically committed followers and savvy public relations campaigns.[103] Political repercussions from the culturally conservative sponsorship of the issue has been divisive and costly to the effected communities, polarizing and dividing not only those directly charged with educating young people but entire local communities.

With a doctrine that calls itself science among non-scientists but is rejected by the vast majority of the real practitioners, an amicable coexistence and collaboration between intelligent design advocates and upholders of mainstream science education standards is rare. With mainstream scientific and educational organizations saying the theory of evolution is not "in crisis" or a subject doubted by scientists, nor intelligent design the emergent scientific paradigm or rival theory its proponents proclaim,[104] "teaching the controversy" is suitable for classes on politics, history, culture, or theology they say, but not science. By attempting to force the issue into science classrooms, intelligent design proponents create a charged environment that forces participants and bystanders alike to declare their positions, which has resulted in intelligent design groups threatening and isolating high school science teachers, school board members and parents who opposed their efforts.[91][92][93][105][106]

In a round table discussion entitled "Science Wars: Should Schools Teach Intelligent Design?"[107] at the American Enterprise Institute on 21 October 2005 and televised on C-SPAN, the Discovery Institute's Mark Ryland and the Thomas More Law Center's Richard Thompson had a frank disagreement, in which Ryland claimed the Discovery Institute has always cautioned against the teaching of intelligent design, and Thompson responded that the institute's leadership had not only advocated the teaching of intelligent design, but encouraged others to do so, and that the Dover Area School District had merely followed the institute's calls for action.[51] As evidence, Thompson cited the Discovery Institute's guidebook Intelligent Design in Public School Science Curricula[108] written by the institute's director and co-founder, Stephen C. Meyer and David DeWolf, a fellow of the institute, which stated in its closing paragraphs: "Moreover, as the previous discussion demonstrates, school boards have the authority to permit, and even encourage, teaching about design theory as an alternative to Darwinian evolution -- and this includes the use of textbooks such as Of Pandas and People that present evidence for the theory of intelligent design."

Higher education[edit]

In 1999, William Dembski was invited by Baylor University president Robert B. Sloan to form the Michael Polanyi Center, described by Dembski as "the first Intelligent Design think tank at a research university". Its creation was controversial with Baylor faculty, and in 2000 it was merged with the Institute for Faith and Learning. Dembski, although remaining as a research professor until 2005, was given no courses to teach.[109]

Two universities have offered courses in intelligent design: Oklahoma Baptist University, where ID advocate Michael Newton Keas taught 'Unified Studies: Introduction to Biology', and Biola University, host of the Mere Creation conference.[110] Additionally, numerous Christian evangelical institutions have faculty with interests in intelligent design. These include Oral Roberts University[111] and Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.[112] Patrick Henry University teaches creationism but also exposes its students to both Darwinian evolution and intelligent design.[113][relevant? ]

In 2005 the American Association of University Professors issued a strongly worded statement asserting that the theory of evolution is nearly universally accepted in the community of scholars, and deploring requirements "to make students aware of an intelligent-design hypothesis to account for the origins of life." It said that such requirements are "inimical to principles of academic freedom."[114]

The Web[edit]

Much of the actual debate over intelligent design between intelligent design proponents and members of the scientific community has taken place on the Web, primarily blogs and message boards, instead of the scientific journals and symposia where traditionally much science is discussed and settled. In promoting intelligent design the actions of its proponents have been more like a political pressure group than like researchers entering an academic debate as described by movement critic Taner Edis.[115] The movement lacks any verifiable scientific research program and concomitant debates in academic circles.[116]

The Web continues to play a central role in the Discovery Institute's strategy of promotion of intelligent design and it adjunct campaigns. On September 6, 2006, on the center's evolutionnews.org blog Discovery Institute staffer Casey Luskin published a post entitled "Putting Wikipedia On Notice About Their Biased Anti-ID Intelligent Design Entries." There Luskin reprinted a letter from a reader complaining that he believed Wikipedia's coverage of ID to be "one sided" and that pro-intelligent design editors were censored and attacked. Along with the letter Luskin published a Wikipedia email address for general information and urged readers to "to contact Wikipedia to express your feelings about the biased nature of the entries on intelligent design."[117]

International[edit]

