Intelligent speed adaptation
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (April 2009)|
Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA), also known as Intelligent Speed Assistance, Speed Alerting, and Intelligent Speed Authority, is any system that constantly monitors vehicle speed and the local speed limit on a road and implements an action when the vehicle is detected to be exceeding the speed limit. This can be done through an advisory system, where the driver is warned, or through an intervention system where the driving systems of the vehicle are controlled automatically to reduce the vehicle’s speed.
Intelligent speed adaptation uses information about the road on which the vehicle travels to make decisions about what the correct speed should be. This information can be obtained through use of a digital maps incorporating roadway coordinates as well as data on the speed zoning for that roadway at that location, through general speed zoning information for a defined geographical area (e.g., an urban area which has a single defined speed limit), or through feature recognition technology that detects and interprets speed limit signage. ISA systems are designed to detect and alert a driver when a vehicle has entered a new speed zone, when variable speed zones are in force (e.g., variable speed limits in school zones that apply at certain times of the day and only on certain days), and when temporary speed zones are imposed (such as speed limit changes in adverse weather or during traffic congestion, at accident scenes, or near roadworks). Many ISA systems will also provide information about locations where hazards may occur (e.g., in high pedestrian movement areas, railway level crossings or railroad grade crossings, schools, hospitals, etc.) or where enforcement actions is indicated (e.g., speed camera and red light camera locations). The purpose of ISA is to assist the driver in keeping to the lawful speed limit at all times, particularly as they pass through different speed ‘zones’. This is particularly useful when drivers are in unfamiliar areas or when they pass through areas where variable speed limits are used.
Research has found that that, in urban areas, the risk of a casualty crash is doubled for each 5 km/h over the limit. So travelling at 70 km/h in a 60 km/h zone quadruples the risk of a crash in which someone is hospitalised. As a result, it is estimated that about 10% of casualties could be prevented if the large group of motorists who routinely travel at up to 10 km/h over the limit were encouraged to obey the speed limits. About 20% of casualties could be prevented if all vehicles complied with the speed limits. Savings in fatal crashes would be larger.
"Minor" speeding therefore makes up a large proportion of preventable road trauma. It is difficult for enforcement methods alone to have an effect on this minor speeding. An added problem is that even motorists who want to obey the speed limits (to keep their life, licence or livelihood) have difficulty doing so in modern cars on city roads. This is where an ISA system comes into its own.
- 1 Types of ISA (Active/ Passive)
- 2 Speed and location determining/ verification technology
- 3 Limitations
- 4 Benefits
- 5 Commercial use
- 6 Government implementation
- 7 See also
- 8 External links
- 9 References
Types of ISA (Active/ Passive)
The two types of ISA systems, passive and active, differ in that passive systems simply warn the driver of the vehicle travelling at a speed in excess of the speed limit, while active systems intervene and automatically correct the vehicle’s speed to conform with the speed limit. Passive systems are generally driver advisory systems: They alert the driver to the fact that they are speeding, provide information as to the speed limit, and allow the driver to make a choice on what action should be taken. These systems usually display visual or auditory cues, such as auditory and visual warnings and may include tactile cues such as a vibration of the accelerator pedal. Some passive ISA technology trials have used vehicle modified to provide haptic feedback, wherein the accelerator pedal becomes more resistant to movement (i.e., harder to push down) when the vehicle travels over the speed limit. Active ISA systems actually reduce or limit the vehicle’s speed automatically by manipulating the engine and/or braking systems. Most active ISA systems provide an override system so that the driver can disable the ISA, if necessary, on a temporary basis. Such a feature is thought to enhance both acceptance and safety, but leaves a significant amount of speeding unchecked  .
An often unrecognised feature of both active and passive ISA systems is that they can serve as on-board vehicle data recorders, retaining information about vehicle location and performance for later checking and fleet management purposes.
Speed and location determining/ verification technology
There are four types of technology currently available for determining local speed limits on a road and determining the speed of the vehicle. These are:
- Radio Beacons
- Optical recognition
- Dead Reckoning
Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver based systems
GPS is based on a network of satellites that constantly transmit radio signals. GPS receivers pick up these transmissions and compare the signals from several satellites in order to pinpoint the receiver’s location to within a few meters. This is done by comparing the time at which the signal was sent from the satellite to when it was picked up by the receiver. Because the orbital paths of the satellites are known very accurately, the receiver can perform a calculation based on its distance to several of the orbiting satellites and therefore obtain its position. There are currently 24 satellites making up the GPS network, and their orbits are configured so that a minimum of five satellites are available at any one time for terrestrial users. Four satellites is the minimum number of satellites required to determine a precise three-dimensional position.
