Inter-Services Intelligence activities in India
|Inter-Services Intelligence activities in India|
|Part of Indo-Pakistani wars, Kashmir conflict|
Inter-Services Intelligence activities in India include activities like insurgency in Northeast India and Khalistan movement.
The Inter-Services Intelligence (abbreviated as ISI), has been involved in running the military intelligence program in India, with one of the subsections of its Joint Intelligence Bureau (JIB) department devoted to perform various operations in India and related to them. The Joint Signal Intelligence Bureau department has been also supporting Kashmiri militants in regards to communication. The Joint Intelligence North section of the Joint Counter-Intelligence Bureau wing deals particularly with India. In the 1950s the ISI's Covert Action Division supplied arms to insurgents in Northeast India.
India has also accused the ISI of reinvigorating terrorism in the country via support to the pro-Khalistan militant groups such as International Sikh Youth Federation, in order to take revenge against India for its help in liberation of Bangladesh as well as to destabilize the Indian State. A report by India's Intelligence Bureau indicated that ISI was "desperately trying to revive Sikh" militant activity in India. The ISI is also allegedly active in printing and supplying counterfeit Indian rupee notes.
The ISI was created after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, due to Military Intelligence of Pakistan's weak performance. When Zia-ul-Haq seized power in July 1977, he started his K2 (Kashmir and Khalistan) strategy, initiating Operation Tupac. He gave ISI the duty to make Jammu and Kashmir a part of Pakistan, and to send terrorists to Punjab. According to arrested ISI agents, the intelligence agency's aims are to confound Indian Muslims using Kashmiri Muslims, extend the ISI network in India, cultivate terrorists and terrorist groups, cause attacks similar to the 1993 Bombay bombings in other cities, and create a state of insurgency in Muslim-dominated regions. The ISI has allegedly set up bases in Nepal and Bangladesh, which are used for operations in North-East India.
Operations in Jammu and Kashmir
About Rs. 24 million are paid out per month by the ISI, in order to fund its activities in Jammu and Kashmir. Pro-Pakistani groups were reportedly favored over other militant groups. Creation of six militant groups in Kashmir, which included Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), was aided by the ISI. According to American Intelligence officials, ISI is still providing protection and help to LeT. The Pakistan Army and ISI also LeT volunteers to surreptitiously penetrate from Pakistan Administrated Kashmir to Jammu and Kashmir. As of 2010, the degree of control that ISI retains over LeT's operations is not known. The LeT was also reported to have been directed by the ISI to widen its network in the Jammu region where a considerable section of the populace comprised Punjabis.
Alleged involvement in terrorist attacks
Zabiuddin Ansari, a Lashkar-e-Taiba militant accused for his involvement in the 2008 Mumbai attacks, said that ISI and Pakistani army officials were involved in planning the attacks and had attended the meetings. An Indian report, summarising intelligence gained from India's interrogation of David Headley, alleged that ISI had provided support for the attacks by providing funding for reconnaissance missions in Mumbai. The report included Headley's claim that Lashkar-e-Taiba's chief military commander, Zaki-ur-Rahman Lakhvi, had close ties to the ISI. He alleged that "every big action of LeT is done in close coordination with [the] ISI."
Mumbai train blasts
ISI was alleged of planning the 2006 Mumbai train bombings and the Indian government said that the ISI, LeT and SIMI planned the attacks, but a former Indian home ministry officer submitted his declaration in the Supreme Court of India which said that he was told by a former member of the CBI-SIT team that both the terror attacks (Parliament and Mumbai) were staged "with the objective of strengthening the counter-terror legislation(sic).
Counterfeit Indian rupee notes
The ISI has been alleged to print counterfeit Indian rupee notes, which are believed to be printed in Muzaffarabad. In January 2000, the Nepal police raided Wasim Saboor's house, who was an official of the Pakistani embassy of Kathmandu. They found fifty thousand Indian rupee notes, each of Rs. 50 denomination.
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- Ghosh 2000 pg.102