Despite being primarily based in the United States, there have been efforts to introduce pro Intelligent Design teaching material into educational facilities in other countries. In the United Kingdom, the group Truth in Science has used material from the Discovery Institute to create free teaching packs which have been mass-mailed to all UK schools.[118] Shortly after this emerged, government ministers announced that they regarded intelligent design to be creationism and unsuitable for teaching in the classroom. They also announced that the teaching of the material in science classes was to be prohibited.[119]

Criticisms of the movement[edit]

One of the most common criticisms of the movement and its leadership is that of intellectual dishonesty, in the form of misleading impressions created by the use of rhetoric, intentional ambiguity, and misrepresented evidence.[120] It is alleged that its goal is to lead an unwary public to reach certain conclusions, and that many have been deceived as a result. Critics of the movement, such as Eugenie Scott, Robert Pennock and Barbara Forrest, claim that leaders of the Intelligent Design movement, and the Discovery Institute in particular, knowingly misquote scientists and other experts, deceptively omit contextual text through ellipsis, and make unsupported amplifications of relationships and credentials. Theologian and molecular biophysicist Alister McGrath has a number of criticisms of the Intelligent design movement, stating that "those who adopt this approach make Christianity deeply... vulnerable to scientific progress" and defining it as just another "god-of-the-gaps" theory. He went on to criticize the movement on theological grounds as well, stating "It is not an approach I accept, either on scientific or theological grounds."[121]

Critics claim that the institute uses academic credentials and affiliations opportunistically. In 2001, the Discovery Institute purchased advertisements in three national publications (the New York Review of Books, the New Republic and the Weekly Standard) to proclaim the adherence of approximately 100 scientists to the following statement: "We are skeptical of claims for the ability of random mutation and natural selection to account for the complexity of life. Careful examination of the evidence for Darwinian theory should be encouraged."

Such statements commonly note the institutional affiliations of signatories for purposes of identification. But this statement strategically listed either the institution that granted a signatory's PhD or the institutions with which the individual is presently affiliated. Thus the institutions listed for Raymond G. Bohlin, Fazale Rana, and Jonathan Wells, for example, were the University of Texas, Ohio University, and the University of California, Berkeley, where they earned their degrees, rather than their current affiliations: Probe Ministries for Bohlin, The Reasons to Believe Ministry for Rana, and The Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture for Wells. Similarly confusing lists of local scientists were circulated during controversies over evolution education in Georgia, New Mexico, Ohio, and Texas. In another instance, the Discovery Institute frequently mentions the Nobel Prize in connection with Henry F. Schaefer, a Discovery Institute fellow, and chemist at the University of Georgia. Critics allege that Discovery Institute is inflating his reputation by constantly referring to him as a "five-time nominee for the Nobel Prize" because Nobel Prize nominations remain confidential for fifty years.

This criticism is not reserved only to the institute; individual intelligent design proponents have been accused of using their own credentials and those of others in a misleading or confusing fashion. For example, critics allege William Dembski gratuitously invokes his laurels by boasting of his correspondence with a Nobel laureate, bragging that one of his books was published in a series whose editors include a Nobel laureate, and exulting that the publisher of the intelligent design book The Mystery of Life's Origin, Philosophical Library Inc., also published books by eight Nobel laureates. Critics claim that Dembski purposefully omits relevant facts which he fails to mention to his audience that in 1986, during the Edwards v. Aguillard hearings, 72 Nobel laureates endorsed an amicus curiae brief that noted that the "evolutionary history of organisms has been as extensively tested and as thoroughly corroborated as any biological concept."

Another common criticism is that since no intelligent design research has been published in mainstream, peer-reviewed scientific journals, the Discovery Institute often misuses the work of mainstream scientists by putting out lists of articles that allegedly support their arguments for intelligent design drawing from mainstream scientific literature. Often, the original authors respond that their articles cited by the center don't support their arguments at all. Many times, the original authors have publicly refuted them for distorting the meaning of something they've written for their own purposes.