The popularity of GPS in current ISA and in car navigation systems may give the impression that GPS is flawless, but this is not the case. GPS is subject to a number of fundamental problems. Many of these problems relate to the accuracy of the determined position. The receiver still gets the signal from the satellites, but due to satellites' ephemeris uncertainties, propagation errors, timing errors, multiple signal propagation path, and receiver noises, the position given can be inaccurate. Usually these inaccuracies are small and range from five to ten meters for most systems, but they can be up to hundreds of meters. In most situations this may not matter, but these inaccuracies can be important in circumstances where a high speed road is located immediately adjacent to roads with much lower speed limits (e.g., residential streets). Furthermore, because GPS relies upon a signal transmitted from a satellite in orbit, it does not function when the receiver is underground or in a tunnel, and the signal can become weak if tall buildings, trees, or heavy clouds come between the receiver and the satellites. Current improvements being made to the GPS satellite network will help to increase GPS reliability and accuracy in the future but will not completely overcome the fundamental shortcomings of GPS. In order to be used for ISA systems, GPS must be linked to a detailed digital map containing information such as local speed limits and the location of known variable speed zones, e.g., schools. Advanced digital maps have the capacity for real-time updating to include information on areas where speed limits should be reduced due to adverse weather conditions or around accident scenes and roadworks.
Roadside radio beacons, or bollards, work by transmitting data to a receiver in the car. The beacons constantly transmit data that the car-mounted receiver picks up as it passes each beacon. This data could include local speed limits, school zones, variable speed limits, or traffic warnings. If sufficient numbers of beacons were used and were placed at regular intervals, they could calculate vehicle speed based on how many beacons the vehicle passed per second. Beacons could be placed in/on speed signs, telegraph poles, other roadside fixtures, or in the road itself. Mobile beacons could be deployed in order to override fixed beacons for use around accident scenes, during poor weather, or during special events. Beacons could be linked to a main computer so that quick changes could be made.
The use of radio beacons is common when ISA systems are used to control vehicle speeds in off road situations, such as factory sites, logistics and storage centres, etc., where occupational health and safety requirements mean that very low vehicle speeds are required in the vicinity of workers and in situations of limited or obscured visibility.
Optical recognition systems
So far, this technology has been focused solely on recognizing speed signs or road markings. However, other roadside objects, such as the reflective "cats eyes" that divide lanes could possibly be used. This system requires the vehicle to pass a speed sign or similar indicator and for data about the sign or indicator to be registered by a scanner or a camera system. As the system recognizes a sign, the speed limit data is obtained and compared to the vehicle’s speed. The system would use the speed limit from the last sign passed until it detects and recognizes a speed sign with a different limit. If speed signs are not present, the system does not function. This is a particular problem when exiting a side road onto a main road, as the vehicle may not pass a speed sign for some distance.
Dead reckoning (DR) uses a mechanical system linked to the vehicle’s driving assembly in order to predict the path taken by the vehicle. By measuring the rotation of the road wheels over time, a fairly precise estimation of the vehicle’s speed and distance traveled can be made. Dead reckoning requires the vehicle to begin at a known, fixed point. Then, by combining speed and distance data with factors such as the angle of the steering wheel and feedback from specialized sensors (e.g., accelerometers, flux gate compass, gyroscope) it can plot the path taken by the vehicle. By overlaying this path onto a digital map, the DR system knows approximately where the vehicle is, what the local speed limit is, and the speed at which the vehicle is traveling. The system can then use information provided by the digital map to warn of upcoming hazards or points of interest and to provide warnings if the speed limit is exceeded. Some top-end GPS-based navigation systems currently on the market use dead reckoning as a backup system in case the GPS signal is lost. Dead reckoning is prone to cumulative measurement errors such as variations between the assumed circumference of the tyres compared to the actual dimension (which is used to calculate vehicle speed and distance traveled). These variations in the tyre circumference can be due to wear or variations in tyre pressure due to variations in speed, payload, or ambient temperature. Other measurement errors are accumulated when the vehicle navigates gradual curves that inertial sensors (e.g., gyroscopes and/or accelerometers) are not sensitive enough to detect or due to electromagnetic influences on magnetic flux compasses (e.g., from passing under power lines or when travelling across a steel bridge) and through underpasses and road tunnels.