Sahotra Sarkar, a molecular biologist at the University of Texas, has testified that intelligent design advocates, and specifically the Discovery Institute, have misused his work by misrepresenting its conclusions to bolster their own claims, has gone on to allege that the extent of the misrepresentations rises to the level of professional malfeasance:[122]

"When testifying before the Texas State Board of Education in 2003 (in a battle over textbook adoption that we won hands down), I claimed that my work had been maliciously misused by members of the Discovery Institute. ... The trouble is that it says nothing of the sort that Meyer claims. I don't mention Dembski, ID, or "intelligent" information whatever that may be. I don't talk about assembly instructions. In fact what the paper essentially does is question the value of informational notions altogether, which made many molecular biologists unhappy, but which is also diametrically opposed to the "complex specified information" project of the ID creationists. ... Notice how my work is being presented as being in concordance with ID when Meyer knows very well where I stand on this issue. If Meyer were an academic, this kind of malfeasance would rightly earn him professional censure. Unfortunately he's not. He's only the Director of the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture." —Sahotra Sarkar

An October 2005 conference called "When Christians and Cultures Clash" was held at the Pennsylvania Evangelical School of Theology. Attorney Randy Wenger, who is affiliated with the Alliance Defense Fund, and a close ally of the Discovery Institute, and one of the presenters at the conference advocated the use of subterfuge for advancing the movement's religious goals: "But even with God’s blessing, it’s helpful to consult a lawyer before joining the battle. For instance, the Dover area school board might have had a better case for the intelligent design disclaimer they inserted into high school biology classes had they not mentioned a religious motivation at their meetings. Give us a call before you do something controversial like that, I think we need to do a better job at being clever as serpents."[123]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Creationism's Trojan Horse Forrest & Gross, p. 7
  2. ^ Forrest, Barbara (May 2007). Understanding the Intelligent Design Creationist Movement: Its True Nature and Goals. A Position Paper from the Center for Inquiry, Office of Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: Center for Inquiry. Retrieved 2007-08-06. .
  3. ^ a b Wedge Strategy Discovery Institute, 1999.
  4. ^ Barbara Forrest. 2001. "The Wedge at Work: Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics
  5. ^ "An Objective Observer Would Know that ID and Teaching About 'Gaps' and 'Problems' in Evolutionary Theory are Creationist, Religious Strategies that Evolved from Earlier Forms of Creationism: The concept of intelligent design (hereinafter "ID"), in its current form, came into existence after the Edwards case was decided in 1987. For the reasons that follow, we conclude that the religious nature of ID would be readily apparent to an objective observer, adult or child." (page 18) "...we find that ID's religious nature would be further evident to our objective observer because it directly involves a supernatural designer." (page 24) "A 'hypothetical reasonable observer,' adult or child, who is 'aware of the history and context of the community and forum' is also presumed to know that ID is a form of creationism. (page 31) "The evidence at trial demonstrates that ID is nothing less than the progeny of creationism." (page 31) Context Ruling, Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District. Pages 17-35
  6. ^ "Q. Has the Discovery Institute been a leader in the intelligent design movement? A. Yes, the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture. Q. And are almost all of the individuals who are involved with the intelligent design movement associated with the Discovery Institute? A. All of the leaders are, yes." Barbara Forrest, 2005, testifying in the Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District trial. "Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District Trial transcript: Day 6 (October 5), PM Session, Part 1.". The TalkOrigins Archive. 2005. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
    • "The Discovery Institute is the ideological and strategic backbone behind the eruption of skirmishes over science in school districts and state capitals across the country." In: Wilgoren, J (2005-08-21). "Politicized Scholars Put Evolution on the Defensive" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