An initial reaction to the concept of ISA is that there could be negative outcomes, such as driving at the speed limit rather than to the conditions, but numerous ISA trials around the World have shown these concerns are unsubstantiated.  A particular issue is that most ISA systems use a speed database based purely on information regarding the posted maximum speed limit for a roadway or roadway segment. Obviously, many roads have features such as curves and gradients where the appropriate speed for a road segment with these features is less than the posted maximum speed limit. Increasingly, road authorities indicate the appropriate speed for such segments through the use of advisory speed signage to alert drivers on approach that there are features which require a reduction in travelling speed. It is recognised that the speed limit databases used in ISA systems should ideally take account of posted advisory speeds as well as posted maximum speed limits. The New South Wales ISA trial, underway in the Illwarra region south of Sydney currently, is the only trial that is using posted advisory speeds as well as posted maximum speed limits.
Some car manufacturers have expressed concern that some types of speed limiters "take control away from the driver". This is also unsubstantiated, firstly because ISA systems do have provision for over-ride by the driver in the event that the set speed is inappropriate and secondly, the claim is somewhat hypocritical given that cruise control has been in use on vehicles for many years and forces the vehicle to travel at a minimum speed unless there is driver intervention.
For some traffic safety practitioners, active intelligent speed adaptation is thought to be an example of 'hard automation', an approach to automation that has been largely discredited by the Human Factors community. An inviolable characteristic of human users is that they will adapt to these systems, often in unpredictable ways. Some studies have shown that drivers 'drive up to the limits' of the system and drive at the set speed, compared to when they are in manual control, where they have been shown to slow down. Conversely, the experience of some drivers with driving under an active ISA system has been that they find they can pay more attention to the roadway and road environment as they no longer need to monitor the speedometer and adjust their speeds on a continuing basis.
There is also concern that drivers driving under speed control might accept more risky headways between themselves and vehicles in front and accept much narrower gaps to join traffic (this fact drawing particular criticism from motorcycling groups).
Wider criticism also comes from the insistent focus on speed and that road safety outcomes could be better achieved by focusing on driving technique, situational awareness, and automation that 'assists' drivers rather than 'forces' them to behave in particular ways. Intelligent speed adaptation has also been held as an example of a technology which, like speed cameras, can often alienate the driving public and represents a significant barrier to its widespread adoption.
Some studies which pre-date the development of ISA systems indicated that drivers make relatively little use of the speedometer and instead use auditory cues (such as engine and road noise) to successfully regulate their speed. These studies, however, remain unverified. There is an argument in the literature that suggests that as cars have become quieter and more refined speed control has become more difficult for drivers to perform. Thus an alternative 'soft-automation' approach is simply to re-introduce some of those cues that drivers naturally use to regulate speed (rather than incur the expense and unexpected behavioral adaptations of ISA).
RTA (NSW Australia) ISA trial results showed the benefits of ISA are improved speed zone compliance with reduction in the level and duration of speeding. 
A Cost Benefit Analysis of ISA (in Australia) Published in April 2010 by the Centre for Automotive Safety Research suggested advisory ISA would reduce injury crashes by 7.7% and save $1,226 million per year. These figures were 15.1% and $2,240 million for supportive ISA and 26.4% and $3,725 million for limiting ISA.
The confirmation by the Australian research of the benefits of ISA have resulted in the recommendation for wider adoption and promotion of ISA in the Australian National Road Safety Strategy 2011-2020 
Some road safety researchers are surprised that Australia is leading the world with this technology. Australia's advanced commercialisation of ISA has in part been underpinned by initiatives from the various state roads authorities, and the inclusion of ISA in the National and State Road Safety Strategies.   
SpeedAlert is a passive ISA product marketed by Smart Car Technologies, based in Sydney NSW. It offers full national speed zoning information embedded within a GPS-based navigation system, providing drivers with information on speed limits and vehicle speed, as well as related information on locations such as schools, railway level crossings, speed camera sites, etc.. The fleet solution selling for about A$200, a free consumer version 'SpeedAlert Live' for iPhone was released on 22 July 2012 in the Australian iTunes app store.
SpeedShield is an active ISA product marketed by Automotion Control Systems, based in Melbourne, Vic. It offers speed zoning information embedded within a GPS-based navigation system, providing drivers with information on speed limits and vehicle speed and is combined with technology that intervenes and controls the vehicle speed to no faster than the posted speed limit for that section of roadway. The technology is generally transferrable across vehicle manufacturers and models, but must be configured for an individual make and model. As the cost is variable (estimated to be A$1–3,000 depending on vehicle type and number of vehicles to be fitted), its commercial use has tended to be into vehicle fleet operations rather than private owners.