    "Who is behind the ID movement?". Frequently Asked Questions About "Intelligent Design". American Civil Liberties Union. 2005-09-16. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
    Kahn, JP (2005-07-27). "The Evolution of George Gilder. The Author And Tech-Sector Guru Has A New Cause To Create Controversy With: Intelligent Design". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
    "Who's Who of Intelligent Design Proponents". Science & Religion Guide. Science & Theology News. November 2005. Retrieved 2007-07-20.  (PDF file from Discovery Institute).
    • "The engine behind the ID movement is the Discovery Institute." Attie, Alan D.; Elliot Sober, Ronald L. Numbers, Richard M. Amasino, Beth Cox4, Terese Berceau, Thomas Powell and Michael M. Cox (2006). "Defending science education against intelligent design: a call to action". Journal of Clinical Investigation 116 (5): 1134–1138. doi:10.1172/JCI28449. PMC 1451210. PMID 16670753. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  7. ^ "Science and Policy: Intelligent Design and Peer Review". American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-04-05. Retrieved 2013-03-04. 
  8. ^ AAAS Denounces Anti-Evolution Laws American Association for the Advancement of Science News, February 19, 2006.
  9. ^ Ruling, Kitzmiller v. Dover, page 70
  10. ^ a b c Ruling, Kitzmiller v. Dover page 83
  11. ^ Defending science education against intelligent design: a call to action Journal of Clinical Investigation 116:1134-1138 (2006). doi:10.1172/JCI28449. A publication of the American Society for Clinical Investigation.
  12. ^ Patricia O’Connell Killen, a religion professor at Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma whose work centers around the regional religious identity of the Pacific Northwest, recently wrote that "religiously inspired think tanks such as the conservative evangelical Discovery Institute" are part of the "religious landscape" of that area. [1]
  13. ^ The Wedge Strategy Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture. 1998
  14. ^ The Design Revolution: Answering the Toughest Questions about Intelligent Design William A. Dembski. Intervarsity Press, 2004.
  15. ^ Why scientists dismiss 'intelligent design' Ker Than. MSNBC, September 23, 2005.
  16. ^ Q&A: Darwin on Trial Margaret Talbot. The New Yorker, November 28, 2005.
  17. ^ AAAS Board Resolution on Intelligent Design Theory American Association for the Advancement of Science.
  18. ^ National Academy of Sciences, 1999 Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences, Second Edition
  19. ^ DI's New Talking Point Ed Brayton. Dispatches from the Culture Wars, December 11, 2006.
  20. ^ The Wedge at Work: How Intelligent Design Creationism Is Wedging Its Way into the Cultural and Academic Mainstream Barbara Forrest. Chapter 1 of the book Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics (MIT Press, 2001).
  21. ^ The Evolution Wars Claudia Wallis. TIME magazine. August 15, 2005.
  22. ^ Reclaim America .org
  23. ^ a b The Evolution Debate Can Be Won. Phillip Johnson. Truths that Transform.
  24. ^ Jonathan Witt. Discovery Institute. Evolution News & Views: Dover Judge Regurgitates Mythological History of Intelligent Design; December 20, 2005 [Retrieved 2007-10-05].
  25. ^ Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, 04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005). , pp. 31 – 33.
  26. ^ Nick Matzke. National Center for Science Education. NCSE Resource -- 9.0. Matzke (2006): The Story of the Pandas Drafts; 2006 [Retrieved 2009-11-18]. * Nick Matzke. National Center for Science Education. Missing Link discovered!; 2006 [archived 2007-01-14; Retrieved 2009-11-18].
  27. ^ Book thrown at proponents of Intelligent Design Celeste Biever. NewScientist.com, October 6, 2005,
  28. ^ Kitzmiller v Dover day 6 a.m. (Barbara Forrest's testimony)
  29. ^ Stewart, Robert (2007). Intelligent design: William A. Dembski Michael Ruse in dialogue. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-8006-6218-0. 
  30. ^ Gould SJ (1992). "Impeaching a Self-Appointed Judge". Scientific American 267 (1). Retrieved 2009-04-01. 
  31. ^ Forrest & Gross(2004), p18
  32. ^ Numbers(2006) p380
  33. ^ a b Numbers(2006) pp381-382
  34. ^ Forrest&Gross(2004) p19
  35. ^ Numbers(2006) p377
  36. ^ Forrest&Gross(2004) pp 25-29
  37. ^ The Wedge Document: So What? Discovery Institute. (PDF file)
  38. ^ Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds Phillip Johnson. pg. 91-92, 1997.
  39. ^ Transcripts, Kansas Evolution Hearings Page 6. Via Talk Origins Archive.
  40. ^ A Real Monkey Trial Peter Dizikes. Salon, May 13, 2005.
  41. ^ CSC - Key Resources for Parents and School Board Members