Coredination ISA is a passive ISA product marketed by Coredination, based in Stockholm, Sweden. This product is build as a smartphone-application for Android and iPhone. It offers full national speed zoning information, providing drivers with information on speed limits and vehicle speed. The product is very lightweight and no separate hardware or fixed installations are necessary.
As of 2013 adoption of the technology was being considered by the European Commission but was being strongly opposed by UK transport secretary, Patrick McLoughlin. A government spokesman describe the proposal as "Big Brother nannying by EU bureaucrats."
- Intelligent vehicle technologies
- Intelligent transportation system
- Map database management
- Advanced Driver Assistance Systems
- Usage based insurance
- "UK fights EU bid to introduce speed limit devices: European road safety rules would force cars to fit systems that would automatically apply brakes to keep to speed limits". The Guardian. Press Association. September 1, 2013. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- Broekx, S. The European PROSPER-project: Final results of the trial on Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) in Belgium.
- Eichner, M. L., Breckon, T.P. (June 2008). "Integrated Speed Limit Detection and Recognition from Real-Time Video". Proc. IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium. IEEE. pp. 626–631. doi:10.1109/IVS.2008.4621285. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Kheyrollahi, A., Breckon, T.P. (2012). "Automatic Real-time Road Marking Recognition Using a Feature Driven Approach". Machine Vision and Applications (Springer) 23 (1): 123–133. doi:10.1007/s00138-010-0289-5. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Vlassenroot, S (2007). "Driving with intelligent speed adaptation: Final results of the Belgian ISA-trial". Transportation Research Part A Policy and Practice 41 (3): 267–279. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2006.05.009.
- | title =RESULTS OF THE NSW INTELLIGENT SPEED ADAPTATION TRIAL- Effects on road safety attitudes, behaviours and speeding - OCTOBER 2010 | journal = Road Safety Technology Section, NSW Centre for Road Safety | pages = 113 | year = 2010 | url =http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/roadsafety/downloads/isa_trial/isa_trial_final_results.pdf
- | title =Cost Benefit Analysis of Intelligent Speed Assist -April 2010 | Author =S Doecke, JE Woolley | Prepared by = Centre for Automotive Safety Research | Commissioned by = the Department of Transport and Main Roads (QLD) | Sponsors = the Office of Road Safety - Department of Premier and Cabinet (WA), Transport Certification Australia and VicRoads | pages = 1 | year = 2010 | url =http://s3.amazonaws.com/zanran_storage/www.tca.gov.au/ContentPages/2505989266.pdf
- | title =Australian National Road Safety Strategy 2011-2020 | Author =Australian Transport Council | pages = 62 | year = 2011 | url =www.atcouncil.gov.au/documents/files/NRSS_2011_2020_15Aug11.pdf
- Vlassenroot, S (2006). "Driving with intelligent speed adaptation: final results of the Belgian ISA-trial". Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 41 (3): 267–279. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2006.05.009.
- Int Panis L et al. (2006). "Modelling instantaneous traffic emission and the influence of traffic speed limits". Science of the Total Environment 371 (1-3): 270–285. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.08.017.
- Int Panis L et al. (2011). "PM, NOX and CO2 emission reductions from speed management policies in Europe". Transport Policy 18: 32–37. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2010.05.005.
- | title =international conference on Intelligent Speed Adaptation 2009 Sydney | year = 2009 | url =http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/roadsafety/2009_conference.html
- | title =National Road Safety Strategy 2011 - 2020 | year = 2011 | url =http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/roads/safety/national_road_safety_strategy/index.aspx
- | title =NSW Draft Road Safety Strategy 2012 - 2020 | year = page 26 | year = 2012 | url =http://www.transport.nsw.gov.au/nsw-road-safety-strategy-2012-2021
- Basnayake C, Mezentsev O, Lachapelle G and Cannon M (2004) "A Portable Vehicular Navigation System Using High Sensitivity GPS Augmented with Inertial Sensors and Map-Matching", SAE Paper 2004-01-0748.
- Biding T (2002) "Intelligent Speed Adaptation", Swedish National Road Administration.
- Calafell J, Foyer P and Porooshasp K (2000) "Navigation Systems in Europe: Past , Present and Future", SAE Paper 2000-01-1298.
- Carsten O (2000) "External Vehicle Speed Control - Executive Summary of Projects Results", University of Leeds, July 2000.