  42. ^ 6News Lawrence: Some question group's move with elections nearing
  43. ^ Wichita Eagle, "Scientists Right to Boycott Evolution Hearings," March 30, 2005; "Evolution Hearings Rejected by Scientists," April 12, 2005.
  44. ^ Reason Magazine - Unintelligent Design
  45. ^ [2].
  46. ^ "Evolution of Kansas science standards continues as Darwin's theories regain prominence". International Herald-Tribune. 2007-02-13. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  47. ^ Intelligent designer Gordy Slack. Salon.com, October 2005.
  48. ^ "For years, a lawyer for the Thomas More Law Center in Michigan visited school boards around the country searching for one willing to challenge evolution by teaching intelligent design, and to face a risky, high-profile trial." In Intelligent Design Case, a Cause in Search of a Lawsuit Laurie Goodstein. The New York Times, November 4, 2005.
  49. ^ "TMLC representatives traveled the country from at least early 2000, encouraging school boards to teach ID in science classrooms. From Virginia to Minnesota, TMLC recommended the textbook Of Pandas and People (Pandas) as a supplement to regular biology textbooks, promising to defend the schools free of charge when the ACLU filed the inevitable lawsuit. Finally, in summer 2004, they found a willing school board in Dover, Pennsylvania, a board known to have been searching for a way to get creationism inserted into its science classrooms for years." Kitzmiller et al. versus Dover Area School District Burt Humburg, Ed Brayton. Skeptic magazine, July–December 2005.
  50. ^ Seattle's Discovery Institute scrambling to rebound after intelligent-design ruling, David Postman, The Seattle Times, April 26, 2006
  51. ^ a b Discovery Institute and Thomas More Law Center Squabble in AEI Forum, October 23rd, 2005 National Center for Science Education
  52. ^ ADF attorneys seek to supply missing link in intelligent design curriculum case Alliance Defense Fund, May 24, 2005.
  53. ^ Plaintiffs' Response to Amicus Briefs, Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District
  54. ^ Circuit Court Sends 'Textbook Sticker' Case Back to Lower Court at the Wayback Machine (archived August 22, 2006), Jim Brown, 2006Agape Press, June 1, 2006
  55. ^ Focus on religion a central ADF tenet, Michael Moore, Missoulian, 29 February 2004
  56. ^ Nuisance Lawsuit Against Scott and NCSE Withdrawn, Eugenie Scott, The Pandas Thumb, September 14, 2005
  57. ^ Caldwell vs Roseville, NO. CIV. S-05-0061 FCD JFM September 17, 2007
  58. ^ Court dismisses lawsuit targeting evolution website, Robert Sanders, UC Berkeley News, 15 March 2006
  59. ^ "Whether educational authorities allow the schools to teach about the controversy or not, public recognition that there is something seriously wrong with Darwinian orthodoxy is going to keep on growing. While the educators stonewall, our job is to continue building the community of people who understand the difference between a science that tests its theories against the evidence, and a pseudoscience that protects its key doctrines by imposing philosophical rules and erecting legal barriers to freedom of thought. The Pennsylvania Controversy Phillip E. Johnson, Phillip Johnson's Weekly Wedge Update. June 11, 2001
  60. ^ "If the science educators continue to pretend that there is no controversy to teach, perhaps the television networks and the newspapers will take over the responsibility of informing the public." Icons of Evolution exposed on CNN Phillip E. Johnson, Phillip Johnson's Weekly Wedge Update. May 2001
  61. ^ "If the public school educators will not "teach the controversy," our informal network can do the job for them. In time, the educators will be running to catch up." Passing the Torch Phillip E. Johnson, Phillip Johnson's Weekly Wedge Update. April 9, 2002
  62. ^ Privileged Planet - New science documentary explores Earth’s extraordinary place in the cosmos Staff, Discovery Institute, August 20, 2004
  63. ^ Unlocking the Mystery of Life - Documentary reveals growing number of scientific challenges to Darwinian evolution Stephen C. Meyer and W. Peter Allen. Illustra Media, July 15, 2004
  64. ^ Ruling - whether ID is science, pg.83 Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District.
  65. ^ Ruling - whether ID is science, pg.89 Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District.
  66. ^ Ruling - disclaimer, pg. 49 Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District.
  67. ^ a b Public Divided on Origins of Life The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. August 30, 2005
  68. ^ Ohio Scientists' Intelligent Design Poll Internet Public Opinion Laboratory, Department of Political Science University of Cincinnati. October 2002.
  69. ^ A Scientific Dissent from Darwinism Discovery Institute — Center for Science and Culture accessed July 27, 2006
  70. ^ Few Biologists But Many Evangelicals Sign Anti-Evolution Petition Kenneth Chang. The New York Times, February 21, 2006
  71. ^ The List of Steves, National Center for Science Education
  72. ^ Life In The Big Tent: Traditional Creationism And The Intelligent Design Community Paul A. Nelson. Christian Research Institute. (PDF file)
  73. ^ Small Group Wields Major Influence in Intelligent Design Debate ABC News, November 9, 2005
  74. ^ "A theistic realist assumes that the universe and all its creatures were brought into existence for a purpose by God. Theistic realists expect this "fact" of creation to have empirical, observable consequences that are different from the consequences one would observe if the universe were the product of nonrational causes . . . . God always has the option of working through regular secondary mechanisms, and we observe such mechanisms frequently. On the other hand, many important questions--including the origin of genetic information and human consciousness--may not be explicable in terms of unintelligent causes, just as a computer or a book cannot be explained that way." Phillip Johnson. Reason in the Balance: The Case Against Naturalism in Science, Law and Education. 1995. InterVarsity Press pg. 208-209.
  75. ^ "Intelligent Design is an intellectual movement, and the Wedge strategy stops working when we are seen as just another way of packaging the Christian evangelical message. ... The evangelists do what they do very well, and I hope our work opens up for them some doors that have been closed." Phillip Johnson. "Keeping the Darwinists Honest", an interview with Phillip Johnson. In Citizen Magazine. April 1999.
  76. ^ "...the first thing that has to be done is to get the Bible out of the discussion. ...This is not to say that the biblical issues are unimportant; the point is rather that the time to address them will be after we have separated materialist prejudice from scientific fact." Phillip Johnson. "The Wedge", Touchstone: A Journal of Mere Christianity. July/August 1999.
  77. ^ About The CRSC recovered from the Internet Archive.
  78. ^ About the CSC Discovery Institute
  79. ^ Avenging angel of the religious right Max Blumenthal. Salon.com, January 1, 2004.
  80. ^ Theocratic Dominionism Gains Influence Part 3 - No Longer Without Sheep Frederick Clarkson. The Public Eye Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 1. Political Research Associates, March/June 1994.
  81. ^ a b Barbara Forrest and Paul R. Gross, Creationism's Trojan Horse. Oxford University Press, (January 8, 2004) ISBN 0-19-515742-7 (pp 165-167)
  82. ^ "About the Access Research Network". Access Research Network. 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  83. ^ "Luskin explained that as a Christian group, 'we wanted to be totally open about who we thought the designer was.'" Intelligent Design Gains Momentum, Raises Eyebrows on Campuses at the Wayback Machine (archived September 2, 2006)
  84. ^ http://www.ideacenter.org/clubs/locations.php
  85. ^ The "Intelligent Design" Movement on College and University Campuses is Dead, Allen MacNeill
  86. ^ Intelligent Design: The Scientific Alternative to Evolution, John H. Calvert and William S. Harris, National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly, Autumn 2003
  87. ^ The Rule, Daniel Schwabauer and John Calvert
  88. ^ Kitzmiller v. Dover: July 14 Hearing: Jon A. Buell
  89. ^ Nearly Two-thirds of U.S. Adults Believe Human Beings Were Created by God The Harris Poll #52, July 6, 2005.
  90. ^ Mooney, Chris (2003-09-11). "Polling for ID". Doubt and About. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  91. ^ a b Testimony, Aralene Callahan Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District September 27, 2005
  92. ^ a b Testimony, Julie Smith Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District September 28, 2005
  93. ^ a b Defending science education against intelligent design: a call to action Journal of Clinical Investigation 116:1134-1138 (2006). American Society for Clinical Investigation.
  94. ^ Dover gets a million-dollar bill Christina Kauffman. The York Dispatch, February 22, 2006
  95. ^ Is It Science Yet?: Intelligent Design Creationism And The Constitution Matthew J. Brauer, Barbara Forrest, Steven G. Gey. Washington University Law Quarterly, Volume 83, Number 1, 2005. (PDF file)
  96. ^ The Group for the Scientific Reappraisal of the HIV-AIDS Hypothesis
  97. ^ "His personal peculiarities include membership in the Moonies and support for AIDS reappraisal - the theory that the HIV is not the primary cause of AIDS" Undercover at the Discovery Institute Beth Quittman. Seattlest, September 8, 2006.