- Carsten O (2001) "ISA: the Best Collision Avoidance System?", Proceedings of 17th Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Netherlands.
- Carsten O (2004) "ISA - From Fields Trials to Reality", PACTS conference Targets 2010: No Room for Complacency, London, 10 February 2004.
- Carsten O and Tate F (2005) "Intelligent Speed Adaptation: Accident Savings and Cost-Benefit Analysis", Accident Analysis and Prevention 37, pp. 407–416 2005.
- ETSC (2006) "Intelligent Speed Assistance - Myths and Reality: ETSC Position on ISA", European Transport Safety Council, May 2006
- Faulks IJ (2007) "How fast am I going now? What is the speed limit? Vehicle-based measures to enable drivers to better monitor, manage and control speed: An examination of possible road safety countermeasures", Safety and Policy Analysis International, Sydney, NSW.
- Faulks IJ, Paine M, Paine D and Irwin JD (Eds)(2008) "ISA in Australia: Workplace Safety, Road Safety and the Commercialisation of Intelligent Speed Adaptation", Proceedings of the 1st Australian conference on Intelligent Speed Adaptation, held at Parliament House, Sydney, Wednesday 1 August 2007, Canberra, ACT, Australasian College of Road Safety.
- Harsha B and Hedlund J (2007) "Changing America’s culture of speed on the roads", AAA Foundation.
- Hatfield J and Job S (2006) "Beliefs and Attitudes about Speeding and its Countermeasures", Australian Transport Safety Bureau, Report B2001/0342, May 2006.
- IIHS (2002) "Faster Travel and the Price We Pay", Status Report Vol.38 No. 10, Nov 2003. Arlington.
- Kao W (1991) "Integration of GPS and Dead-Reckoning Navigation Systems", SAE Paper 912808.
- Mitchell-Taverner P, Zipparo L and Goldsworthy J (2003) "Survey on Speeding and Enforcement", Australian Transport Safety Bureau, Report CR 214a, October 2003.
- Kloeden C, McClean A,and Glonek G (2002) "Reanalysis of Travelling Speed and Risk of Crash Involvement in Adelaide, South Australia", Australian Transport Safety Bureau Report CR 207, April 2002.
- NHTSA (2005) "Analysis of Speeding-Related Fatal Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes", Report DOT HS 809 839, August 2005.
- Nilsson G (1993) 'Relationship between speed and safety: calculation method', The Speed Review: Appendix of Speed Workshop Papers, Federal Office of Road Safety, Report CR127A, Department of Transport and Communications, Canberra.
- OECD/ECMT (2006) "Speed Management", Joint OECD/ECMT Transport Research Centre, October 2006.
- Page J (2005) "A Final Technical Report on the Belgium ISA Trial", Belgian Institute for Road Safety.
- Paine M (1996) "Speed Control Devices for Cars", report prepared for NSW Roads and Traffic Authority, May 1996.
- Paine M (1998) "Why Consider Speed Control Devices for Vehicles?", Developments in Safer Motor Vehicles Conference, NSW Parliament, March 1998.
- Paine M, Paine D, Griffiths M and Germanos G (2007) "In-vehicle Intelligent Speed Advisory Systems", Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Lyon, June 2007
- Paine MP, Magedara N & Faulks IJ (2008) "Expediting the Road Safety Benefits of Intelligent Vehicle technologies — Part 1: Main report", Report to the Transport Accident Commission of Victoria. Sydney, NSW: Vehicle Design & Research / Safety and Policy Analysis International.
- Paine M, Paine D and Faulks IJ (2009) "Speed Limiting Trials in Australia", Paper Number 09-0378 represented to the 21st Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) Conference, Stuttgart, 15–18 June 2009.
- Peltola H, Tapio J and Rajamaki R (2004) "Recording ISA in Finland", Via Nordica.
- Plowden S and Hillman M (1984) "Danger on the Road: The Needless Scourge". Policy Studies Institute. London.
- Regan M, Triggs T, Young K, Tomasevic N, Mitsopoulos E, Stephan K and Tingvall C (2006) "On-road Evaluation of ISA, Following Distance Warning and Seat Belt Reminder Systems: Final Results of the TAC Safecar Project", Monash University Accident Research Centre, September 2006.
- RTA (2005) "Road Traffic Crashes in New South Wales 2004", Roads and Traffic Authority.
- Wolley J (2005) "Recent Advantages of Lower Speed Limits in Australia", Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 6, pp. 3562 – 3573, 2005.