  98. ^ "some leading lights of anti-evolution Intelligent Design theory, including ID godfather Phillip Johnson and Moonie Jonathan Wells, have joined the AIDS denialist camp." AIDS 'Denialism' Gathers Strange Bedfellows Peter McKnight. Originally published in the Vancouver Sun, June 17, 2006.
  99. ^ Understanding the Intelligent Design Creationist Movement: Its True Nature and Goals. A Position Paper from the Center for Inquiry, Office of Public Policy Barbara Forrest. May, 2007.
  100. ^ "99.9 percent of scientists accept evolution" Finding the Evolution in Medicine National Institutes of Health
  101. ^ Teaching Evolution: A State-by-State Debate National Public Radio, December 20, 2005.
  102. ^ The Political Design of Intelligent Design Russell D. Renka, Professor of Political Science. Southeast Missouri State University. November 16, 2005
  103. ^ The institute spends more than $1 million a year for research, polls, lobbying and media pieces that support intelligent design and their Teach the Controversy campaign Battle on Teaching Evolution Sharpens Peter Slevin Washington Post, March 14, 2005, and is employing the same Washington, D.C. public relations firm that promoted the Contract with America Politicized Scholars Put Evolution on the Defensive By Jodi Wilgoren, New York Times, August 21, 2005
  104. ^ Faculty Association Speaks Out on Three Top Issues American Association of University Professors. June 17, 2005.
  105. ^ "Moreover, Board members and teachers opposing the curriculum change and its implementation have been confronted directly. First, Casey Brown testified that following her opposition to the curriculum change on October 18, 2004, Buckingham called her an atheist and Bonsell told her that she would go to hell. Second, Angie Yingling was coerced into voting for the curriculum change by Board members accusing her of being an atheist and un- Christian. In addition, both Bryan Rehm and Fred Callahan have been confronted in similarly hostile ways, as have teachers in the DASD." Ruling, conclusion - Effect of Board’s Actions on Plaintiffs Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District.
  106. ^ In July 2006 a moderator of the blog of intelligent design proponent William A. Dembski, uncommondescent.com, endorsed bullying the children of the plaintiffs in the Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District trial and committing vandalism to drive them out of town and that he intends to publish their names on the Web to that end.[3][4][5][6]
  107. ^ Science Wars Should Schools Teach Intelligent Design? Video of American Enterprise Institute forum that took place during the Kitzmiller case, originally broadcast on C-SPAN
  108. ^ Intelligent Design in Public School Science Curricula: A Legal Guidebook Access Research Network
  109. ^ Phy-Olsen, Allene (2010). Evolution, Creationism, and Intelligent Design. Westport: Greenwood. pp. 70–71. ISBN 0-313-37841-X. 
  110. ^ Forrest & Gross(2004) p165
  111. ^ "Dr. William Collier." Oral Roberts University. Web. n.d. Retrieved 5 Jan. 2012.
  112. ^ Profile of Michael N. Keas, Professor of the History and Philosophy of Science. Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary. Web. 2012. Retrieved 5 Jan. 2012.
  113. ^ Patrick Henry College Student Handbook, Ed. 10.2.4., p. 17. Patrick Henry College. 11 April 2011. Web. Retrieved 5 Jan. 2012.
  114. ^ Faculty Association Speaks Out on Three Top Issues at the Wayback Machine (archived February 10, 2006), American Association of University Professors, June 17, 2005
  115. ^ Why ID Fails Taner Edis. 2005.
  116. ^ The Wedge at Work Chapter 1 of Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics. Barbara Forrest. MIT Press, 2001.
  117. ^ Putting Wikipedia On Notice About Their Biased Anti-ID Intelligent Design Entries Casey Luskin. EvolutionNews.org, September 6, 2006.
  118. ^ Revealed: rise of creationism in the UK Guardian Unlimited. November 27, 2006.
  119. ^ Ministers to ban creationist teaching aids in science lessons Guardian Unlimited. December 7, 2006.
  120. ^ "ID supporters present fallacious arguments, use dishonest rhetoric, and often present non-contemptuous responses as evidence that their theories are gaining acceptance." Leaders and Followers in the Intelligent Design Movement Jason Rosenhouse. BioScience, Vol. 53 No. 1, January 2003.
  121. ^ McGrath, A: The Dawkins Delusion?, page 30. InterVarsity Press, 2007.
  122. ^ Fraud from the Discovery Institute Sahotra Sarkar. Sarkar Lab WebLog. December 3, 2005.
  123. ^ "'Bring us your legal issues,' clergy told" Daniel Burke. Lancaster New Era, October 20, 2005

References[edit]

External links[edit]